Cb

Epidermal type

IjjjjB Presumptive neural region H| Presumptive notochordal region

Epidermal type

10 nA

10 nA

Figure 7 Neural induction activates VGIC gene transcription. Cell-cell interactions between appropriate blastomeres of the tunicate H. auratum induce expression of voltage-gated sodium current. When anterior animal blastomeres (a4-2) are cultured with anterior vegetal blastomeres (A4-1) as a two-cell system, the a4-2 blastomere develops normally and expresses sodium channels and tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive delay-rectifier potassium channels. In contrast, when a4-2 blastomeres are cultured in isolation, each cell autonomously develops long-duration calcium-dependent APs. Reproduced from Takahashi, K. and Okamura, Y. 1998. Ion channels and early development of neural cells. Physiol. Rev. 78, 307-337, used with permission from The American Physiological Society.

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