altricial The state of being born at an early stage of development. Opposite of precocial. callosal Connections between cerebral hemi-

connectivity spheres made through the corpus callosum.

cortical areal The developmental or evolutionary specification process of subdividing cerebral cortex into functional units. cortical The evolutionary process of subdivid-

parcellation ing cerebral cortex into functional units.

cross-modal Plasticity induced in the brain that plasticity results in a sensory area of one mod ality coming to represent sensory information of a different modality. fossorial Animals that burrow underground.

Hebbian As defined by Donald O. Hebb in learning 1949, synaptic changes that occur as a result of use-dependent plasticity. Inputs that succeed in activating a postsynaptic neuron become more efficacious and are stabilized. horizontal The lateral connections made connectivity between excitatory neurons within one cerebral cortical area. inhibitory Nonspiny, nonpyramidal neurons interneurons making local, suppressive connections with other neurons. map Loss of sensory target area can result compression in the forcing of a topographic sen sory representation within the remaining target area. orientation Neurons in visual cortex prefer elon-

tuning gated bars of light that have a particular orientation.

sensory substitution topographic map

After loss or deficit in a sensory organ, the cortical region that once represented the missing sensation becomes activatable by a different modality of input.

Orderly representation of the sensory epithelium or some other type of information within a brain region.

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