LTU muscle MG

muscle pioneer

Muscles that decrease the angle between two segments of the body or a limb, e.g., to bend the abdomen as during a tailflip; draw a limb toward the body.

Neuron that is neither purely sensory nor motor.

Lateral giant interneurons; bilaterally paired chain of command neurons (one pair/segmental ganglion) for one form of tailflip. Lateral telson-uropod muscle. Medial giant interneurons; bilateral pair of command neurons for one form of tailflip.

Motor giant, a particularly large and specialized fast flexor motoneuron. Mesodermal muscle founder cell hat establishes attachment points, therefore, axis of mature muscle.

neuroethology The study of the neurobiological basis of unrestrained behavior, as performed in natural habitat. neuromere Subdivision in developing CNS; in arthropods, generally one neuro-mere/segment.

nongiant Repetitive tailflips produced by non-

tailflipping giant circuitry (not involving LG or

NSR Nonspiking stretch receptor neu-

ron(s); transmit(s) afferent signal as graded depolarization. propodite Proximal segment of uropod that is attached to the sixth segment. PS Uropod power-stroke muscle, in

Hippidae; homologue of PTU muscle in other species. PTF muscle Posterior telson flexor muscle; con verted to uropod power stroke synergist (insertion moved to uropod) in hippid crabs. PTU Posterior telson-uropod muscle.

RS Uropod return-stroke muscle; new muscle in telson of sand crabs (Albuneidae, Hippidae). tailfan Three-component structure (telson flanked by uropods) at posterior end of malacostracan body. tailflip Rapid, ventral flexion of abdomen;

generates propulsive force for escape or backward swimming. telson Terminal appendix posterior to the sixth (terminal) abdominal segment, caudomedian element of tailfan; not a true segment. telson-uropod The only ancestral musculature muscle directly linking the telson and uropod propodite.

TUSR Telson-uropod stretch receptor.

uropod Paired appendages of sixth abdom inal segment; form tailfan together with the median telson. VTF Ventral telson flexor muscle.

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