The Evolution of Encephalization

L Lefebvre, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada S M Reader, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands

D Boire, Universite de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada

© 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

1.08.1 Introduction 122

1.08.2 How Is Encephalization Distributed Among Taxa? 123

1.08.2.1 Variation Between Classes 123

1.08.2.2 Variation Within Classes 124

1.08.3 What Is Encephalized? 125

1.08.3.1 Relative Brain Size 125

1.08.3.2 Whole Brains or Parts Thereof? 127

1.08.4 Why Be Encephalized? 127

1.08.4.1 Costs 127

1.08.4.2 Benefits 128

1.08.4.3 Ecology and Lifestyles 129

1.08.5 Mammals 130

1.08.6 Birds 132

1.08.7 Invertebrates 135

1.08.7.1 Insects 135

1.08.7.2 Cephalopods 136

1.08.8 Conclusion 136

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