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32. Burin - typical

33. Burin - atypical

34. Piercer - typical

35. Piercer - atypical

36. Backed knife - typical

37. Backed knife - atypical

38. Natural backed knife

39. Raclette

40. Truncated flake

41. Mousterian tranchet

42. Notch

43. Denticulate

44. 'Bee burinante alterne'

45. Retouch on bulbar surface

46-7. Abrupt, thick, alternate retouch 48-9. Abrupt, thin, alternate retouch

50. Bifacial retouch

51. Tayac point

52. Notched triangle

53. Pseudo-microburin

54. End notch

55. Hachoir

56. Plane

57. Tanged point

58. Tanged tool

59. Chopper

60. Chopper - inverse

61. Chopping tool

62. Diverse

63. Bifacial leaf point

After Bordes 1984: 122. Note that the 'essential' tool percentages used in most of Bordes' analyses are based on the above type list minus types 1-3 (i.e. unretouched Levallois flakes and points) and types 45-50 (which are now thought to be accidental forms, caused geological or other damage to the flakes).

tool forms and also the technical aspects of the industries, such as the varying frequencies of Levallois flakes, blades, facetted striking platforms, etc. The core of his methodology was embodied in his comprehensive Jliste typologique', consisting initially of 48 distinct tool forms but eventually expanded to a range of 63 types, which was intended to embrace all the major morphological forms of retouched tools encountered in either Middle or Lower Palaeolithic industries (see Table 6.1: Bordes 1961a). As noted in Chapter 4, a large part of this typology was made up of 21

finer subdivisions of his broader racloir category, based largely on the position, curvature and number of retouched edges on the tools. The morphologically simpler categories of backed knives, end scrapers, burins and perforators were divided simply into Typical' and 'atypical' forms. The general category of bifaces was treated separately from the main type list and subdivided, in a separate classification, into 12 major morphological forms. The calculation of various 'technical' features of the industries (reflecting mainly the overall frequencies of Levallois versus non-Leval-

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