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Figure 9.5 Distribution of unworked river cobbles in layer VIII of the Grotte Vaufrey. After Rigaud & Geneste 1988.

occasional use of the cave as a carnivore den, there is considerable debate about how much this has contributed to the faunal assemblage. From a study of various taphonomic aspects of the bones, Binford (1988) has suggested that most of the faunal remains recov ered from the main area of industrial activity along the southern wall of the cave probably derive from carnivore activity, apparently preceding the main period of human occupation in this level. This has been disputed by Simek (1988) from the results of his own

Figure 9.6 Distribution of racloirs in layer VIII of the Grotte Vaufrey. After Rigaud & Geneste 1988.

Figure 9.6 Distribution of racloirs in layer VIII of the Grotte Vaufrey. After Rigaud & Geneste 1988.

statistical analyses of distributions of faunal remains, who suggests that most of the faunal remains from all parts of the site are probably related directly to human occupation. In either case, it is apparent from the published plans that faunal remains in general are widely distributed in the site, with much less concentration along the southern wall of the cave than for the lithic remains (Fig. 9.8). An interesting feature of the faunal material is a clear concentration of heavily fragmented bone splinters recorded within a small area

Figure 9.7 Distribution of notches and denticulates in layer VIII of the Grotte Vaufrey. After Rigaud & Geneste 1988.

Figure 9.7 Distribution of notches and denticulates in layer VIII of the Grotte Vaufrey. After Rigaud & Geneste 1988.

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towards the rear, eastern, end of the cave (Fig. 9.9). This apperently indicates a special location of intensive smashing of red deer and horse bones, presumably for marrow extraction and could well relate to one particular episode of human activity on the site.

6. Finally, Rigaud & Geneste (1988) note that while no well defined hearths were detected in this occupation level, nor indeed in any of the occupations at Grotte Vaufrey, there appeared to be recognizable concentrations of burned bones or charcoal at two separate

Figure 9.8 Overall distribution of faunal remains in layer VIII of the Grotte Vaufrey. As discussed in the text, many of these remains are likely to derive from contemporaneous use of the site as a carnivore den. After Rigaud & Geneste 1988.

Figure 9.8 Overall distribution of faunal remains in layer VIII of the Grotte Vaufrey. As discussed in the text, many of these remains are likely to derive from contemporaneous use of the site as a carnivore den. After Rigaud & Geneste 1988.

points in the deposit (Fig. 9.10), each fairly close to one of the main flint flaking areas discussed above. In all probability these are the remains of brief fires lit for heat and perhaps cooking or food preparation within the main zone of industrial activity on the site. Again, whether different fires were lit during the same phase of occupation or during a sequence of separate occupations can hardly be decided from the available data.

Figure 9.9 Distribution of small long-bone splin ters in layer VIII of the Grotte Vaufrey, plotted as an 'iso-density' distribution diagram. After Binford 1988.

The spatial distributions documented at the Grotte Vaufrey, therefore, provide some useful, if limited, data on the patterns of human use of the site. Rigaud & Geneste (1988) argue that the distributions almost certainly represent a palimpsest of repeated phases of site occupation, possibly spanning a long period. Nevertheless, the overall distribution of the archaeological material leaves no doubt that the human groups who occupied the site were very small and can hardly have used the site for more than fairly short-term visits. Despite this, there is evidence for a wide range of activities in the site

Figure 9.10 Distribution of traces of burning in layer VIII of the Grotte Vaufrey, aparently shozving two main concentrations (in squares F-I/9-10 and J-K/13-15), possibly representing the location of two hearths. After Rigaud & Geneste 1988.

Figure 9.10 Distribution of traces of burning in layer VIII of the Grotte Vaufrey, aparently shozving two main concentrations (in squares F-I/9-10 and J-K/13-15), possibly representing the location of two hearths. After Rigaud & Geneste 1988.

- intensive flaking of imported nodules of raw material, the production, use and discard of several varieties of tools, occasional use of fires and apparently the introduction and processing of several different species of animals (red deer, roe deer, horse, bovids, chamois). Rigaud & Geneste (1988) speculate that the area of concentrated lithic and flaking debitage along the south wall of the cave - which receives the longest exposure to sunlight - may have served as the main location for various daytime activities, while the area along the northern wall, apparently less affected by draughts, may have served pri marily for overnight sleeping. Perhaps the main point to keep in mind is the relative inaccessibility of this site and the sparse distribution of archaeological material throughout the occupation sequence as a whole. In this respect the site may reflect a very different pattern of use to that represented in many of the archaeologically richer and more intensively occupied sites located in more low-lying and accessible positions in the major river valleys of the region.

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