Contents

List of figures vii

Foreword ix

1 The history of the Neanderthal 1

Discovery 1

The Neanderthal as object of scholarly contention 6 The Neanderthal inspires scholars 9 The face of the Neanderthals—reconstruction and interpretations 12

2 Out of Africa 23 Where was the cradle of humankind? 23

Bipedalism 28

The earliest humans 29

Early humans outside of Africa 33

3 The settlement of the "new world" 37 The first Europeans' environment and habitat 37

Fossil sites of the first Europeans 46 Classification of the finds 48

4 From Heidelberg Man to the classic Neanderthal 51

The anatomy and appearance of the first

Europeans 51 The Neanderthals' parents 58 Early Neanderthals 63

Significant find sites of the classic Neanderthals 64

5 Elderberries, mammoths, and spears 73 The life and death of the Neanderthals 73

Life expectancy and diseases 81 Clothing and jewelry 83 Burial custom or cult of the dead? 86 The Neanderthals' social behavior 88

6 Encounters with the modern 91

Eve came from Africa 91 Modern humans' genetic code 95 The Neanderthals' departure 100

Appendix 107

Further reading 109

Index 111

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