Figures

1a Neanderthal calvarium (skull cap) 5

1b Neanderthal anatomy 5

2a Engis calvarium 8

2b Gibraltar I calvarium 8

3 Four reconstructions of a Neanderthal 13-16

4 Romantic reconstructions 17-18

5 Chronology of Europe's Pleistocene age 20 6a Sangiran calotte (cranium) 25 6b Dmanisi D2282 calvarium 25 7a Homo ergaster KNM-ER 3733 calvarium 31 7b OH-9 calvarium 31 7c Turkana Boy KNM-WT 15000 skeleton 32 8a Glacial periods 38 8b Warm-period animals 39 8c Cold-period animals 40 9a Homo heidelbergensis, lower jaw from Mauer 47 9b Petralona calvarium 48 9c Arago calvarium 49

10a Bilzingsleben, campsite display 53

10b Bilzingsleben scraper 54

11 Cranial characteristics 55

12a Steinheim calvarium 60

12b Atapuerca 5, calvarium 61

12c Krapina 3, calvarium 62

13a La Chapelle-aux-Saints, calvarium 66

13b Shanidar, calvarium 67

13c Shanidar dentition 67

13d Qafzeh 4, calvarium 68

14a Kebara, skeleton 71

14b Kebara, hyoid bone 71

15a Mammoth hut 75

15b Cave dwelling 75

15c Neanderthal dwelling 76

15d Neanderthal cave 76

15e Reconstruction of the original Neanderthal cave 77

15f Campsite of Ochtendung 77

16a Lances from Schöningen 79

16b Spearhead from Königsaue 79

17a Necklace from Arcy-sur-Cure 85

17b Campsite Arcy-sur-Cure 85

18 Two main phases of emigration from Africa 92-93

19 Herto, Ethiopia, calvarium 94 20a Llagar Velho, skeleton 98 20b Sungir, skeleton with beads 99 21a Horse figurine, Vogelherd Cave 104 21b Lion figurine, Hohlenstein-Stadel Cave 104

22 Homo floresiensis, calvarium 105

23 Fossil sites in Europe, with glacial spread 108

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