A decade of extrasolar planets around normal stars

Proceedings of the Space Telescope Science Institute Symposium, held in Baltimore, Maryland May 2-5, 2005

Edited by MARIO LIVIO

Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA

KAILASH SAHU

Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA

JEFF VALENTI

Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA

Published for the Space Telescope Science Institute

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Contents

Participants page vii

Preface xi

Extrasolar planets: Past, present, and future

The quest for very low-mass planets

M. Mayor, F. Pepe, C. Lovis, D. Queloz & S. Udry 15

Extrasolar planets: A galactic perspective

The Kepler Mission: Design, expected science results, opportunities to participate W. J. Borucki, D. Koch, G. Basri, T. Brown, D. Caldwell, E. Devore, E. Dunham, T. Gautier, J. Geary, R. Gilliland, A. Gould, S. Howell, J. Jenkins, & D. Latham 36

Observations of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets

T. M. Brown, R. Alonso, M. Knolker, H. Rauer, & W. Schmidt 50

Planetary migration

Observational constraints on dust disk lifetimes: Implications for planet formation

L. A. Hillenbrand 84

The evolution of gas in disks

J. Najita 106

Planet formation

Core accretion-gas capture model for gas giant planet formation

O. Hubickyj 138

Gravitational instabilities in protoplanetary disks

R. H. Durisen 153

Conference summary: The quest for new worlds

J. E. Pringle 178

Participants

Adams, Elisabeth Agol, Eric Akinola, Femi Alsubai, Khalid Armitage, Philip Atcheson, Paul Batalha, Natalie Beckwith, Steven Benedict, G. Fritz Bennett, David Borucki, William Boss, Alan Brown, Robert Brown, Timothy Bullard, Floyd Burrows, Adam Caldwell, Douglas Calvet, Nuria Carpenter, John Clampin, Mark Clarkson, Will Cox, Z. Nagin D'Amario, James De Witt, Curtis Deming, Drake Dobbs-Dixon, Ian Doering, Ryan Durisen, Richard H. Ebbets, Dennis Ehrenreich, David Elliot, James Enoch, Becky Fonda, Mark Fortney, Jonathan Frank, Adam Garside, Jeffrey Gilhooly, Jane Gilliland, Ronald Godon, Patrick Hales, Antonio Harper-Clark, Elizabeth Hartman, Joel Hartnett, Kevin Haugabook, Sr., Ismail Hauser, Michael Hewagama, Tilak Hillenbrand, Lynne

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

University of Washington

Corporate Insignia Consulting Limited

St. Andrews University

University of Colorado

Ball Aerospace

San Jose State University

Space Telescope Science Institute

McDonald Observatory

University of Notre Dame

NASA Ames Research Center

Carnegie Institution of Washington

Space Telescope Science Institute

High Altitutde Observatory

Duke University

University of Arizona

SETI Institute

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory California Institute of Technology NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Open University Jet Propulsion Laboratory Harford Community College University of Florida NASA Goddard Space Flight Center University of California-Santa Cruz Space Telescope Science Institute Indiana University Ball Aerospace

Institut d'astrophysique de Paris

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Open University

NASA Ames Research Center

NASA Ames Research Center

University of Rochester

SETI Institute

University of Maryland

Space Telescope Science Institute

Space Telescope Science Institute

University College London

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Harvard University

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Santa Monica College

Space Telescope Science Institute

University of Maryland

California Institute of Technology

Hubickyj, Olenka

Ivison, Rob Jeletic, James Jenkins, Jon Jensen, Eric Kane, Julia Kaye, Tom Kendrick, Stephen Kerber, Florian Knutson, Heather Koch, David Kochte, Mark Kovacs, Geza Krist, John Lafreniere, David Latham, David Leckrone, David Leisawitz, David Levison, Harold Li, Shulin Lin, Douglas Lissauer, Jack Livio, Mario Lubow, Steve Machalek, Pavel Malhotra, Renu Mamajek, Eric Marcy, Geoffrey Margon, Bruce Matthews, Jaymie Mayor, Michel McCullough, Peter Meibom, Soren Meixner, Margaret Meyer, Michael R. Miller, Joleen Moffat, Hope Murray, Norman Najita, Joan Niedner, Malcolm Nota, Antonella Olanitori, Olajide Oliveira, Isabel Penny, Alan Pepper, Joshua Pilcher, Carl Pont, Frederic Pringle, James Quintana, Elisa V.

University of California/Lick Observatory and NASA Ames Research Center Royal Observatory Edinburgh NASA Goddard Space Flight Center SETI Institute and NASA Ames Research Center Swarthmore College Massachusetts Institute of Technology Spectrashift Observatory Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility Harvard University NASA Ames Research Center Computer Science Corporation Konkoly Observatory Jet Propulsion Laboratory University of Montreal

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics NASA Goddard Space Flight Center NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Southwest Research Institute University of California-Santa Cruz University of California-Santa Cruz NASA Ames Research Center Space Telescope Science Institute Space Telescope Science Institute The Johns Hopkins University University of Arizona

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

University of California-Berkeley

Space Telescope Science Institute

University of British Columbia

Observatoire de Geneve

Space Telescope Science Institute

University of Wisconsin-Madison

Space Telescope Science Institute

University of Arizona

University of Virginia

Geo-Instruments

CITA, University of Toronto

National Optical Astronomy Observatory

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

Space Telescope Science Institute

Corporate Insignia Consulting Limited

The Johns Hopkins University

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Ohio State University

NASA Headquarters

Observatoire de Geneve

Institute of Astronomy

NASA Ames Research Center

Reid, I. Neill Richardson, Jeremy

Robberto, Massimo Sahu, Kailash Sari, Re'em Sasselov, Dimitar Schneider, Glenn Schultz, Alfred Seager, Sara Shen, Zhixia Soderblom, David Sparks, William Stauffer, John

Valenti, Jeff Varniere, Peggy Vidal-Madjar, Alfred

Werner, Michael Whitmore, Brad Wisdom, Jack Wiseman, Jennifer Yusuf, Affez Olawale

Space Telescope Science Institute National Research Council and

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Space Telescope Science Institute Space Telescope Science Institute California Institute of Technology Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Steward Observatory, Universty of Arizona Space Telescope Science Institute Carnegie Institution of Washington Peking University Space Telescope Science Institute Space Telescope Science Institute Spitzer Science Center,

California Institute of Technology Space Telescope Science Institute University of Rochester Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS,

Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Jet Propulsion Laboratory Space Telescope Science Institute Massachusetts Institute of Technology NASA Headquarters Ibramed Nigeria Limited

Preface

The Space Telescope Science Institute Symposium on A Decade of Extrasolar Planets around Normal Stars took place during 2-5 May 2005.

These proceedings represent only a part of the invited talks that were presented at the symposium. We thank the contributing authors for preparing their manuscripts.

The past decade has witnessed astonishing progress in this field. While before 1995 not a single planet around a normal star was known outside the Solar System, we now know of more than 160 such planets. Furthermore, while the initial discoveries were of Jupiter-size planets, currently we know of an extrasolar planet with a mass of about five Earth masses. These findings mark crucial milestones in the search for extraterrestrial life—arguably one of the most intriguing endeavors of science today.

We thank Sharon Toolan of ST ScI for her help in preparing this volume for publication.

Mario Livio Kailash Sahu Jeff Valenti

Space Telescope Science Institute Baltimore, Maryland

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