Accretion Time My

Figure 3. The core mass as a function of the time at the onset of runaway gas accretion for the four series of computed models. Asterisks denote models computed with ainit,z = 10 g cm2 and grain opacity values that are 2% interstellar. Triangles denote models computed with 0mit,z = 10 g cm2 and full interstellar grain opacity. Diamonds denote models computed with ainit,z = 6 g cm2 and 2% interstellar grain opacity. X symbols denote models computed with 0mit,z = 10 g cm2 and grain opacity at 2% of interstellar value for T < 350 K and full interstellar at T > 500 K. One model (10H5 with Mcore = 5. Mj and Tacc = 95.25 Myr) is not plotted because it is outside the scope of the plot's limit. The boxed symbols denote the models for which there is no solid accretion cutoff; the mass at which the other runs are cut off is given by their vertical coordinate on the plot. The solid vertical line represents the approximate maximum observed disk lifetime around young stars. The dotted line represents the median observed disk lifetime. The dot-dash and the dashed lines represent, respectively, the preferred and the maximum value of Jupiter core mass, obtained from comparison of theoretical models with observations. The bold horizontal line at 20 M®, labelled "heavy elements mixing," represents a possible primordial core mass for Jupiter which was later eroded by convective mixing of heavy elements into the gaseous envelope. Regions above and to the right of the bold solid lines are strongly excluded by observations. Those failing less certain observational limits appear as partially shaded.

into its central star. Finally, problems that need to be investigated by models in the future include the formation of Uranus and Neptune, whose in situ core formation times seem to be too long for any reasonable disk model.

The author would like to thank the organizing committee for the privilege of attending this Workshop and being able to present these results. The author would also like to thank P. Bodenheimer and J. Lissauer for their collaboration on this CAGC model project. This work is supported by NASA grant NAG 5-9661 and NAG 5-13285 from the Origins of the Solar Systems Program.

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