Summary

Migration via gravitational interactions between planets and the gaseous protoplane-tary disk appears to be central to understanding both the formation of gas giant planets, and their early orbital evolution to yield the extrasolar planetary systems currently being observed. Although there are uncertainties in our understanding of migration, there has also been enough progress to convince us that Type I migration is probably a vital ingredient in the formation of gas giant planets via core accretion. This is trivially true using the current best estimates of the Type I migration time scale, but it would still remain important even if the rate was suppressed by as much as two orders of magnitude. On a similarly firm footing is the assertion that gas disk migration—probably in the Type II regime—is responsible for the existence of most of the hot Jupiters. Although other migration mechanisms certainly exist, it requires moderate care to avoid substantial orbital evolution once a planet has formed in a gas disk.

Equally interesting are the major unknowns. Does turbulence within the disk lead to random walk migration of low-mass bodies, and if so, is this important for terrestrial planet formation and/or core accretion? Do corotation torques qualitatively change the behavior of migrating planets with masses just above the gap-opening threshold? Is the eccentricity of massive planets excited by the interaction with the gas disk? A positive answer to any of these questions would require substantial changes to our overall picture of planet formation. Addressing them will probably require, in part, high resolution simulations that include more of the complex physics of angular momentum transport within the protoplanetary disk.

This work was supported by NASA under grants NAG5-13207 and NNG04GL01G from the Origins of Solar Systems and Astrophysics Theory Programs, and by the NSF under grant AST 0407040. PJA acknowledges the hospitality of the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, supported in part by the NSF under grant PHY99-07949.

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