Orchid Growing Training Course

Orchid Care Tips

The Internet's Original Orchid Growing Training Course. Discover the #1 most important step you should take to keep your orchid plants healthy, brilliant and insect-free. How do you know if your orchid plant it truly dead or just in a dormant state preparing to bloom again for you? Youll find out in our free course! A simple, easy method for knowing exactly when its time for repotting your orchids and giving them the best orchid propagation chances possible. Heres Just a Small Sampling of What Youll Discover in this Amazing Resource: Discover the common mistake everyone makes about epiphytic orchids and how to avoid it! Discover the 3 capacities of the labellum and why they are critical to your orchids survival. Learn the amazing prediction Darwin made about Xanthopan morgani praedicta. Here are 3 simple ways to insect-proof your greenhouse. When your orchid has exhausted its compost these 3 signs appear. Think all orchids offer nectar to insects? Find out why this common misconception is false and the Real trait all orchids share. These are the 7 crucial, life-giving minerals your orchid needs to survive. Learn why your pods might just contain over 186,300 seeds for propagation! Ever find your orchid blushing violently and then wilting? Put an end to it once you read page 4. Having problems feeding your epiphyte? This very special technique will solve your problems once and for all. Got Pests? Diseases? Spotted Flowers? This might be the silent killer youre facing. Learn the light trick and find out if your orchids Really have no more buds. How to tell the difference between monopodial and sympodial groups (and why the difference is important to your future as an orchid grower.) Read more...

Orchid Care Tips Summary

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4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Mary Ann Berdak
Official Website: www.orchidsecretsrevealed.com
Price: $19.97

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My Orchid Care Tips Review

Highly Recommended

I've really worked on the chapters in this book and can only say that if you put in the time you will never revert back to your old methods.

In addition to being effective and its great ease of use, this eBook makes worth every penny of its price.

Complete Orchid Fertilizers Homemade Recipes

John Perez shares with you 50 years of major experiences, never told methods and Instantly Valuable recipes that brought him a Complete Triumph! You'll discover how to unlock your orchids' full potential. Youll know exactly how to feed your orchids to quickly, easily and inexpensively get (force) astonishing results. When you discover John's exclusive Complete Orchid Fertilizer that Safely increases orchid's growth rate up to 250%. You know how to skyrocket your orchids up to new mind-blowing levels of beauty and value.

Complete Orchid Fertilizers Homemade Recipes Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: John Perez
Official Website: ww17.getmatureorchids.com
Price: $29.95

Your cheatin heart Nonmutualism pollinators

Several species of orchids have evolved the ability to attract male insects by mimicking the sex pheromones, and sometimes the shape, of the female insect. Imagining what happens in this case is easy The male insect pounces on the orchid and makes a really good attempt at mating with the flower, getting covered with pollen in the process. In the end, he gives up because the process just isn't going very well and flies off to find a different female. But he may end up on another orchid and transfer the pollen that he picked up on the first orchid. Don't blame the poor male insects for being clueless. The compounds that the female insects use to attract males are actually very similar chemically to the waxy substances that the orchid uses to avoid drying out. You can easily imagine how at some point, one or a few mutations resulted in an orchid that smelled good in a whole different way.

Germination and pollination

In some cases, the plants themselves adopt a particular morphology so as to exploit ants for their own advantage. This can be seen in some orchids, whose shape appears to have been expressly designed so as to make their pollen stick to the ants' foreheads, well away from the harmful secretions. Other flowering plants have devised different tricks they attract male ants who have no metapleural gland by releasing imitations of the sex pheromones produced by female ants. This is a good way of duping the insects into believing that they are mating with a series of young queens when they are actually carrying pollen from flower to flower.

The E Coli Watchers Field Guide A Human Krakatau

These species did not take hold on Krakatau in a random scramble. Rugged pioneers came first and later gave way to other species. The savanna surrendered to forests. Coconut and fig trees grew. Orchids, fig wasps, and other delicate species could now move onto the islands. Early settlers such as zebra doves could no longer find a place in the food web and vanished. Even now, more than 120 years after the eruption, Krakatau is not finished with its transformation. In the future it may be ready to receive bamboo, which will revolutionize its ecosystem yet

Outcomes of coevolution

In antagonistic interactions, the end point could be that one organism eliminates the other. In mutualisms, the end point would be when there's no further selection for a tighter association. In the example of the long-flowered orchid and the long-tongued moth, unless something changes to make the association less or more beneficial for either organism, the flower's length and the moth's tongue are plenty long enough. Other times, the end point is just that an organism has reached the limits of how tall or fast or whatever it can be.

Preface to the First Edition

There followed several years when, because of a job as lepidopterist at the American Museum of Natural History, in New York, and a commission in the Army, my research efforts were taken up largely with Lepi-doptera and with mosquitos and chigger mites, but I continued to do limited systematic work on bees. It was while in the Army, studying the biology of chigger mites, that I had my first tropical experience, in Panama, and encountered, for the first time, living tropical stingless honey bees like Trigona and Melipona and orchid bees like Euglossa at orchid flowers. In 1948 I moved to the University of Kansas, and since about 1950 almost all of my research has been on bees.

Insects Were The First Domesticators

If wind pollination is at one end of a continuum of cross-fertilization techniques - shall we call it the profligate end - what is at the other end, the 'magic bullet' end Very few insects can be relied upon to fly like a magic bullet straight from the flower where they have picked up pollen to another flower of exactly the right species. Some just go to any old flower, or possibly any flower of the right colour, and it is still a matter of luck whether it happens to be the same species as the flower that has just paid it in nectar. Nevertheless, there are some lovely examples of flowers that lie far out towards the magic bullet end of the continuum. High on the list are orchids, and it's no wonder that Darwin devoted a whole book to them. Both Darwin and his co-discoverer of natural selection, Wallace, called attention to an amazing orchid from Madagascar, Angraecum sesquipedale (see colour page 4), and both men made the same remarkable prediction, which was later triumphantly...

Floral Relationships of Bees

Outer Surface Tibia Bee

As in most of biology there are exceptions to the generalities. Thus some plants in diverse families (Cu-curbitaceae, Iridaceae, Krameriaceae, Malpighiaceae, Orchidaceae, Primulaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Solanace-ae) secrete, instead of nectar, floral oils, which certain specialist bees collect and carry to the nest externally, i.e., in the scopal hairs, to mix with pollen and sometimes nectar to make larval food. The oils are believed to replace sugars in nectar as the larval energy source, but at least in Centris vittata Lepeletier both nectar and oils are included in larval food (Pereira and Garofalo, 1996). A review was by Buchmann (1987). Bees of the genus Macropis (Melittidae) collect floral oil from Lysimachia (Primulaceae) and use it in part to line (presumably to Male euglossine bees collect aromatic fragrances from orchid flowers as well as from flowers of certain Araceae and a few other plant families. (Even larger quantities of the same and similar chemicals may come from...

Of Ferns Bears and Slime Molds

Langdon and other park personnel can spot woolly masses of adelgids attacking pollution-damaged trees, black bears hit by cars, and ferns and rare orchids plowed up by foraging pigs. But it's hard to monitor the fate of lesser known, highly diverse groups in the park that fall under their stewardship. Most of that life, particularly soil life such as mushrooms, snails and slugs, springtails, and slime molds, has only been sporadically collected or cataloged, and the diversity of most small creatures in the park remains completely unknown, much as it does in the rest of the world. Indeed, there is no patch of soil or sediment on earth where we know the identity of every creature. Yet we know that many of the mushrooms in the park spring from soil fungi that form nurturing partnerships with tree roots, and other creatures from springtails to slime molds are part of the great web of decomposers that maintain the fertility of these soils. How would Langdon and his colleagues know if these...

Convergence on the ground above the ground under the ground

They are surely a contingent happenstance of life on Earth, not life on Threga IX. From a historical perspective this must in one sense be true given that the flowering plants (the angiosperms) evidently evolved from a single ancestor, probably at some time in the Jurassic. Matters may, however, be rather more complicated. Whether the smiling biped on Threga IX offers us a tulip is not really relevant remember we are in pursuit of general biological properties. Thus, in the case of the flowers, they display several specific characters. Most obvious, and appreciated, are the two whorls of leaves modified to form the often brightly coloured petals and the associated bract-like sepals. The reproductive arrangement follows the well-trodden path of male (pollen from the stamen) goes to female (via the stigma and ultimately the contained ovule), the happy conclusion of which is the fertilized seed.145 To be sure, the structure of the flower is specialized, sometimes remarkably so...

Flowers Again

Let's now, in the third of our warm-up forays into natural selection, move on to flowers and pollinators and see something of the power of natural selection to drive evolution. Pollination biology furnishes us with some pretty amazing facts, and the high point of wondrousness is reached in the orchids. No wonder Darwin was so keen on them no wonder he wrote the book I have already mentioned, The Various Contrivances by which Orchids are Fertilised by Insects. Some orchids, such as the 'magic bullet' Madagascar ones we met earlier, give nectar, but others have found a way to bypass the costs of feeding pollinators, by tricking them instead. There are orchids that resemble female bees (or wasps or flies) well enough to fool males into attempting to copulate with them. To the extent that such mimics resemble females of one particular insect species, to that extent will males of those species serve as magic bullets, going from flower to flower of just the one orchid species. Even if the...

What Darwin Wrought

Charles Darwin was a respected scholar and scientist well before the 1859 publication of his best-known book, On the Origin of Species. He made his original reputation as a geologist, by providing a plausible (and correct) hypothesis about the formation of coral reefs. He then wrote about other geological topics such as volcanoes before turning his hand to biology. Darwin was a meticulous observer of nature (as seen in his four-volume study of the anatomy and physiology of barnacles, and in his research on orchids) but also an experimentalist at his country estate he had not only a small laboratory but also sufficient land to conduct experiments that required growing plants. He maintained voluminous correspondence with scientists of his day, and because he was so meticulous in his record keeping, much of it remains for scholars to study (Burkhardt and Smith 2002).

Invasive ants

Entomologists have identified about 150 species of invasive ants, six of which attract most attention by their egregious ability to colonize and devastate vast tracts of territory. Take Line-pithema humile. Originally from Argentina and Brazil, this species was first described in 1868 near Buenos Aires, which is why it is commonly known as the Argentine ant'. Its expansion began soon after by 1891, it had been found in the southern states of the America and by 1904 it had reached Europe. The entomologist Luc Passera, from Toulouse, says it probably arrived in France among orchids imported from South America by horticulturists on the Riviera. From there, travelling westwards during the 1960s, hidden among container-loads of plants being sent to enhance the newly developed resorts of Port-Leucate and La Grande-Motte, the ants reached the shores of Languedoc, where they proliferated. In the mean time, they had reached South Africa in 1908 and Australia in 1939 then they arrived in...

The Limbic System

Perhaps the most curious exploitation of the reliance on smell to find a mate and continue the species is found in a South African beetle, which burrows into the ground during the winter. In the spring, as the ground thaws, the beetles emerge, but the male beetles groggily disinter themselves a few weeks before the females do. In this same region of South Africa, a species of orchid has evolved which gives off an aroma identical to the sex attractant of the female beetle. In fact, orchid and beetle evolution have produced essentially the same molecule. The male beetles turn out to be exceedingly nearsighted and the orchids have evolved a configuration of their petals that, to a myopic beetle, resembles the female in a receptive sexual posture. The male beetles enjoy several weeks of orgiastic ecstasy among the orchids, and when eventually the females emerge from the ground, we can imagine a great deal of wounded pride and righteous indignation. Meanwhile the orchids have been...

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