Clyde Tombaugh Goes To Flagstaff

Clyde Tbmbaugh, the eldest of six children, was born on a farm near Streator, Illinois, on February 4, 1906. He enjoyed exploring the heavens with his Uncle Lee and his 3-inch telescope. Clyde virtually memorized the popular astronomy book his uncle loaned him. In 1920 his father and Uncle Lee bought a new 2.25-inch scope from the Sears-Roebuck catalog for them to share. When Clyde was 16, his family moved to a rented farm near Burdett, Kansas, and his uncle insisted that he take the new...

The Grand Tour of Voyager

The space program has done more to stimulate the growth of human knowledge than any other aspect of life on Earth. Ellis R Miner, Assistant Project Scientist for Voyager Voyager 2 is legally deaf, chronically arthritic, and just a touch senile A few months after Voyager 2 set out for Jupiter, one of its radio receivers, vital for the spacecraft to receive instructions from Earth, failed outright and the backup receiver lost its tuning ability. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (3)...

South Polar View

Lissauer, each of neptune's arc rings could be maintained by the teamwork of two shepherd moons unseen from Earth. The arcs would lie at the leading or trailing Lagrangian Points of one moon that would keep the fragments bunched up along their orbit. A second moon inside or outside the ring-arc orbit would keep the fragments from spreading inward or outward. Sixteen moons had been confirmed for Jupiter. Seventeen for Saturn. Fifteen for Uranus. But only two moons...

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Neptune and Triton (marked by arrow) as seen from Earth with the 120-inch telescope of the Lick Observatory Lick Observatory photograph Neptune and Triton (marked by arrow) as seen from Earth with the 120-inch telescope of the Lick Observatory Lick Observatory photograph Unlike capsized Uranus, Neptune stands relatively upright as it revolve around the Sun. There is some axial tilt 29 degrees very similar to the Earth's 23.5 degrees. Unlike Uranus, there is never any sunlight beaming down...

Info

Manufactured in the United States of America Dover Publications. Inc 31 East 2nd Street. Mineola. N.Y. 11501 I hope you like this story. The discoveries of Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto were among the first sagas I encountered when I began to read about astronomy. They stuck fast to my sense of drama and irony and I wanted someday to retell them, ideally with the power with which they struck me. Now might be an appropriate time to try. NASA's Voyager 2 spacecraft, having succeeded magnificently at...

Cosmic Archives

What the Outer Solar System Can Tell Us The worlds of the outer solar system, with their odd characteristics, do not require some grand conspiracy. What is required is an appreciation of the countless objects that once plied those dark reaches. Astronomer William B. McKinnon (1988) On Earth, a paleontologist digs down through recent fossils to ever-older specimens. The deeper he digs, the further back in time he goes. For the planetary scientist who wants to probe back in time to the beginning...

Voyager

Voyager Thrusters

NASA's Pioneer 10 and 11 and Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are headed out of the solar system. Artist Don Davis portrays Pioneer lO, at present the most distant craft, moving outward from the Sun (the brightest star visible) and away from the heart of our Milky Way galaxy. heliopause to contract. Solar scientists think that the heliopause lies at a distance of 100 to 200 astronomical units 100 to 200 times the Earth's distance from the Sun. Neptune orbits at a distance of 30 astronomical units....

Overy Of The Grand Tour Voyager Mission Profile

The work that led directly to the Grand Tour began at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 1965 when 1 was given a summer position to supplement my Ph D stipend as a graduate student in aeronautics at the California Institute of Technology. I had worked at JPL several times previously doing engineering work on missile trajectories, aerodynamics, and guidance systems. I learned as much from working there as from any of my formal graduate studies. The outstanding engineers at JPL had been a major...

The Fervor for new Planets

Can one believe that the Founder of the Universe left this space empty Certainly not. Before the discovery of Uranus, no one thought that there were any planets beyond Saturn. Almost no one thought that there were unknown planets closer to the Sun than Saturn. But with the discovery of Uranus in 1781, horizons suddenly broadened. Maybe there were other planetaiy bodies in the solar system yet to be found. Attention focused on somethii called Bode's Law. Popularized by the same man who provided...

The Discovery of Uranus

It was that night its turn to be discovered. William Herschel describing his discovery of Uranus , very different from any comet I ever read any description of or saw. Nevll Maskelyne, Astronomer Royal. April 1781 On March 13, 1781, amateur astronomer William Herschel discovered a new planet. It was completely unexpected. For as long as anyone could remember, for the thousands of years of recorded history, the solar system ended at Saturn. Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the Sun. and the...

Lagrangian Points

In 1772 mathematician Joseph Louis Lagrange discovered a peculiar consequence of the law of gravity when applied to two bodies orbiting one another, such as Jupiter and the Sun. According to his calculations, there would be two positions along the orbi of Jupiter 60 degrees ahead and 60 degrees behind the planet where the gravity of Jupiter and the Sun would cause small objects near those sites lo oscillate without falling toward Jupiter or the Sun. In 1904, 132 years later, asteroids began to...

Is Pluto A Planet

As information about Pluto has increased, the size attributed to Pluto has decreased. It is certainly the smallest planet, far smaller than Mercury. It is considerably smaller in size and mass than our Moon. At the same time, Pluto has shrunk in the estimation of some astronomers to the point that they are calling for the expulsion of Pluto from the ranks of planethood and its demotion to the category of asteroid. How does Pluto fit in with the minor planets Lousy. First of all, it's too large....

Jupiter

The internal structure of Uranus compared to that of Earth and Jupiter. Voyager 2 indicated that a two-layer model for the Interior of Uranus is correct rather than the earlier three-layer model. (The internal structure of each planet is drawn to scale, but not its size compared to the others. Uranus is about 4 times the diameter of Earth Jupiter is more than 11.) the sunlight it receives. The upper atmosphere of Uranus, warmed feebly by sunlight and the weak internal heat of the planet, is...

Clyde Tombaugh After Pluto

Clyde Tbmbaugh took leave from the Lowell Observatory each school year beginning in the fall of 1932 to formally study astronomy at the University of Kansas on a scholarship. He entered as a 26-year-old freshman and tried to enroll in the freshman astronomy class. But the head of the department was adamant For a planet discoverer to enroll in a course of introductory astronomy is unthinkable.' At the end of spring semester 1934, he married Patricia Irene Edson from Kansas City, and they spent...

William H Pickering Amd Planets O P Q R S T And U

Pickering (1858-1938) made and published more predictions for the existence of trans-Neptunian planets than any other astronomer. Like Percival Lowell, Pickering was born in Boston, came from a family of social and intellectual distinction, was well educated (M.I.T.), and had travel and adventure in his blood (Pickering especially liked primitive areas and mountain climbing). Like Lowell, Pickering was a bundle of energy. Besides leading four solar eclipse expeditions as a staff...

Trouble with Uranus

Who can say but your new star (Uranus), which exceeds Saturn in its distance from the sun, may exceed him as much in magnificence of attendance Who knows what new rings, new satellites, or what other nameless and numberless phenomena remain behind, waiting to reward future industry . sir Joseph Banks, president. Royal Society, on awarding Herschel the Copley Medal (November 1781) Uranus required a major conceptual leap for the public and the scientific world. A new planet A solar system twice...