The Atmosphere

Even a modest telescope can show much detail on Jupiter. The region of the planet's atmosphere that is visible from Earth contains several different types of clouds that are separated both vertically and horizontally. Changes in these cloud systems can occur over periods of a few hours, but an underlying pattern of latitudinal currents has maintained its stability for decades. It has become traditional to describe the appearance of the planet in terms of a standard nomenclature for its alternating dark bands, called belts, and bright bands, called zones. The underlying currents, however, seem to have a greater persistence than this pattern.

The close-up views of Jupiter transmitted to Earth from the Voyager spacecraft revealed a variety of cloud forms, including many elliptical features reminiscent of cyclonic and anticyclonic storm systems on Earth. All these systems are in motion, appearing and disappearing on time scales that vary with their sizes and locations. Also observed to vary are the pastel shades of various colours present in the cloud lay-ers—from the tawny yellow that seems to characterize the main layer, through browns and blue-grays, to the well-known salmon-coloured Great Red Spot, Jupiter's largest, most prominent, and longest-lived feature. Chemical differences in cloud composition, which astronomers presume to be the cause of the variations in colour, evidently accompany the vertical and horizontal segregation of the cloud systems.

Jovian meteorology can be compared with the global circulation of Earth's atmosphere. On Earth huge spiral cloud systems often stretch over many degrees of latitude and are associated with motion around high- and low-pressure regions.

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