Andrews P, Van Couvering JAH (1975) Palaeo-environments in the East African Miocene. In: Szalay FS (ed) Approaches to primate paleobiology. S Karger, New York, pp 62-103 Andrews P (1996) Paleoecology and hominid palaeoenvironments. Biol Rev 71: 257-300 Anhuf D, Frankenberg P, Lauer W (1999) Die postglaziale Warmphase vor 8000 Jahren. Eine Vegetationsrekonstruction fur Afrika. Geograph Rund 51: 454-461 Bancroft H (1932) A fossil cyatheoid stem from Mount Elgon, East Africa. New Phytol 33: 241-253

Bancroft H (1933) A contribution to the geological history of the Dipterocarpaceae. Forh Geol Foren Stockholm 55: 59-100 Behrensmeyer AK, Deino AL, Hill A, Kingston JD (2002) Geology and geochronology of the middle Miocene Kipsaramon site complex: Muruyur Beds, Tugan Hills, Kenya. J Hum Evol 42: 11-38 Benefit BR (1993) The permanent dentition and phylogenetic position of Victoriapithecus from Maboko Island, Kenya. J Hum Evol 25: 83-172

Bestland EA (1990) Miocene volcanicalstic deposits and paleosols of Rusinga Island, Kenya. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Oregon, Eugene Bestland EA, Krull ES (1999) Palaeoenviron-ments of early Miocene Kisingiri volcano Proconsul sites: Evidence from carbon isotopes, palaeosols and hydromagmetic deposits. J Geol Soc Lond 156: 965-976 Bobe R, Behrensmeyer AK, Chapman RE (2002) Faunal change, environmental variability and late Pliocene hominin evolution. J Hum Evol 42: 475-497 Bramble DM, Lieberman BE (2004) Endurance running and the evolution of Homo. Nature 432: 345-352 Brunet M, Guy F, Pilbeam D, Mackaye HT, Likius A, Ahounta D, Beauvilain A, Blondel

C, Bocherens H, Boisserie JR, de Bonis L, Coppens Y, de Jax J, Denys C, Duringer P, Eisenmann V, Fanone G, Fronty P, Geraads

D, Lehmann T, Lihoreau F, Louchart A, Mahamat A, Merceron G, Mouchelin G,

Otero O, Campomanes PP, de Leon MP, Rage JC, Sapanet M, Schuster M, Sudre J, Tassy P, Valentin X, Vignaud P, Viriot L, Zazzo A, Zollikofer C (2002) A new hominid from the upper Miocene of Chad, central Africa. Nature 418: 145-151 Carroll S (2003) Genetics and the making of

Homo sapiens. Nature 422: 849-857 Cerling TE (1992) Development of grasslands and svannas in East Africa during the Neogene. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 97: 241-247 Cerling TE, Harris JM, Ambrose SH, Leakey MG, Solounias N (1997a) Dietary and environmental reconstruction with stable isotope analysis of herbivore tooth enamel from the Miocene locality of Fort Ternan, Kenya. J Hum Evol 33: 635-650 Cerling TE, Harris JM, Mac Fadden BJ, Leakey MG, Quade J, Eisenmann V, Elheringer JR (1997b) Global vegetation change through the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Nature 389: 153-158 Dart R (1926) Taung and its significance.

Nat Hist 26: 315-327 Darwin C (1872) The descent of man and selection in relation to sex. John Murray, London Deino AL, Tauxe L, Monaghan M, Drake R (1990) 40Ar/39Ar calibration of the litho-and paleomagnetic stratigraphies of the Ngorora Formation, Kenya. J Geol 96: 567-587

de Menocal PB (2004) African climate change and faunal evolution during the Pliocene-Pleistocene. Earth Planet Sci Lett 220: 3-24 Ekart DP, Cerling TE, Montanez IP, Tabor NJ (1999) A 400 million year carbon isotope record of pedogenic carbonate: Implications for paleoatmospheric carbon dioxide. Am J Sci 299: 805-827 Fleagle JG (1998) Primate adaptation and evolution. Academic Press, New York Fox DL, Koch PL (2003) Tertiary history of C4 biomass in the Great Plains, USA. Geology 31: 809-812 Galik K, Senut B, Pickford M, Gommery D, Treil J, Kuperavage AJ, Eckhardt RB (2004) External and internal morphology of the

BAR 1002'00 Orrorin tugenensis femur. Science 305: 1450-1453 Gommery D, Senut B, Pickford M, Musime E (2002) Les nouveaux restes du squelette d' Ugandapithecus major (Miocene inferieur de Napak, Ouganda). Ann Paleontol 88: 167-186

Harrison T (2002) Late Oligocene to middle Miocene catarrhines from Afro-Arabia. In: Hartwig WC (ed) The primate fossil record. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 311-338

Hill A, Leakey M, Kingston JD, Ward S (2002) New cercopithecoids and a hominoid from 12.5 Ma in the Tugen Hills succession, Kenya. J Hum Evol 42: 75-93 Jablonski NG, Chaplin G (1993) Origin of habitual terrestrial bipedalism in the ancestor of the Hominidae. J Hum Evol 24: 259-280 Jacobs BF (2002) Estimation of low-latitude paleoclimates using fossil angiosperm leaves: Examples from the Miocene Tugen Hills, Kenya. Paleobiology 28: 399-421 Jacobs BF, Deino AL (1996) Test of climate-leaf physiognomy regression models, their application to two Miocene floras from Kenya, and 40Ar/39Ar dating of the late Miocene Kapturo site. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol 123: 259-271 Jenny HJ (1941) Factors in soil formation.

McGraw-Hill, New York Johanson DC, Taieb M, Coppens Y (1982) Pliocene himinids from the Hadar Formation, Ethiopia (1973-1977): Stratigraphic, chronologic and paleoenvironmental contexts, with notes on hominid morphology and sys-tematics. Am J Phys Anthropol 57: 373-402 Jolly C (1970) The seed-eaters, a new model of hominid differentiation based on a baboon analogy. Man 5: 5-26 Kappelman J (1993) Book review of Miocene paleosols and ape habitats of Pakistan and Kenya by GJ Retallack. Am J Phys Anthropol 92: 117-126 Kent PE (1944) The Miocene beds of Kavirondo,

Kenya. Qu J Geol Soc Lond 100: 85-118 Kingdon J (1971) East African mammals, vol I. Introduction, primates, hyraxes, pangolins, protoungulates and sirenians. Academic Press, London

Kingdon J (1974a) East African mammals, vol IIA. Insectivores and bats. Academic Press, London Kingdon J (1974b) East African mammals, vol IIB. Hares and rodents. Academic Press, London

Kingdon J (1979) East African mammals, vol IIIB. Large mammals. Academic Press, London

Kingdon J (2003) Lowly origins: Where, when and why our ancestors first stood up. Princeton University Press, Princeton Koch PL (1998) Isotopic reconstruction of past continental environments. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 26: 573-613 Leakey LSB (1952) The environment of the Kenya lower Miocene apes. Actes Congr Panafr Prehist Com 18: 323-324 Leakey MD, Harris JM (eds) (1987) Laetoli, a Pliocene site in northern Tanzania. Clarendon Press, Oxford Leakey MG, Spoor F, Brown FH, Gathogo PN, Klarie C, Leakey LN, McDougall I (2001) New hominin genus from eastern Africa shows diverse middle Pliocene lineages. Nature 410: 433-440 Lovejoy CO (1981) The origin of man. Science

211: 341-350 MacFadden BJ (2000) Origin and evolution of the grazing guild in Cenozoic New World terrestrial mammals. In: Sues HD (ed) Evolution of herbivory in terrestrial vertebrates. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 223-244

Martin L (1985) Significance of enamel thickness in hominoid evolution. Nature 314: 260-262

McCrossin ML, Benefit BR (1997) On the relationships and adaptations of Kenyapithecus, a large-bodied hominoid from the middle Miocene of eastern Africa. In: Begun DR, Ward CV, Rose MD (eds) Function, phylog-eny, and fossils: Miocene hominoid evolution and adaptation. Plenum, New York, pp 241-267

McCrossin ML, Benefit BR, Gitau SR, Palmer A, Blue K (1998) Fossil evidence for the origins of terrestriality in Old World monkeys and apes. In: Strasser E, Fleagle JG, McHenry HM (eds) Primate locomotion:

Recent advances. Plenum, New York, pp 353-376

McKee JK (1999) The autocatalytic naure of hominid evolution in African Plio-Pleisto-cene environments. In: Bromage TG, Schrenk F (eds) African biogeography. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 51-67 Mizota C, Kawasaki I, Wakatsuki T (1988) Clay mineralogy and chemistry of seven pedons formed in volcanic ash, Tanzania. Geoderma 43: 131-141

Morgan E (1982) The aquatic ape: A theory of human evolution. Souvenir Press, London Peterhans JLK (1993) Contribution to rain forest taphonomy: Retrieval and documentation of chimpanzee remains from Kibale Forest. J Hum Evol 25: 485-514 Pickford M (1986a) Sedimentation and fossil preservation in the Nyanza Rift system, Kenya. In: Frostick LE, Renaut RW, Reid I, Tiercelin TJ (eds) Sedimentation in the African Rifts. Spec Publ Geol Soc Lond 25: 345-367

Pickford M (1986b) The geochronology of Miocene higher primate faunas of East Africa. In: Else JG, Lee PC (eds) Primate evolution, vol 1. Cambridge University Press, London, pp 20-33 Pickford M (1987) The chronology of the Cer-copithecoidea of East Africa. Hum Evol 2: 1-17

Pickford M (1995) Fossil land snails of East Africa and their paleoecological significance. J Afr Earth Sci 20: 167-226 Pickford M (2002a) Early Miocene grassland ecosystem at Bukwa, Mt Elgon, Uganda. CR Paleovol. 1: 213-219 Pickford M (2002b) Paleoenvironments and hominoid evolution. Z Morphol Anthropol 83: 337-348 Pickford M, Senut B (2001) The geological and faunal context of late Miocene faunal remains from Lukeino. CR Acad Sci Terre Planet Paris 332: 145-152 Pickford M, Senut B, Gommery M (1999) Sexual dimorphism in Morotopithecus bishopi, an early middle Miocene hominoid from Uganda, and a reassessment of its geological and biological contexts. In: Andrews P, Banham P (eds) Late Cenozoic environments and hominoid evolution: A tribute to Bill Bishop. Geol Soc Lond, London, pp 27-38 Potts R (1996) Evolution and climate variability. Science 273: 922-923 Radosevich SE, Retallack GJ, Taieb M (1992) A reassessment of the paleoenvironment and preservation of hominid fossils from Hadar, Ethiopia. Am J Phys Anthropol 87: 15-27 Retallack GJ (1991a) Miocene paleosols and ape habitats in Pakistan and Kenya. Oxford University Press, New York Retallack GJ (1991b) Untangling the effects of burial alteration and ancient soil formation. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 19: 183-206 Retallack GJ (1992) Middle Miocene fossil plants from Fort Ternan (Kenya) and the evolution ofAfrican grasslands. Paleobiology 18: 383-400 Retallack GJ (1997) A colour guide to paleosols.

John Wiley, Chichester Retallack GJ (1998) Fossil soils and completeness of the rock and fossil record. In: Donovan SK, Paul CBC (eds) The adequacy of the fossil record. Wiley, Chichester, pp 131-162

Retallack GJ (2001a) Soils of the past. Blackwell, Oxford Retallack GJ (2001b) Cenozoic expansion of grasslands and climatic cooling. J Geol 109: 407-426

Retallack GJ (2005) Pedogenic carbonate proxies for amount and seasonality of precipitation in paleosols. Geology 33: 333-336. Retallack GJ, Dugas DP, Bestland EA (1990) Fossil soils and grasses of a middle Miocene East African grassland. Science 247: 1325-1328

Retallack GJ, Dugas DP, Bestland EA (1995) Miocene paleosols and habitats of Proconsul in Rusinga Island, Kenya. J Hum Evol 29: 53-91

Retallack GJ, Wynn JG, Benefit B, McCrossin M (2002) Paleosols and paleoenvironments of the middle Miocene Maboko Formation, Kenya. J Hum Evol 42: 659-703 Rodman PS, McHenry HM (1980) Bioenerget-ics and the origin of hominid bipedalism. Am J Phys Anthropol 52: 103-106 Sanford C (2003) The evolutionary key to becoming human. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston

Senut B, Pickford M, Gommery D, Mein P, Cheboi K, Coppens Y (2001) First hominid from the Miocene (Lukeino Formation, Kenya). CR Acad Sci Paris Sci Terre Planet 332: 137-144 Sheldon ND, Retallack GJ (2001) Equation for compaction of paleosols due to burial. Geology 29: 245-250 Sheldon ND, Retallack GJ, Tanaka S (2002) Geochemical climofunctions from North American soils and application to paleosols across the Eocene-Oligocene boundary in Oregon. J Geol 110: 687-696 Sikes NE (1994) Early hominid habitat preferences in East Africa: Paleosol carbon isotope evidence. J Hum Evol 27, 25-45 Soil Survey Staff (2000) Keys to soil taxonomy.

Pocahontas Press, Blacksburg, Virginia Tanner NM (1981) On becoming human.

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Thackray GD (1989) Paleoenvironmental analysis of paleosols and associated fossils in Miocene volcaniclastic deposits, Rusinga Island, western Kenya. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis. University of Oregon, Eugene Tuttle RH (1981) Evolution of hominid biped-alism and prehensile capabilities. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 292: 89-94 Turner A, Anton M (2004) Evolving Eden.

Columbia University Press, New York Vignaud P, Duringer P, Mackaye HT, Likius A, Blondel C, Boisserie JR, de Bonis L, Eisenmann E, Etienne ME, Geraads D, Guy F, Lehmann T, Lihoreau F, Lopez-Martinez N, Mourer-Chauvire C, Otero O, Rage JC, Schuster M, Viriot L, Zazzo A, Brunet M (2002) Geology and palaeontology of the upper Miocene Toros-Menalla hominid locality, Chad. Nature 418: 152-155 Veizer J, Godderis Y, Francois LM (2001) Evidence for decoupling of atmospheric

CO2 and global climate during the Phanero-zoic. Nature 408: 698-701 Vrba ES (1999) Habitat theory in relation to evolution in Neogene biota and hominids. In: Bromage TG, Schrenk F (eds) African biogeography. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 19-34 Ward SC, Duren DL (2002) Middle to Late Miocene African hominoids. In: Hartwig WC (ed) The primate fossil record. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 385-397

Wheeler PE (1984) The evolution of bipedality and loss of functional body hair in humans. J Hum Evol 13: 91-98 Woodburn J (1968) An introduction to Hadza ecology. In: Lee RB, deVore I (eds) Man the hunter. Aldine, Chicago, pp 49-55 Wynn JG (2001) Paleosols, stable carbon isotopes, and paleoenvironmental interpretation of Kanapoi, northern Kenya. J Hum Evol 39: 411-432 Wynn JG (2004a) Miocene paleosols of Lotha-gam. In: Harris JM, Leakey MG (eds) Lothagam: The dawn of humanity in eastern Africa. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 31-42 Wynn JG (2004b) Influence of Plio-Pleistocene aridification on human evolution: Evidence from paleosols of the Turkana Basin. Am J Phys Anthropol 123: 106-118 Wynn JG, Retallack GJ (2002) Middle Miocene paleosols and paleoenvironments from the Nyakach Formation at Kaimagool, southwestern Kenya. J Hum Evol 40: 263-288 Yapp C, Poths H (1994) Productivity of pre-vascular bioa inferred from Fe(CO3)OH content of goethite. Nature 368: 49-51 Zachos J, Pagani M, Sloan L, Thomas E, Billups K (2001) Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate. Science 292: 686-693

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment