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Kidney Function Restoration Program

Effective Diets for Kidney Damage

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see also demographic/genetic trends population modelling 508, 511 catastrophe modelling 511 extinction risk 511-512 input parameters 508, 510 mean kinship 510, 514-516, 515 scenarios modelled 508-510 starting conditions 511 see also demographic/genetic trends practice see inexperienced animals;

see also mentoring pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG) RIA

205-206 pregnancy behavioural changes 198 delayed implantation 198 diagnosis 438

endocrine profile 209-210, 211 foetal development 438 ultrasound assessments 422, 422-424, 428, 428 preventive medicine 362

quarantine procedures 363 routine examinations 362-363 see also parasites; vaccinations progestins 223-224 EIA 207-208

progesterone excretion over successive years 211, 211-212 prostate gland, ultrasound assessments 425 protein 122-123 protozoan parasites 389 psychological well-being 401 pseudopregnancy 198-199 pubertal oestrus endocrine profile 211 pyelonephritis/anaemia in adult 398, 398

quality of life 368, 370, 374, 375

rabies vaccinations 364 radial sesamoid bone 102, 102 radiography without sedation 355 radioimmunoassays (RIAs) 205-206 androgen 206 corticosteroid 206 oestrogen conjugate 205 pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG)

205-206 RIA vs EIA 204 radiotelemetry collars 312

ban 53 rearing 87-88, 97-98

future priorities 347-349 by humans see hand rearing influence on behaviour see socialization, early peer group and subsequent development 348 record-keeping 349 research methodology 335 and subsequent maternal behaviour see maternal behaviour and subsequent sexual behaviour see sexual behaviour see also aggressive behaviour management; neonatal management record-keeping 349

computerised record-keeping 96 reintroduction to wild behavioural management strategies 296 biomedical survey 53 establishing behavioural competencies for 98 neonatal management 293 relatedness see inbreeding/relatedness renal system, disease/pathology 396-400

insufficiency 370-372

kidney failure in geriatric panda

399-400 kidney failure in young panda 396-398

pyelonephritis/anaemia in adult

398, 398 see also urinogenital tract repetitive behaviour see stereotypies reproductive biology acrosomal membranes 164,

164-165 age and reproductive traits 176 anaesthesia 160 animals evaluated 160 breeding vs. non-breeding males

176, 176-179 disease/pathology 394-396 embryonic mortality/abortion 395 future priorities 193-194 goals 159-160, 193 see also self-sustainability GRBs 183, 194 historical data 160 see also historical perspectives on breeding infections of reproductive tract 395 male aggression see aggression male breeding history, morphometric/testicular traits 160-161, 171, 171-174 male seasonality studies 194 onset of male fertility studies 194 optimising use of frozen-thawed sperm 193-194 and stress 303

testicular anomalies 396, 396 testicular hypoplasia/atrophy studies 179, 179-181, 194 ultrasound assessments 419-422,

422-424, 424-428 uterine lesions 396, 396 see also breeding; mating; sperm/semen reproductive potential, biomedical survey 44-45 reproductive success in captivity and AI 473-474, 474 behavioural management strategies 275-276 captive vs wild males 176, 176,

245, 499, 499-500 see also biomedical survey research resource, ex situ (captive)

population 13, 37 resources, information see databases/ knowledge collection respiratory system 403 restraint with no sedation 354-355 blood pressure monitoring 354 blood sampling 355 milk collection 354 ocular examinations 355 radiography 355 restraint cage 232, 354 ultrasound examinations 354,

354, 411-412 vaginal swabs 232, 233, 233,

241, 354 see also operant conditioning roundworm 389

Saint Louis Zoo 39 San Diego Zoo 39, 200 see also below San Diego Zoo, ultrasound health assessments 417-419, 418, 419 AI, guided/post-breeding monitoring 431-437, 432, 433, 434 anaesthesia 417-418 ascites 418-419 reproductive assessments, females 422, 422-424 reproductive assessments, males 428, 428 Seal, Dr Ulysses S. 23, 23-25 seasonality female see oestrus male 194, 346, 348 sedation, without restraint see restraint with no sedation; see also anaesthesia selection, against aggression 346-347

see also adaptations self-sustainability goal, ex situ breeding programmes 59-60, 85, 245-246, 456, 527 semen see sperm/semen sexual behaviour, and cub rearing practices 334, 336-340 delayed breeding 338-339, 348 female oestrus behaviour 336 sex differences 337-338 wild panda observations

339-340 see also aggression; aggressive behaviour management; mating sexual behaviour, lack of libido 334, 458

and AI 470, 485, 490 see also aggression; aggressive behaviour management; mating sexual behaviour, other animals 335-336

sharing knowledge see databases/ knowledge collection; partnerships siblings see peer exposure SIMPOP 508

Sinarundinaria ssp. 115 see also bamboo skeletal adaptations 102, 102, 380-381 skills diversity biomedical survey 38, 52-54

skin biopsy biomedical survey 41 coloration, neonates 316 skin disease 403-404

demodecosis 77, 77, 365, 404 squamous cell carcinoma 81, 404,

474, 474-479 and stereotypic behaviours 403 skull/dental modifications 102, 102, 380-381

Smithsonian's National Zoological

Park 39, 201, 523 social environment 401 social traits relevant to reproduction

285-286 socialization, early contemporary practices/early cub-dam separation 335, 349 influence on later behavioural traits 334 and subsequent maternal behaviour see maternal behaviour and subsequent sexual behaviour see sexual behaviour wild panda observations 339-340 socialization, other animals Canoidea studies 334 domestic carnivores 336 domestic cat 345-346 nonhuman primate studies 334, 335-336, 340-341, 344-345 solitary carnivores 341 and subsequent aggressive behaviour 344-346 and subsequent maternal behaviour 340-341 and subsequent sexual behaviour

335-336 wild carnivores 336 worth/value of studying 348 software

Cervus programme 250-251 demographic trends 497, 508 SIMPOP 508 VORTEX 508

solitary carnivores, socialization 341 South China tiger captive breeding management plan, CBSG 25 soybean meal allergies 394 Species Survival Plan (SSP) 496 sperm/semen banks see genome resource banks capacitation/acrosome reaction/ decondensation 169-171, 170, 485 collection 41, 66, 161, 161-162, 499-500 see also electroejaculation critically ill donor 474,

474-479, 490 morphology 163, 163-164,

171-175 motility 169

number required, for AI 491 ovum interaction/zona penetration 169-171,170,192, 192-193, 485 processing for assisted breeding

470-471 quality/acrosomal integrity 171-175

ultrasound assessments 415-416 wild panda sperm collection 513 see also AI sperm cryopreservation 166-169, 183-184, 469, 491 cryobiology 485, 485, 485-490 cryodilutants 165, 182, 182 efficiency at Chengdu Research

Base 485, 485,485-490 efficiency at Wolong Center 474, 474-484

freezing method, impact 184-185,

185, 185, 185-187, 187 freezing rate impact 185-187,

187, 187 fresh/cold use 181-183 functionality 191 glycerol temperature/duration of exposure 187-189, 189 optimising use of frozen-thawed sperm 193-194 storage 479, 484 testing/improving efficiency, fresh/thawed 491 see also AI squamous cell carcinoma 81, 404, 474,

474-479 squeeze cages 232 stereotypies 276-277, 277 and stress 302-303, 311 vomitting 393

stress anthropogenic activities 312 anthropogenic noise see noise avoiding stress of blood testing 224-225

behavioural assessment 302-303 behavioural homeostasis 302 conservation goal, keeping animals in captivity 299 conserve-withdraw response 302 definition of stress 300 deleterious consequences 299 discussion/future priorities

311-312 and enclosure size 299 fight-flight response 302 General Adaptation

Syndrome 301 hormones see corticosteroids hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity (HPA) measures 301-302

individual assessment approach 300

measuring reactive response

301-302 post-weaning 294 radiotelemetry collar 53, 312 stereotypic behaviour

302-303, 311

in wild pandas, biomedical survey 53 studbooks 349, 495-496, 516 see also databases/knowledge collection Stunted Development Syndrome 68, 70, 70-75

biomedical survey 50, 50-51 causality 83, 438 diet 75

disease/infection 75 success, captive breeding see reproductive success Switzerland see Conservation Breeding

Specialist Group (CBSG) of IUCN symbionts, microbial 104

tattooing 63-64

biomedical survey 41, 42 team diversity 34 members, CBSG 25-26 see also partnerships TEST cryodilutant 165 testicular anomalies 396, 396 hypoplasia/atrophy studies 51-52, 79, 79-81, 179, 179-181, 194

morphometric traits 171, 171, 171-174

testosterone patterns, seasonal 346, 348

threats (wild pandas) see in situ population (status/threats) thumb, opposable (elongated radial sesamoid bone) 102, 102 tiger captive breeding management plan, CBSG 25 traffic stress 312

training opportunities/courses 528, 528, 528-535

Chinese independence goal 536 Chinese location 536 mutual information sharing 535 needs 528

seminar, genotyping facility 248 tailored courses 535 training trainers 536 veterinary 378, 453 transabdominal ultrasound assessments 411 transcervical AI 415, 479, 479 transcutaneous/transrectal ultrasound assessments 414, 414 for ascites removal 416 for catheterisation prior to semen collection by electroejaculation 415-416 to determine ovarian functioning 416 for general health assessment

416-417 pancreatitis 416, 417 transponder chipping biomedical survey 40-41, 42 trichrome staining 233-236 tube feeding compromised infants

324-325 twins genetic over-representation 266, 266 hand rearing 316 neonatal management 293-294 neonatal pathology 383 swapping 316, 330

ulcerative colitis 387-388 ulcers, gastric 448, 448, 452 ultrasonography 62-63, 410-411 AI, Berlin Zoo 415, 428,

428-431, 429 AI, San Diego Zoo 431-437, 432,

433, 434 anaesthesia 411, 417-418 ascites 416, 418-419, 438

ultrasonography (cont.)

catheterisation 415-416 colour-flow imaging 437 conscious assessment 354, 354,

411-412 cross-disciplinary studies 438 drawing of female urinogenital tract 419, 424 foetal development 438 future priorities/applications

437-438 for general health assessment

416-417 large-scale/wider application 438 miniaturisation 437 ovarian functioning 416, 438 pancreatitis 416, 417 pregnancy diagnosis 438 prostate gland, presence 425 reproductive assessments, females 419, 419-422, 422, 422-424

reproductive assessments, males

424, 424-428, 428 species-specific instruments 437 Stunted Development

Syndrome 438 three-dimensional 437 transabdominal 411 transcervical (for AI) 415 transcutaneous/transrectal

414, 414 see also Berlin Zoo; San Diego Zoo ultra violet (UV) radiation 405 University of California at Davis 39 urine/faecal hormone measurements 199-200, 202-203 androgen profiles, males 206, 219,

219-221, 225-226 corticosteroids 206, 217, 217-219, 224-225

creatine assessment/fluid balance

203-204 data analysis 208 discussion/future priorities 221 enzyme immunoassays 207-208 faecal extraction methods 204 faecal hormone analysis 213, 213

gonadotrophin-treated/untreated females 213, 213-217, 217 immunoassays 204 oestrogens 205, 207, 221-223, 236-238, 236-237

pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG)

RIA 205-206 progesterone excretion over successive years 211, 211-212 progestins 207-208, 223-224 radioimmunoassays (RIAs)

205-206 RIA vs EIA 204 urinogenital adaptations 381-382, 16, 16, 382 tract, ultrasound assessments 419, 424

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