"Chengdu Research Base for Giant Panda Breeding and the Chengdu Zoo were considered as one institution; hChina Conservation and Research Centre for the Giant Panda

'undesirable' because this abnormality may have heritable origins or be genetically transmittable. These two males were listed in Table 3.1 as 'Not classified'.

The teams had begun the Biomedical Survey knowing intuitively (from the 1996 masterplanning discussions in Chengdu) that certain factors were adversely influencing health and reproduction of the contemporary panda population. Now, however, there were explicit data that allowed descriptive and quantitative details for each animal. The historical information that had been gathered also allowed us to determine if past events somehow influenced an animal's current status. Taken together, all data could help develop a blueprint for remediation and research action.

Of the variables examined, the most influential were assembled under six broad areas:

• unknown paternity;

• genetic over-representation by certain individuals;

• behavioural deficiencies;

• suboptimal nutrition;

• 'Stunted Development Syndrome';

• males with testicular hypoplasia (or atrophy).

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