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and reproductive failure 303 nonhuman primate socialization studies 334, 335-336, 340-341, 344-345 North America

Cheetah Species Survival Plan

(SSP) 20 panda loans see loans see also USA NSAID medication 368-370 nutrition/diet 101-102 allergies 394

anatomical adaptations see anatomical adaptations to herbivory biomedical survey 43 body mass 126 carbohydrates 121-122 enrichment strategies 281-282,

282, 295 and enteritis 390 evaluation/assessment 126-128 faeces 126, 126-128 fat 123 fibre 121-122 future priorities 129-130 and habitat restriction by humans 123 and ill-health 388 life stage considerations 128-129 management/dietary husbandry

124-126 nutrient guidelines 118-124 protein 122-123 requirements/availability

117-118, 118 suboptimal, biomedical survey

49-50 vitamins/minerals 124 water 118-121 see also bamboo; food ocular system see eye oesophagoscopy 444-446 oestrogen 221-223 conjugate EIA 207 conjugate RIA 205 oestrus behavioural changes 198, 287 early socialization, influence on behaviour 336 failure 458

indications, for Al 471 monitoring for timed matings 239-241 see also vaginal cytology pubertal endocrine profile 211 short oestrus period 87 ultrasound assessments 416, 438 olfactory management 286 open communication see database knowledge collection; partnerships operant conditioning 368, 375, 469 for vaginal swabs 232, 233, 233,

241, 354 see also restraint with no sedation opposable thumb (elongated radial sesamoid bone) 102, 102 oral cavity pathology 386-387, 386 see also dental disease oral inoculation, enteritis 390 osteoarthritis 368-370

anti-inflammatory medication

368-370 radiographic indicators 368, 368 vertebral spondylosis 368 ovarian functioning see oestrus pacing see stereotypies pancreatitis, ultrasound assessments

416, 417 parasites 364-365, 388-390 anti-helmintics 365 ascarids (Baylisascaris schroederi)

78-79, 364-365, 366, 388, 388 demodectic mange 365 hookworms 389 protozoan 389 roundworm 389 parentage see paternity, assessment of unknown partnerships, human 18-19, 21-22, 461-462, 520-521 biomedical information 407 biomedical survey 34, 38 CBSG/Chinese federal agencies level 524 cross-cultural learning/working, biomedical survey 34, 53-54, 521-522

cross-disciplinary studies 296, 438 CWCA/CAZG/western zoos level 524

demographic/genetic trends analysis 516-518 endocrinology 200 ex situ/in situ benefits 520, 538 fostering 523-525, 538-539 individual/personal interactional level 524-525 information sharing/cooperation

85, 463, 528, 535 international relationships

521-522 multi-disciplinary nature of conservation work 523-524 multi-disciplinary skills diversity, biomedical survey 38, 52-54 mutual information sharing 535 panda as flagship for cooperation 539

paternity assessment 247 team diversity 34

see also databases/knowledge collection; training opportunities/courses parvovirus vaccinations 364 paternity, assessment of unknown 246-247, 258, 497, 505-506, 516 addressing 258-263 assessing AI vs natural mating

263-266 avoiding export of biomaterials 247

biomedical survey 46, 47, 53 collaborative effort 247 computer analysis (Cervus programme) 250-251 DNA extraction 248, 248-249 DNA sequencer 248 future priorities 268-271 genetic diversity maintenance goal 246 genetic management need 246 genetic relatedness estimation

251, 268 genome banks 270 genotyping facility, development of 247-248, 248 heterozygosity table 251 low reproductive success in captivity 245 microsatellite analysis, faecal/hair samples 268, 270 paternity assessment example

251, 251-258, 252 pedigree construction 251, 263 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

amplification 249-250 self-sustainability goal 245-246 training seminar 248 twins/genetic over-representation 266, 266 validation with blinded samples 258 pathology see diseases/pathology;

neonatal pathology PCR (polymerase chain reaction)

amplification 249-250 pedigree analysis 505 construction 251, 263 peer exposure neonatal management 293, 348 play fighting 338, 338, 348 peri-oestrual endocrine profile

208-209, 209 Phillips, Lyndsay 25 Phyllostachys nigra 115 see also bamboo physiology see anatomy/physiology placentation, endotheliochorial 330 play fighting 338, 338, 348 poaching, wild pandas 6 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

amplification 249-250 population current distribution 463, 463 ex situ (captive) see ex situ population increases 496, 498, 498 management, biomedical survey

37-38 1936-2003 458 wild see in situ population population genetics 505-508 excluded groups 506 genetic diversity 505, 507, 514 genetic fragmentation 507, 508 genetic summary, population 506 inbreeding/relatedness avoidance

507-508, 514 paternity determination 497,

505-506 pedigree analysis 505 summary 506 wild-caught animal input

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