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Annual Technical Meeting for Giant

Pandas 25, 26 anorexia 401

geriatric animals 368 anovulatory endocrine profile 211 anthropogenic stress see stress anti-inflammatory medication

368-370 appetite, reduced, in geriatric animals 368 artificial insemination see AI ascarid infection (Baylisascaris schroederi) 78-79, 364-365, 366, 388, 388

ascites (fluid accumulation) 367, 394, 416, 418-419, 438 see also abdominal effusions assisted breeding 469, 470-471

see also AI atropine see anaesthesia avoidance, stress 302-303

and enclosure size 299 AZA (American Zoo and Aquarium Association) 20

bacteria diarrhoea see enteritis, haemorrhagic/bacterial diarrhoea microbial symbionts 104 pathogens 366 see also infection baiji river dolphin population, habitat viability assessment 25 bamboo 101, 102, 113-115 digestion 108-113, 388 logistics of supply 124-125,

281, 295 nutritional constituents 115 as primary food 129-130

protein 123 selective intake 105 species consumed 115 see also food; nutrition Bashania fargesii 113 see also bamboo

Baylisascaris schroederi 78-79, 364-365,

366, 388, 388 behaviour aggressive see aggressive behaviour repetitive see stereotypies behavioural conditioning see operant conditioning behavioural deficits biomedical survey 40, 49 and cub rearing practices 334 behavioural homeostasis 302 behavioural management strategies, Wolong Center abnormal behaviours 276-277 behavioural signs of oestrus 287 conservation initiatives/ reintroduction 296 cross-disciplinary studies 296 data gathering 295-296 empty time 282 ethological needs model of motivation 276 future priorities 294-296 improved captive breeding success 275-276 natural mating/cub rearing aims 275 olfactory management 286 reproduction in the wild 274 reproductive behaviour studies 287 scientific application, value of 294 social traits relevant to reproduction 285-286 stereotypies 276-277, 277

and suboptimal enclosures 276

targeting needs 274-275 see also environmental enrichment; mating introductions ; neonatal management; operant conditioning behavioural responses to stress 304-305, 306-307 assessment 302-303 avoidance 302-303 conserve-withdraw response 302 and enclosure size 299

fight-flight response 302 measuring 301-302 monitoring 305-307, 307-309, 308, 307-311 behavioural survey data 92-96, 92-96 behavioural traits see life history/

behavioural traits Beijing Zoo 25

Berlin Zoo, ultrasound health assessments 411, 411-417 AI guided/post-breeding monitoring 415, 428, 428-431, 429 anaesthesia 411 for ascites removal 416 for catheterisation 415-416 conscious assessment 411-412 drawing of female urinogenital tract 419, 424 to determine ovarian functioning 416 for general health assessment

416-417 pancreatitis 416, 417 prostate gland, presence 425 reproductive assessments, females 419, 419-422 reproductive assessments, males

424, 424-428 transabdominal 411 transcervical (for AI) 415 transcutaneous/transrectal 414, 414 biodiversity 539 biological data see data biomaterials, minimal export 34, 247 biomedical approach, need for 32 biomedical survey, reproductive success in captivity 245, 365, 462, 499, 499-500 anaesthesia 40

behavioural deficiencies 40, 49 biomaterials, minimal export 34 communication/translation 38 conclusions 52

cross-cultural learning/working

34, 53-54, 521-522 data/information 37, 52, 53 disease monitoring 53 factors limiting 38 funding/donors 38-40, 40 future priorities 52-54 genetic management plan 53 genetic over-representation 48, 48 historical/behavioural data collection 43-44

biomedical survey, reproductive success in captivity (cont.) implementation 33-35 leadership 33

management, population 37-38 measuring stress in wild pandas 53 MOU (memorandum of understanding) 34, 40, 54-58 nutrition survey 43 participating institutions/

investigators 38-39 physical examination 41-43 planning 32 radio-collars ban 53 reintroduction 53 reporting/sharing results 34 reproductive potential 44-45 respect for hosts 34 results 44-46 rules/guidelines 34-35 semen collection 41 skills diversity 38, 52-54 skin biopsy 41

Stunted Development Syndrome

SC, 50-51 suboptimal nutrition 49-50 team diversity 34 testicular hypoplasy/atrophy

51-52 timing 40 tattooing 41, 42

transponder chipping 40-41, 42 unknown paternity 46, 47, 53 blindfolding 357 blood pressure see hypertension/

epistaxis blood sampling avoiding stress of 224-225 without sedation 355 brain function, effects of environmental enrichment 294-295 breeding 3-4

behaviour and management working group, CBSG 30 behavioural management strategies 287, 287 and behavioural traits see life history/behavioural traits delayed 338-339, 348 historical perspectives see historical perspectives on breeding male breeding history, morphometric/testicular traits 160-161, 171, 171-174

vs non-breeding males 176,

176-179 programmes 456, 512-514 recommendations see demographic/genetic trends analysis self-sustainability goal 59-60, 85,

245-246, 456, 527 success in captivity see biomedical survey; success (captive breeding) wild vs. captive males 176, 176,

499, 499-500 see also aggression; endocrinology (reproductive hormones); pregnancy; reproductive biology cage restraint 354 squeeze 232 Canoidea socialization studies 334 capacitation, sperm 169-171, 170, 485 captive animals see ex situ population captive management working group,

CBSG 378 carbohydrates 121-122 carcinoma, squamous cell 81 cardiac disease 402, 402-403 caregivers, human 317 cat socialization, domestic 345-346 catarrhal/mucus excretion 387-388 catastrophe modelling 511 catheterisation, semen collection

415-416 CAZG (Chinese Association of

Zoological Gardens) 23-31, 39, 524

CBSG see Conservation Breeding

Specialist Group Cervus programme 250-251 charisma, giant panda 299, 521 cheetah biomedical survey 19-22 anaesthesia 20-21 methodological challenges 20 reproductive inefficiency 19-20 Cheetah Species Survival Plan

(SSP) 20 Chengdu Base of Giant Panda Breeding 23, 39, 440 Laboratory of Genetics and

Reproductive Studies 247 sperm cryobiology 485, 485, 485-490 chewing/mastication, feeding enrichment strategies 281-282, 282, 295

China Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda see Wolong Center China Wildlife and Conservation

Association 524 Chinese Association of Zoological

Gardens (CAZG) 23-31, 39, 524 Chinese goal of independence, conservation 536 location, training courses 536 Chongqing Zoo 39 chromic shifts 242 clinical pathology 65-66, 68, 68-72

see also diseases/pathology cold storage, sperm see sperm cryopreservation colic 366

colitis, catarrhal/ulcerative 387-388 collaborating organisations endocrinology 200 paternity assessment 247 see also partnerships colonoscopy 451, 451-452 colostrum 320-321, 330-331, 384 colour-flow imaging 437 Columbus Zoo 39 communication/translation biomedical survey 38 open see databases/knowledge collection; partnerships computer analysis (Cervus programme) 250-251 computerised record-keeping 96 conditioning see operant conditioning conservation

'conservation assessment and research techniques' CBSG workshop 528 future priorities 536-539 goals 299 habitat loss 4-5 hedge/insurance role of ex situ population 527-528 in situ 455

initiatives, and behavioural management strategies 296 multidisciplinary nature 523-524 role of zoos 523 training/information sharing needs 528 see also in situ population (status/ threats); partnerships Conservation Breeding Specialist

Group (CBSG) of IUCN 19, 39, 462 baiji river dolphin population 25 biomedical approach, need for 32

captive management working group 378 consensus/conclusions 31-32 demographics working group 28-29

genome resource bank 30 goals 28

health/disease priorities 377 masterplan for captive giant pandas 25 mortality, veterinary and nutrition working group 30-31, 378 reproduction, behaviour and management working group 30 role 23-31

South China tiger captive breeding management plan 25 team members 25-26 see also workshop proceedings conserve-withdraw response 302 cooperative strategies see partnerships corticosteroids 217, 217-219, 224-225 RIA 206

courses, training see training courses creatine assessment/fluid balance

203-204 cross-cultural learning/working, biomedical survey 34, 53-54, 521-522 see also partnerships cross-disciplinary studies 296, 438

see also partnerships cross-fostering 343-344, 344, 347 crowds, human see noise stress cryopreservation, sperm see sperm cryopreservation cubs see neonatal management/ neonates cultural/international collaboration see cross-cultural learning/ working; see also partnerships cytology, vaginal see vaginal cytology CWCA (China Wildlife and

Conservation Association) 524

databases/knowledge collection application to in situ pandas 525 biomedical information 84, 375,

406-407 biomedical survey 37, 43-44,

52, 53 capacity building development 536 improving overall 465-466

databases/knowledge collection (cont.) information survey, historical 88, 88 lack, wild pandas 6 mutual information sharing 535 reasons for knowledge increase 521, 521-522, 522-523, 539 record-keeping 96, 349 sharing/cooperation 85, 463,

528, 535 species-specific 525-527 see also partnerships; studbooks; training Davis, D. D. 378

decision tree, mating 287, 287, 294 decondensation, sperm 169-171,

170, 485 delayed breeding 338-339, 348 demodecosis 77, 77, 365, 404 demographic/genetic trends analysis 495-497

adaptation to captive environment, avoiding 514 changing demographics in ex situ population 497-502 cooperative strategies 516-518 demographic vs genetic priorities

514-516 excluded groups 506 fecundity 498, 498-499,

500, 500-502 genetic diversity 505, 507, 514 genetic fragmentation 507, 508 genetic management workshop 496 genetic summary, population 506 global captive breeding programme requirement 512-514 heterozygosity 513 inbreeding in managed vs unmanaged populations 508 inbreeding/relatedness avoidance

507, 507-508, 514, 517 life table projections 503-504 management groups 517-518 metapopulation management

512, 513 methodology 497 paternity determination 497,

505-506 paternity uncertainties, resolving 516 pedigree analysis 505 population genetics 505-508 population increases 496, 498, 498

productivity/genetic management strategies 514, 516 sexual incompatibility 499 software 497, 508 Species Survival Plan (SSP) 496 studbooks 495-496, 516 survival 502-503, 503 wild/captive reproductive success

499, 499-500 wild-caught animal input 506-507

wild panda sperm collection 513 see also population modelling demographics working group, CBSG 28-29

dental adaptations 102, 102, 380-381 dental disease 76-77, 373, 373-374 antibacterial therapy 374 see also oral pathology depression, emotional 401 development, stunted see Stunted

Development Syndrome diabetes insipidus 400-401 diarrhoea, haemorrhagic/bacterial

390, 390-392 diet see bamboo; food; nutrition digestive system 386

adaptations 102-105, 378-380, 379 allergies 393-394 ascites 394

colitis, catarrhal/ulcerative

387-388 dietary factors 388 digestive capabilities 108,

108-113 disorders 366 microbial symbionts 104 mucus excretion 104, 387-388 mixing 113 pancreatitis 366 rates of transit 112-113, 113,

118-124 vomiting 393

see also enteritis; oral cavity pathology; parasites; viral diseases diseases/pathology 377-378

abdominal effusions 75, 75-76 ascites (fluid accumulation) 367 cardiac 402, 402-403 clinical pathology 65-66, 68,

68-72 colic 366

demodecosis 77, 404 diabetes insipidus 400-401 and emotional factors 401 fits/seizures 401, 402

future priorities 406-407 infectious disease research 466 monitoring, biomedical survey 53 multi-systemic illness 392 musculoskeletal system 404 neurological system 401-402 ocular system 404-406 and reintroductions into wild

377-378 respiratory system 403 testicular hypoplasia 79, 79-81 uterine/cervical infection 81, 81 veterinary training priorities 378 see also anatomy/physiology; digestive system; geriatric animals; medical issues/ management; neonatal pathology; parasites; renal system; reproductive

Stunted Development Syndrome; viral disease 364

distribution see population n diversity, genetic see genetic diversity DNA extraction 248, 248-249 DNA sequencing 248 see also genotyping dolphin populations, habitat viability assessment 25 domestic carnivores, socialization 336 domestic cat socialization 345-346 duodenoscopy 449-451

early socialization see rearing;

socialization E. coli 390

educational value, ex situ population 11-12

electroejaculation 360, 415-416 see also sperm/semen embryonic mortality/abortion 395 emotional factors, and health 401 empty time behavioural management strategies 282 enclosures size 279-280 and stress 299

structural complexity/choice options 280, 280-281, 295 suboptimal 276 visits by cubs 319-320 see also environmental enrichment; housing endangered species see in situ (wild) population, status/threats endocrine profiles androgen, males 219, 219-221 anovulatory breeding season 211 peri-oestrual 208-209, 209 pregnancy 209-210, 211 pubertal oestrus 211 endocrinology, reproductive hormones animals studied 2GG collaborating organisations 200 delayed implantation 198 endocrine profiles see above gestation span 198 monitoring and management

226-227 oestrus, behavioural changes 198 pregnancy, behavioural changes 198 pseudopregnan^ 198-199 see also urine/faecal hormone measurements endomyocardial fibrosis 402 402-403

endoscopy, gastrointestinal 440-441 anaesthesia 442-443 animals evaluated 441 colonoscopy 451, 451-452 correlations with specific histories 453 duodenoscopy 449-451 enemas 442 equipment 443-444 fasting 441

future priorities 452-453 gastric ulcers 448, 44S, 452 gastroscopy 447-449,

44S, 452 laparoscopy 440 methodology 441-444 oesophagoscopy 444-446 preparation 441, 441-442 results/discussion 444-452 veterinary staff training 453 wider use of technique 453 endotracheal intubation 35S,

358-359 enemas 442

enrichment, environmental see environmental enrichment enteritis, haemorrhagic/bacterial diarrhoea 390, 390-392 dietary modifications 390 E. coli 390

and multi-systemic illness 392 oral inoculation 390

environmental enrichment diet supplementation/enrichment strategies 281-282, 282, 295 effects on health/brain function 294-295

ensuring bamboo supply 281, 295 implementation 466-469 measuring 284-285, 294 novel items 284

observing natural situation 277 tailored programmes 295 temporal feeding pattern alterations 283-284 see also enclosures enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) 207-208 oestrogen conjugate EIA 207 progestin EIA 207-208 RIA vs EIA 204 escape response see avoidance Escherischia coli 390 ethograms, stress 307, 307 ethological needs model of motivation 276 see also behavioural management strategies Euler equation 503-504 ex situ (captive) population changing demographics 497-502

first cub 455, 457

global breeding programme requirement 512-514 hedge/insurance role 527-528 masterplan 25 reproductive success see reproductive success in captivity status/threats to 9-11 as threat to in situ population 6-7

value see below ex situ population, value 11-14 ambassadorial 11 educational 11-12 funding 12-13 insurance 12 research 13 unknown 13-14 Western 7-9 excretion mucus 104, 128, 130, 387-388 neonates 325, 329-330, 330 see also faeces; urinary/faecal hormone measurements export/import biomaterials, avoiding 34, 247 policies 522 extinction risk 511-512

eye 404-406

examinations without sedation 355

and UV radiation 405

faeces 126, 126-128 analysis 268, 270 hormone analysis 204, 213, 213 see also urinary/faecal hormone measurements mucus excretion 104, 128, 130,

387-388 neonates 325, 329-330, 330 Fargesia spathacea 113 see also bamboo fasting, for endoscopy 441 fat 123

fecundity 498, 498-499, 500 age-specific 500, 500-502 see also demographic/genetic trends analysis feeding/nutrition, neonates 128-129, 318, 320-327 apparatus 323-324 colostrum 320-321, 330-331,

331, 384 formula milk 321, 321-323, 323

see also hand rearing maternal milk 321 position 316, 325-326 regimes 325, 325-326 transitions 326-327 tube feeding compromised infants 324-325 weaning onto solids 326-327 see also food (adults); nutrition females gonadotrophin-treated/untreated females 213, 213-217, 217 ultrasound health assessments 419, 419-422, 422, 422-424 urinogenital tract 419, 424 see also maternal behaviour;

pregnancy; vaginal cytology fertility onset, male 194 fibre, dietary 121-122 and health 388 lignin 111

supplementation/feeding enrichment strategies 281-282, 282, 295 fight-flight response 302 fighting, play 338, 338, 348 see also aggression financial issues see funding fluid accumulation see ascites balance, assessment 203-204

foetal development 438 food, adults geophagia 115-117 intake 105, 105-108 lignin 111

non-bamboo foods 115-117, 124,

125-126 sources, wild pandas 6 timing alterations 283-284 see also bamboo; feeding (neonates); nutrition formula milk 321, 321-323, 323 founders 506-507 fragmentation, genetic 507, 508 freezing/frozen sperm see sperm cryopreservation funding biomedical survey 38-40, 40 loans, panda 537-538 and panda charisma 522-523 value of ex situ population 12-13 future priorities 14 AI 490-491

alternative anaesthetic approaches 375 behavioural competencies for reintroduction 98 behavioural management strategies 294-296, 469 capacity building programme development 536 colour-flow imaging 437 computerised record-keeping 96 conservation/reintroduction 296,

536-539 continuing routine medical examinations 84 cooperation/partnerships 296,

407, 536-539 cub rearing management 87-88, 97-98

data gathering 84, 295-296, 375,

406-407 demographic 516-518 diet/nutrition 129-130 diseases 85, 377, 406-407 disease monitoring 53 endoscopy, gastrointestinal

452-453 enhanced reproductive representation 462-465 enrichment, implementation 295,

466-469 establishing successful breeding traits 98

foetal development studies 438 genetic management planning 53 genome banks 194, 270,

492-493 improve overall health knowledge 465-466 infectious disease research 466 increase cub survival 465 information/technology sharing/

transfer 85 life history/behavioural traits 96-99

loans, North American zoos

536-537 male seasonality studies 194 measuring stress in wild pandas 53 medical management 374-375 microsatellite analysis, faecal/hair samples 268, 270 miniaturisation, instruments 437 neonatal management 331-332 onset of male fertility studies 194 operant conditioning 368, 375 optimising use of frozen-thawed sperm 193-194 ovulation-determination, ultrasound 438 paternity assessment 268-271 pregnancy diagnosis 438 rearing practices 347-349 record-keeping 349 reintroduction 53 reproductive biology 52-54,

193-194 species-specific instruments 437 speed up research progress

469-470 Stunted Development Syndrome 83, 438

testicular hypoplasia/atrophy studies 194 ultrasound use 437-438 urinary/faecal hormone measurements 221-226 vaginal cytology 241-242

gastric ulcers 448, 448, 452 gastrointestinal distress 387-388

see also digestive system gastrointestinal endoscopy see endoscopy General Adaptation Syndrome 301

genetic diversity 505, 507, 514 and AI 491

Laboratory of Genomic Diversity,

USA 248 maintenance goal 246 see also heterozygosity;

inbreeding/relatedness genetic/s fragmentation 507, 508 management 53, 492-493, 496 over-representation 48, 48 see also genetic diversity; heterozygosity; inbreeding/ relatedness population see population genetics see also demographic/genetic trends genome resource banks (GRBs) 183-184, 270, 469, 485 Action Plans 492 CBSG 30

developing 194, 270

global management plans 493

strategies/facilities for genetic management 492-493 wild male sperm banking 493 see also semen cryopreservation genotyping facility, development of 247-248, 248 training seminar 248 geophagia 115-117 geriatric animals 353-354, 367-368 anorexia/reduced appetite 368 dental disease 373, 373-374 operant conditioning 368 quality of life 368, 370, 374, 375 see also hypertension/epistaxis; osteoarthritis; renal insufficiency gestation span 198 giant panda

Annual Technical Meeting for

Giant Pandas 25, 26 biological data/tools collection, species-specific 525, 525-527 captive see ex situ population characteristics charisma/uniqueness fascination

1-3, 299, 521 current distribution 463, 463 emblem of fragile biodiversity 539 as endangered species see in situ (wild) population, status/ threats as flagship for cooperation 539 Genome Resource Bank (GRB) 183

iconic status 1

in situ see wild population juveniles/cubs see neonatal management population see population range map, wild populations survival, demographic trends

502-503, 503 wild see in situ population GRBs see genome resource banks habitat loss, wild pandas 4-5 hair samples analysis 268, 270 hand rearing 292, 315-316

abandonment 315 caregivers 317 housing/environmental requirements 317, 317 illness/injury 316 incubators 316, 318-319 malpositioning 316 maternal milk supply, inadequate 316 multiple births/twins 316 nursery admittance 316 skin coloration 316 transition housing 319 visits to adult enclosures 319-320 vocalisation/activity levels 316 see also feeding (neonates); neonatal management; rearing; socialization health effects of environmental enrichment 294-295 and emotional factors 401 improve knowledge 465-466 priorities 377 see also diseases/pathology heterozygosity 513 table 251

see also genetic diversity; inbreeding/relatedness historical information survey 88, 88 historical perspectives on breeding 160, 455-456 AI 458, 461

behaviour management/operant conditioning 469 biomedical survey 43-44 conservation in situ 455 current distribution 463, 463 enhanced reproductive representation 462-465 enrichment, implementation 466-469

first ex situ cub 455, 457

future priorities 462

improve overall health knowledge

465-466 infectious disease research 466 male aggression 458 mentoring 463

neonatal mortality 1963-2002

457, 460-461 oestrus failure 458 refusal to mate 458

1963-1989 456-458 1990 to present 460-462 partnerships/collaboration

461-462 population 1936-2003 458 resource/knowledge sharing/

cooperation 463 speed up progress 469-470 self-sustainability goal, ex situ breeding programmes 456 homeostasis, behavioural 302 hormones see corticosteroids;

endocrinology; urinary/faecal hormone measurements hookworms 389

housing/environmental requirements, hand reared cubs 317, 317 transition housing 319 see also enclosures hunting, wild pandas 6 hyper-aggression/misdirection of aggression in captivity 346, 348 see also aggression hypertension/epistaxis 372-373 and ketamine anaesthesia 372 taking readings 354, 372, 372 hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity (HPA) measures 301-302

illness see diseases/pathology immune system underdevelopment, cubs 384 immunisation see vaccination immunoassays 204 RIA vs EIA 204

see also enzyme immunoassays (EIAs); radioimmunoassays (RIAs)

import see export/import in situ (wild) population biological data 525 biomedical survey 53 vs captive males, reproductive success 176, 176, 245, 499, 499-500

conservation 455 endangered see below input to gene pool 506-507 maternal behaviour 293, 339-340 sexual behaviour 274 sperm banking 493, 513 see also reintroduction to wild in situ (wild) population, status/threats to 4-7

from ex situ (captive) population 6-7

food sources 6 habitat loss 4-5 hunting 6 information lack 6 inbreeding/relatedness avoidance 507-508, 514, 517 genetic estimation 251, 268 managed vs unmanaged populations 508 see also genetic diversity; heterozygosity incubators 316, 318-319 inexperienced animals AI for 490

delayed breeding 338-339, 348 maternal skills 343, 347,

348-349 see also mentoring infection bacterial pathogens 366 neonates 384, 384-386 parasitic see parasites reproductive tract 395 uterine/cervical 81, 81 see also diseases/pathology infertile animals, evaluating 241 information see databases/knowledge collection inoculation see vaccination insemination methodology see AI insurance value, ex situ population 12 interdisciplinary studies, behavioural management strategies 296 see also partnerships international learning/working, biomedical survey 34, 521-522

see also partnerships intubation see anaesthesia isoflurane see anaesthesia IUCN (World Conservation Union Species Survival Commission) see Conservation Breeding Specialist Group

Japan (Adventure World) 202 jaw/dental modifications 102, 102, 380-381

ketamine see anaesthesia kidneys see renal system; urinogenital tract kinship 510, 515

minimisation strategy 514-516 knowledge see databases/knowledge collection labelling, avoiding 348 Laboratory of Genomic Diversity,

USA 248 laparoscopy 63, 440 leadership, biomedical survey 33 learning see inexperienced animals ;

see also mentoring libido, lack see sexual behaviour life history/behavioural traits, and breeding success aggression 87, 94-96, 97, 98 behavioural characteristics 87-88

behavioural survey data 92-96, 92-96

computerised record-keeping 96 cub rearing management 87-88, 97-98

distribution by location, gender and origin 92 establishing behavioural competencies for reintroduction 98 establishing successful breeding traits 98 future priorities 96-99 gender and origin of animals surveyed 94 historical data results 91-92, 93 historical information survey 88, 88

keeper survey of behavioural traits 88-91, 89-90 short oestrus period 87 life table projections 503-504 lignin 111

loans, North American zoos 536-537

funding 537-538 lordotic posture, failure 339

male/s aggression see aggression breeding history, morphometric/ testicular traits 160-161,171, 171-174

breeding vs non-breeding 176,

176-179 fertility onset 194 prostate gland, presence 425 seasonality studies 194, 346, 348 ultrasound health assessments 424, 424-428, 428 management in China 22-23, 25, 26 CBSG working group 378 genetic 53, 246, 492-493, 496 genetics workshop 496 groups, demographic/genetic trends analysis 517-518 nutritional 124-126 olfactory 286 population 37-38 see also aggressive behaviour management; medical issues/ management; neonatal management mange, demodectic 77, 77, 365, 404 mastication, feeding enrichment strategies 281-282, 282, 295 maternal behaviour, and cub rearing practices 334, 342-343 critical timeframe determination

343, 348 cross-fostering 343-344, 344, 347 later learning of maternal skills

343, 347, 348-349 over four month cub-dam separation 342, 347 premature (under four month) cub-dam separation 342-343, 349 prolonged dependency 342, 348 maternal behaviour, other animals 340-341

maternal behaviour, wild pandas 293 mating aggression see aggression ; aggressive behaviour management assessing AI vs natural 263-266 behavioural management strategies 275 decision tree 287, 287, 294 incompatibility 470, 499 introduction of animals for

287-292 lordotic posture failure 339 mounting positions 290 multi-male mating strategies in captivity 340, 348-349 natural/ AI combined 263-266, 474, 479, 484

problems and cub rearing practices see sexual behaviour refusal see sexual behaviour, lack of libido separation 292

timing, monitoring see vaginal cytology see also breeding; reproductive biology; sexual behaviour mean kinship see kinship measurements, body see morphometrics medical issues/management, captive populations animals surveyed 60 breeding trauma 367 common medical problems of adults 365-367 continuing routine examinations 84 cooperative programmes 353 data collection 84, 331, 375 disease identification/

management 85 future priorities 82-83, 374-375 identification, permanent 63-64 information/technology sharing/

transfer 85 interdisciplinary approach 59 laparoscopy 63, 440 morphometric methods/results

64-65, 68, 68 operant conditioning 368, 375 procedural techniques 61-63 self-sustainability goal 59-60, 85 semen collection 66 ultrasound 62-63 see also anaesthesia; disease/

pathology; geriatric animals; neonatal management; preventive medicine; restraint with no sedation; stunted development syndrome medication anti-helmintics 365 NSAID 368-370 Mellen, Jill 25

memorandum of understanding

female maternal skills 343, 347, 348-349

multi-male mating strategies 340,

348-349 see also inexperienced animals Mexico, Zoológico de Chapultepec 202

microchip transponders 63-64 microbial symbionts 104 microsatellite analysis, faecal/hair samples 268, 270 milk collection without sedation 354 formula 321, 321-323, 323 inadequate 316 maternal 321 Miller, Philip 25

missionary approach, avoiding 34,

521-522 morphometrics 64-65, 68, 68 and diet/nutrition 126 male breeding/testicular traits

160-161, 171, 171-174 neonates 327, 327-328, 328 mortality, veterinary and nutrition working group, CBSG 30-31, 378 see also neonatal mortality motivation, ethological needs model 276 see also behavioural management strategies MOU (memorandum of understanding), biomedical survey 34, 40, 54-58 mounting positions 290

lordotic posture 339 mucus excretion, digestive 104, 128,

130, 387-388 multi-disciplinary nature of conservation work 523-524

skills diversity, biomedical survey 38, 52-54 musculoskeletal system 404

National Conservation Management

Plan for China 377 natural

/combined mating 263-266, 474, 479, 484

conditions, approximating to 277 see also enclosure design; environmental enrichment nature reserves 455 neonatal management/neonates 292-294

birth weights 327

body weight/growth monitoring

327, 327-328, 328 database 331

excreta 325, 329-330, 330 future priorities 331-332 immunoglobulin transfer

320-321, 330-331 medical issues 330-331

neonatal management/neonates (cont.) natural/dam rearing 292-293 peer exposure 293, 348 placentation, endotheliochorial 330 and reintroduction to wild 293 temperature monitoring

328-329 twin swapping 316, 330 twins 293-294 weaning 293 wild panda maternal behaviour 293 see also altricial offspring; feeding/nutrition ; hand rearing; rearing; socialization neonatal mortality embryonic mortality/abortion 395

1963-2002 457 reducing 460-461, 465 neonatal pathology 383-386 bacterial infection 330, 384,

384-386 and hand rearing 316 immune system underdevelopment 384 post-weaning stress 294 twinning 383 neurological system 401-402

fits/seizures 401, 402 noise stress, anthropogenic 303-305

analysis of impact, methodology

303-304 charisma/crowd attraction 299 ethograms 307, 307 findings 311 hypotheses tested 311 independent variables/stressors

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