Unique Parrot Training Ebooks

The Ultimate Guide To Raising Parrots

Here's just a taste of what you'll discover. A complete guide to the parrot cage and how to easily maintain a healthy environment. The 5 things you must do before placing your parrot in his new home. What to feed your parrot and what not to give him! There is a ton of inaccurate info out there. I'll tell you the truth so you never have to wonder again! How to care for a single parrot and more than one! Why your parrot is squawking at you! You may be surprised to learn the answer to this. How to choose a healthy parrot from the store there are little known things to look for that the pet store owner's don't want you to know! The surefire signs of parrot illness that will tell you if your parrot needs medical attention. An entire chapter devoted to parrot illnesses and cures. Your parrot has the potential to completely recover from an illness, but it's not how you think. I'll show you the truth about curing your parrot. What species of parrots are more likely to learn to talk than others. A complete guide to all the accessories your parrot needs to be happy in his new home. A complete parrot first aid kit. This is an important one! The supplies in this kit just may save your parrots life! Where you should never place your parrot cage in your house. Put it here and it just might kill him! What to do if your parrot does get sick. There are several very important steps on caring for a sick parrot before you have the chance to take him to the vet. Just how many species you have to choose from in the parrot world. Probably a lot more than you think. The one location you should never place your parrots cage. Put his home here and youre nearly guaranteeing that hell develop emotional and physical problems. A crash course on parrot behavior. Knowing whats normal and healthy behavior and whats not! can help you provide the best possible care for your parrot. All about feeding your parrot, including tips on varying his diet to make sure his intestinal tract stays healthy. More here...

The Ultimate Guide To Raising Parrots Summary


4.6 stars out of 11 votes

Contents: Ebooks
Author: Michael Joseph
Official Website: www.learnaboutparrots.com
Price: $19.97

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My The Ultimate Guide To Raising Parrots Review

Highly Recommended

I've really worked on the chapters in this ebook and can only say that if you put in the time you will never revert back to your old methods.

My opinion on this e-book is, if you do not have this e-book in your collection, your collection is incomplete. I have no regrets for purchasing this.

Unique Parrot Training Ebooks

Here are the four ebooks that you will find in Parrot Secrets and the essential Parrot knowledge you will find in each digital book. Book One : How to Get Your Parrot To Talk And Do Astonishing Tricks. Mute as a fish? Discover the best way to inspire your Parrot to talk more. How to use an under-estimated old powerful training technique that has just been rediscovered in the Parrot world. the Positive Reinforcement Technique. that will help you tremendously to teach your Parrot to say the funniest stuff in front of your friends and family, perhaps even within a few days or hours! Book Two : How To Get My Parrot To Love Me Some Basics To Start. Discover this expert bird training author's personal favorite solution on how to fix your Parrot's behavioral problems, that your Parrot will Love!. Lovingly Stop The Screaming! Watch the amount of light your Parrot gets. Exactly how many hours of sunlight should your Parrot get every day? Giving it more than the recommended number of hours of sunlight can make your Parrot start screaming! Right now, you could very well be unknowingly giving your Parrot much more sunlight than what it should be getting!. Does your Parrot scream? Or are you afraid that your Parrot might start screaming in the future? Find out more about a brilliant new technique to prevent your Parrot from screaming. You will also read about a real-life case study in which a bird that used to regularly scream upwards of 45 minutes at a stretch every day was trained to stop screaming altogether! How should you react to a screaming Parrot?. see the most common mistakes most Parrot owners make that only make this worse! Ook Three : A Happy Parrot Diet. A shiny, smart Parrot tip .How you can turn your Parrot into a glossy-looking, intelligent and bright bird just by modifying its diet. 11 secret psychological tricks (currently known only by the Top experts in this field) you can use to persuade and convince your Parrot to try a new and improved diet rich in nutrients even if your bird is extremely reluctant to shift to the new diet!. Too many seeds? What is the maximum percentage of your Parrot's diet that should be composed of seeds? If you exceed this percentage, it can have really harmful consequences for the health of your bird! Give 'em power veggies! What are the 2 vegetables that Must be included in your Parrot's diet? . Book Four : How To Choose Your First Parrot Wisely. The 5 different types of sellers where you can buy a Parrot. and how to choose which place is the best for You. Effective research tips. How to research before deciding on getting a Parrot. The 4 crucial store questions that you must ask any store from which you buy your Parrot . More here...

Unique Parrot Training Ebooks Summary

Contents: Ebook
Author: Nathalie Roberts
Official Website: www.parrotsecrets.com
Price: $39.95

Psittaciformes Parrots

Fossil Psittaciformes have been known for a long time from the Neogene of the Northern Hemisphere, and the specimens are morphologically very similar to extant parrots (Mhkovsky 1998b Mayr and G hlich 2004). Only in the last two decades, however, Paleogene stem group representatives were identified, all of which stem from European fossil sites. No representatives of crown group Psittaciformes are known from Paleogene fossil deposits. On the basis of a single humerus, Waterhouse et al. (2008) reported a presumptive psittaciform bird from the early Eocene of the Danish Fur Formation. This species, which was named Mopsitta tanta, is clearly distinguished from crown group Psittaciformes, which have a stouter humerus with a more elongated dorsal tubercle and ventral condyle (contra Waterhouse et al. 2008). Apart from vaguely similar overall proportions, which can be quite misleading in the case of Paleogene birds, I can see no reasons for an assignment of the Danish fossil to the...

Why life before dinosaurs

In this book you'll discover some strange animals that lived in the sea half a billion years ago (one looked like a vacuum cleaner with teeth and five eyes). You'll find out about scorpion-like animals bigger than you, insects as big as parrots and spiders as big as cats (it's true ). You'll find out who, or what, your long-lost ancestors looked like, and whether we really did come from slime.

The Radiation Of Modern Birds

What of the 100 or more records of Neornithes that have been reported from the Cretaceous It turns out that most of these supposed earliest representatives of flightless birds, ducks, flamingos, pelicans, loons, woodpeckers and the like have been rejected mainly because the specimens are too incomplete to show diagnostic characters or, in some cases, were wrongly dated. So far, all Cretaceous records of palaeognaths have proved to be unacceptable (Hope, 2002).Among neog-naths, Hope (2002) and Dyke and Van Tuinen (2004) recognize valid specimens of Anseriformes (ducks and geese), Gaviiformes (loons) and Pelecaniformes (pelicans), and are less certain of possible representatives of Galliformes (game birds), Charadriiformes (shore birds), Procellariiformes (albatrosses and relatives) and Psittaciformes (parrots). Virtually all of these records are based on single bones, quite different from the quality of the record of non-neornithine birds in the Cretaceous.

The Impact of Passerines on the Diversity of Paleogene Avian Insectivores

For example, crown group Upupiformes either forage on the ground (Upupidae) or are specialized toward trunk-climbing (Phoeniculidae), whereas the Messelirri-soridae, as evidenced by their foot structure, seem to have been perching birds (Mayr 1998b). Within crown group Pici, the Picumninae and Picinae are specialized toward trunk-climbing and wood-pecking, the Indicatoridae mainly feed on beeswax, and toucans and many other Ramphastidae mostly eat fruits. By contrast and according to its bill morphology, the early Oligocene piciform Rupelramphastoides appears to have been a rather generalized insectivorous or omnivorous bird (Mayr 2006g). The Coliiformes exhibited a great diversity in the Eocene and, judging from their bill shape, included omnivorous or insectivorous species by that time (Houde and Olson 1992 Mayr and Peters 1998 Mayr 2001d), whereas the six modern species of mousebirds are mainly frugivorous. The cacique-like beak of Chascacocolius (Sect. 16.2.2) is a particularly...

FZygodactylidae and Passeriformes Passerines

Museum Natural History London Birds

From analyses of morphological data, the closest extant relatives of the Passeriformes were considered to be either the Piciformes or taxa of the non-monophyletic Coraciiformes (Manegold 2005 Livezey and Zusi 2007). Recent analyses of nuclear gene sequences, by contrast, resulted in a clade including the Passeriformes and Psittaciformes (Ericson et al. 2006 Hackett et al. 2008). This hypothesis is as yet not supported by independent gene loci. It is, however, of particular interest because of the fact that the Passeriformes can be shown to be the sister group of the Zygodactylidae, which were among the most abundant small birds in the Paleogene of the Northern Hemisphere. Both the Psittaciformes and the Zygodactylidae have zygodactyl feet, and if future studies support a close relationship to parrots, passerines may thus have evolved from an at least semi-zygodactyl ancestor.

Flightless Birds Palaeognathae

Flightless Birds The Pleistocene

There were at least ten species of moas (Figure 9.10(b)), which ranged in size from that of a turkey to heights of over 3 m. In recent molecular studies, where DNA has been recovered from their subfossil bones, it has been shown (Bunce et al., 2003) that the three 'species' of the moa Dinornis, distinguished by their size (small, medium, large) were wrongly identified. It turns out that the smaller ones were males and the larger females, and that there were in fact only two species, one on North Island and one on South Island. Moas fed on a variety of plants and, together with kiwis, flightless rails, ground parrots, geese and others, formed unique communities in the absence of mammals. After the arrival of polynesian settlers about ad 1250, it seems the moas were hunted to extinction in 100 years or less (Holdaway and Jacomb,2000).

Higher Level Phylogeny of Extant Birds

Hackett Phylogeny

Assemblage includes the Strigiformes (owls), Coliiformes (mousebirds), Trogoniformes (trogons), Piciformes, Passeriformes (passerines), Apodiformes, Caprimulgiformes, and Coraciiformes (Olson 1985 Mayr et al. 2003). Molecular analyses do not support a clade including these taxa, but the two analyses that form the basis of the cladogram in Fig. 3.1 congruently obtained a clade including the higher land birds, as well as the Falconiformes, Psittaciformes (parrots), and, certainly most unexpectedly, the Cariamidae (seriemas), which were traditionally assigned to the Gruiformes. At present, this clade, which also resulted from the analysis of Hackett et al. (2008), cannot be characterized with morphological apomorphies.

FPsittacopes and Allies

Molecular Clock Birds Fossil

To at least three different species, which are represented by three-dimensionally preserved skulls and bones of most major limb elements (Fig. 16.6 Mayr and Daniels 1998). All are very similar to the sparrow-sized P. lepidus, and closely resemble crown group Psittaciformes in their postcranial features. The slender tarsometatarsus exhibits an accessory trochlea for the retroverted fourth toe. As in the Quercypsittidae (Sect. 16.3.2) and extant Psittaciformes, but unlike in other zygodactyl birds except the Piciformes, this accessory trochlea is separated from the main trochlea by a distinct furrow (Mayr and Daniels 1998). The humerus of Psittacopes and its allies is less stout than that of crown group Psittaciformes and has a less protruding deltopectoral crest. The derived humerus morphology of extant parrots is functionally correlated to the large crop and weak furcula of these birds, and their ability for hovering flight over a short period of time (Stegmann 1964). The most...

Giving birth to convergence

The ability of birds to vocalize needs, of course, little emphasis twittering, booming, squawks, hooting, and melodious song are all familiar, as are the mimics, such as some parrots and the mynah birds. One African Grey I knew could produce a remarkable repertoire of sounds, including the Greenwich time pips with eerie accuracy and now, her companion Caroline Pond tells me, is well up with mobile phones and car alarms. And there are more poignant instances. Darwin, for example, in a section on the extinction of races and tribes remarks that 'Humboldt saw in South America a parrot which was the sole living creature that could speak a word of the language of a lost tribe.'170 Even so, we tend to regard bird mimics as simply amusing, and their songs as only incidentally beautiful and in reality vocal expressions of territorial demarcation and the urgent priorities of mate attraction. Perhaps so, but it transpires that in reality there are under-appreciated similarities between our...

Up up and away

One of the best things at a funfair, I think, is the bumper cars. You push your foot on the accelerator, the car lurches forward, and bump You smack into someone else. Strange as it may seem there is a link between bumper cars, mountain ranges, coal, electricity and . . . insects the size of large parrots


Hennig invented a rather complex terminology for cladistics, but some terms are commonly used, and should be mentioned. He called phylogenetically informative characters apomorphies, or derived characters (and distinguished them from plesiomorphies, the characters present in wider groups). Apomor-phies shared by two or more species are termed synapomorphies. Apomorphies are features that arose once only in evolution, and therefore diagnose all the descendants of the first organism to possess that new character. Synapomorphies of parrots, the bird Order Psittaciformes include the deep, hooked beak and the unusual foot in which two toes point forward and two back.


Hawaii saw the near-time extinctions of many birds, including a flightless gooselike duck, Thambetochen, and a flightless ibis, Apteribis, both named by Storrs Olson and Alexander Wetmore of the Smithsonian Institution. Other islands in the remote Pacific lost endemic parrots, pigeons, doves, megapodes or bush turkeys (Megapodius), and especially flightless rails (Gallirallus), as well as large invertebrates such as land snails.


Synapomorphy Bird Family

But what did Diatryma eat Witmer and Rose (1991) noted that the deep jaws and the curved beak are very similar to those of parrots and other seed-eaters, which are capable of delivering powerful bites to nuts and seeds. They argued, however, that Diatryma was much too big to be a seed-eater and its beak was designed for enormous biting forces. They suggested that it is much more likely that it was a flesh-eater, like the phorus-rhacids of South America (see Box 9.5), and that it fed on the diminutive mammals found with it, horses and other ungulates and monkeys. Andors (1995) disagreed and argued for herbivory. He noted that Diatryma lacks a hooked beak, as seen in other raptorial birds, and that as a galloanserine it belongs to a herbivorous clade. He argues that Diatryma crushed and sliced rank vegetation in the forests and savannas of early Eocene largely aquatic forms and a clade consisting of woodpeckers, songbirds and relatives. The other orders, from owls to pigeons and swifts...

Giant brains

Coefficient Encephalisation

In fact the evidence suggests otherwise, at least on this planet. To start with, there is strong evidence that among the primates those with bigger brains show more innovatory behaviours, social learning, and tool use, while among the birds those with greater behavioural flexibilities and adventurousness (or fewer neophobias) again have larger brains.89 This accords with the fact, returned to at various points below, that some monkeys, parrots, and crows are all markedly intelligent. So, too, of course, are the great apes, but at least in this case the fact that chimps, for example, have important parallels to human mentality is hardly surprising. To find striking similarities to human intelligence that might persuade the disinterested reader that such represents a general biological property likely to emerge on any suitable planet, we need to turn to the toothed whales (the odontocetes) and especially the dolphins.

Carolina Parakeet

Carolina Parakeet Sightings

Few animals have fascinated humanity for as long as the parrots and their relatives. Indigenous people in the tropics and people from Western societies alike covet these birds, One of the most tragic examples of how humans have actively exterminated one of these interesting birds is the tale of the Carolina parakeet, a beautiful bird and the only native parrot of the United States. Around 30 cm long and 250 g in weight, this colorful bird was very common in the eastern deciduous forests of the United States, and especially in the dense woodland skirting the many great rivers of this region. The birds normally lived in small groups, although larger flocks would gather in the presence of abundant food, and it was not unusual to see 200 to 300 birds in a brilliant, raucous gathering. Like so many other parrots, the Carolina parakeet was a monogamous, long-lived species that brooded two white eggs in the cavities of deciduous trees. During most of the day, the Carolina parakeet would...

What Is Encephalized

One problem with ratios is that they are not normally distributed and thus present a statistical problem for parametric statistics. Large ratios tend to get larger faster than do small ratios. For example, parrots and corvids may easily reach values of 20 in a Portmann ratio, while ducks vary only around 1.6. Log transformations of the ratios can solve the problem by compressing the skewed high values (Lefebvre et al., 1997). A second, more important, problem is that ratios may not entirely remove the confounding effect of body mass (Deacon, 1993). If we conclude, for example, that carnivory is associated with large brains and our estimate of relative brain size is confounded with body mass, there is a risk of type 1 error if carnivores also have larger bodies. In this case, the apparent brain-diet relationship could be a spurious effect of the brain-body and diet-body associations. A third problem is that ratios of variables whose relationship is not 1 to 1 will overestimate one end...

Once Proud Wings

The bodies of whales and sirenians abound in historical relics that we notice because they live in a very different environment from their land-dwelling ancestors. A similar principle applies to birds that have lost the habit and equipment of flight. Not all birds fly, but all birds carry at least relics of the apparatus of flight. Ostriches and emus are fast runners that never fly, but they have stubs of wings as a legacy from remote flying ancestors. Ostrich wing stubs, moreover, have not completely lost their usefulness. Although much too small to fly with, they seem to have some sort of balancing and steering role in running, and they enter into social and sexual displays. Kiwi wings are too small to be seen outside the bird's fine coat of feathers, but vestiges of wing bones are there. Moas lost their wings entirely. Their home country of New Zealand, by the way, has more than its fair share of flightless birds, probably because the absence of mammals left wide open niches to be...

Eye Size and Shape

Figure 6 plots axial diameter of the eye against head and body length in extant primates and birds. Tarsiers fall within the range of nocturnal birds, i.e., Strigiformes (owls), Caprimulgidae (nightjars), and Podargidae (frog-mouths). Most of the diurnal birds lying between the nocturnal bird and diurnal primate distributions are falconiforms (Hall, 2005). The rest of the diurnal birds are parrots, pigeons, and procellariform sea-birds, which fall among and below the primate distributions. Across nocturnal and diurnal birds, eye axial diameter is negatively allometric. However, the 95 confidence limits for the slope across nocturnal birds almost include 1.00 ( 0.99), a slope significantly steeper than that of primates.

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