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Sell Your Photos And Videos Online Summary


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Dr Sara Seager and the Search for Extrasolar Planets

Extrasolar planets are necessarily far away and thus difficult to detect The planets do not produce light, like stars do, and must be detected by their influences on the star they orbit. Before recent advances in telescopes, digital photography, and computer analysis, these planets could not be detected from Earth. In 1991 Alexander Wolszczan and Dale Frail at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory discovered the first real extrasolar planet. This planet is closely orbiting a pulsar star 978 light-years from Earth. A pulsar star constantly emits high levels of energetic radiation, so this new planet, which orbits at only 0.19 AU (closer to its star than Mercury is to ours), is extremely inhospitable to life. This planet is not an analog of Earth or of any of the other planets in this solar system. Dr. Seager is now a research scientist at the Carnegie Institute of Washington. To search for extrasolar planets Dr. Seager and her research team collect digital photos of a wide field of...

To Kill or Not to Kill

With the passing of time and the continued skepticism of the scientific community regarding the evidence presented by Krantz and others, many Bigfoot believers have come to the conclusion that the only way to prove the existence of the creature is to kill or capture a specimen. Even photographic evidence, in this digital age, can be easily manipulated. Waiting for another Frozen Man to show up at a sideshow is likewise a hopeless proposition. A specimen is required - not footprints, not eyewitness testimony, not references in folklore, not photographs or videotape, not prehistoric fossils of similar creatures - but a body, either living or dead. Indeed, some have said that, considering the problems inherent in capturing such an unpredictable creature, the researcher must be prepared to kill in lieu of live capture if push comes to shove. If we are dealing with a remnant population, a creature that is obviously endangered, then perhaps one of its number must be killed in order to save...

Disruptive Technology

In their 1995 article, Disruptive Technologies Catching the Wave, Harvard Business School professors Joseph Bower and Clayton Christensen define two categories of new technology sustaining and disruptive. Sustaining technology relies on incremental improvements to an already established technology. A good example is the conventional petrol engine used in automobiles the principle on which it works has not changed in over a hundred years, but a modern car engine is much more reliable and efficient than that of a 1908 model-T Ford. Disruptive technology, on the other hand, is a revolutionary technology that suddenly, and often unexpectedly, displaces an established technology. Take, for instance, the rapid market takeover by digital cameras at the expense of long-proven and firmly established film-photography technology. According to Bower and Christensen, disruptive technology initially often lacks refinement, appeals to a limited number of people, and may not yet have a proven...

C Image motion compensation

The first case deals with images of Miranda, a satellite of Uranus. Pictures were taken by Voyager 2 on January 24, 1986. Normally one considers the shutter action of a Vidicon camera an instantaneous event, much as the shutter action in a conventional photographic camera. This is not so, however, for several reasons. The problem of taking pictures of Miranda can be compared to the task of taking photographs of a speeding car with a telephoto lens under low light conditions and with a slow film. The light level at Uranus (19.2 Astronomical Units from the Sun) is only 1 368 of that available at the distance of Earth, while the Vidicon sensitivity corresponds to an ASA film rating of two. These factors require an exposure time of 15 s. The spacecraft moved with a speed of 17km s-1 through the Uranian system and the focal length of the narrow angle camera is 1.5 m. Substantial smear would have occurred if the camera pointing had not precisely followed Miranda during the exposure....

Establishing Workflow

Another use of the initial photography is to employ the photographs to establish a workflow scheme for the paleoimaging study. The paleoimager should be with the photographer as these images are obtained. For example, the paleoimager may point out a specific area or location that may work well for the placement of a portable darkroom. The photographs can later be used to explain and communicate the thought process behind the establishment of the workflow for the particular project. The photographs may also serve to provide an assessment of the relationship between and among structural features at the research site. Once the instrumentation is set up, additional workflow documentation is required. Another aspect of workflow as it relates to photography is the role of the photographer during the paleoimaging procedures. A good photographer knows what photographs are required and how to get those photographs without being intrusive. In fact, if it's a good photographer aware of and...

Painted line L cm width cm dd red no

Today in eight segments (Figure 9.30), the drawing was probably made with a finger dipped in paint or directly with a block of colouring material. The left extremity curves like the back-line of an animal (rump, spine). The coloured deposits left on the rugged surface mark its direction. Hitherto it had not been possible to see it, despite this same wall having been recorded and photographed from all angles. On the old photographs and in the publications, it never appears (Martin 1973 156). No other point of utilization of this painting is known at present, but it is necessary to recall here that several square metres of wall (original entrance and part of the gallery) have been destroyed.

Is There a Tenth Planet

.is soon as Tbmbaugh had discovered Pluto and reconfirmed it with new photographs, he resumed his systematic photographic survey in Cancer and Leo where he had left off. This self-assigned use of time was probably a good release of nervous energy because almost four weeks would pass between the moment he delightedly called across the hall to Lampland and the actual announcement of a ninth planet. However, said Tbmbaugh, I suspended blinking, thinking the search was over so I thought. I was getting tired of the tedious blinking anyway. 1

Environmental Satellites

Spot 1 was put into orbit in 1986 with the sponsorship of the French Space Agency (CNES). It was the first satellite of what is today a constellation of satellites that can take photographs of different places on the Earth at very high resolution. Spot 5 can scan the Earth from three different angles, which makes it possible to construct three-dimensional images. Today Spot 5 is a commercial satellite par excellence, contracted by a variety of firms for close-up images. For example, agricultural firms request very close-up images of land under cultivation, and petroleum companies can request images for oil and gas exploration. Landsat, another satellite for monitoring the environment, was launched in 1999 and offers images of lower resolution. Photographs Are Taken From Toulouse, France, depending on the meteorological forecast, the Spot Image programming teams make plans for the satellites to take images over the next 24 hours to obtain the photographs that are on order. Acquiring...

The Joys Of Lunar Orbit

Whether they had entered the descent orbit or were in the circular orbit that was a characteristic of the earlier expeditions, the crew had reached their quarry and, in most cases, could relax a little before the exertions of the next day undocking, separation, descent and landing, along with, perhaps, a trip on the lunar surface. This was time to get out a meal, look after the housekeeping of the CSM and take photographs - lots and lots of photographs.

A troubled road to space

Although Colima had not erupted since 1913, the imagery suggested that it had experienced a number of smaller, 'quieter' upheavals since that time. Columbia's crew also supplemented the MOMS-2 data with their own photographs, taken from hand-held Hasselblad and Linhof large-format cameras, which featured the redistribution of ash from Lascar Volcano in the Altiplano of Chile. This volcano had erupted on 20 April 1993, only six days before the Shuttle lifted off, and the photographs clearly picked up several plumes of wind-blown material.

Large painted sign L cm H cm g red no

Imperceptible traces were constantly detected at a specific point, when lighting was applied, without it ever being certain that they really existed. It was impossible to define anything when lighting and one's gaze were turned to them, as the painted lines seemed to melt into the wall. After a check with photographs taken with long-wave UV light, the image of a line was no longer in doubt. Detailed examination showed that it was probably not a vertical

The Use of Photography to Study Jupiter

Although film as a recording medium is completely objective, it does have its own shortcomings. It seems the seeing we discussed earlier plays havoc with film photography, especially when attempting to capture fine detail in small, planetary features. Older textbooks can be found that show photographs of Jupiter, Saturn, and Mars taken with the 5-m (200-in.) Hale Telescope at Mount Palomar on photographic

Brainfirsttheories of human evolution

Fig. 11.7 Two controversial hominid skulls of the early twentieth century (a) Piltdown man,found in 1912,and subsequently shown to be a hoax (b) the first skull of Australopithecus africanus, the Taung child, reported in 1925. (Modified from photographs.) Fig. 11.7 Two controversial hominid skulls of the early twentieth century (a) Piltdown man,found in 1912,and subsequently shown to be a hoax (b) the first skull of Australopithecus africanus, the Taung child, reported in 1925. (Modified from photographs.)

Documenting Procedures

Paleoimaging procedures should be shared with the scientific and academic communities in order to help validate, standardize, and demonstrate reproducible field methodology. A critical part of the field paleoimaging procedures naturally becomes photographic documentation. Photography is necessary to record the technological aspects of the research project. When coupled with images of the study context, photographs of the instruments used in that study are important in order to provide interested researchers with ideas of what types of paleoimaging tools work in what settings. For example, specific endoscopes are selected for specific endoscopic tasks. A small-diameter scope may be used when the opening into the cultural material is very small, while a very long endoscope (Figure 1.8) with supplementary illumination may be used to explore a tomb prior to excavation. The instruments used for each of these applications are unique. Photographs will provide a record of what instrument was...

The Lost Pictures of Mars

The Mariner 9 mission to Mars radioed back to Earth 7,232 photographs that revolutionized our knowledge about the planet. Many hundreds of these pictures were devoted to studying variable features, the time changes in the relative configurations of bright and dark markings on the surface of the planet now known to be due largely to wind-blown dust. We have found thousands of bright and dark streaks, beginning in local impact craters and stretching across tens of miles of Martian surface. They point in the direction of the prevailing winds. We think they are produced by high winds carrying dust out of the craters and depositing it on the surface beyond the crater ramparts. These streaks are natural wind-direction indicators and, perhaps, anemometers laid down on the Martian surface for our edification and delight. We have discovered dark irregular patches or splotches, mostly residing in the interiors of craters, which tend to lie on the leeward walls of the craters. Thus, the...

Special Photographic Techniques

Lighting techniques are also important for the paleophotographer. Portable adjustable lighting systems are used by paleophotographers to obtain macro- and nonmacro-photographs that are free from glare or flashback from strobes. Another lighting technique employed by the paleophotographer is to bring the light in from an angle, accentuating the subtle depth variations of the subject not seen on a photograph produced from straight on lighting. This lighting procedure is called raking. Raking can bring out important surface features on the cultural material, enhancing the data collected and increasing the interpretability (see Figure 1.15). In situations where no external light can be used, such as within a portable darkroom, the paleophotographer must be skilled in low-light or no-light photography.

Recording Form For Endoscopic Examination Of MuMmified Or Skeletal Remains

Notes Use photographs and anatomical sketches to demonstrate each entry point for inclusion in the report. With industrial videoendoscopes, note lens tip, angle, stereoscopic details, etc. Cavities C cranial vault, T thoracic, O oral, A abdominal, P pelvic, LB long bone, and W w in wrappings. X-ray Use two views for endoscope location record views AP anterior-posterior, L lateral, TNS Towne's, etc., and document plate .

Notes and References

The history of the Tikopia is discussed in detail by Jared Diamond in his book Collapse How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed Penguin Books, New York (2005) . Photographs of the island of Tikopia and its people can be found at and Many further web links can be found at http wiki Tikopia.

The Natural History of the Earth

Using a broad selection of classic and current sources, The Natural History of the Earth brings together debates from a wide range of Earth and life sciences. written in a clear and approachable style, it will interest Earth and life scientists, physical geographers, and any informed person fascinated by long-term Earth history. This accessible volume is illustrated throughout with over 50 informative diagrams, photographs, and tables.

Columbia Back In Business

So when we came down and I flared the orbiter, I didn't know how high we were. Looking at the photographs, we weren't very high, but I basically levelled the vehicle off and then it floated. So instead of landing at 195 knots, the way we were supposed to, we landed at 155. This was Columbia again and so here we are on the main gear, decelerating fast and I've got to get the nose on the ground. The same thing that happened to John Young on STS-9 happened to me and the nose went 'bam' on the ground. I felt terrible because I let the thing float for 40 knots' worth of deceleration. We got a lot of great data about low-speed flying qualities on the orbiter, but it wasn't supposed to work out that way.''

Methods of Measurement

In all instances, only a single tooth of any one molar type was included for each individual. Thus, unlike the studies by Suwa et al. (1994, 1996), antimeric values were not averaged. As detailed by Smith (1999), cusp area measurements for the living apes were recorded by placing the individual molars in occlusal view below a Canon Hi8 video camera equipped with a 10x macro lens. Each crown was orientated such that the occlusal crown area was maximized. For the fossil specimens, occlusal photographs of either the original specimens or high definition casts were taken following the same method of crown orientation. This method of orientation is likely equivalent to that of Suwa et al. (1994, 1996), in which the area of the occlusal fovea was maximized to define horizontal. It differs somewhat from the methods employed by Wood et al. (1983), who used plane of the cervical line, and Bailey (2004), who used the buccal and distal cervices of upper molars for orientation. Nevertheless, such...

Qualitative And Quantitative Aspects Of Skeletal Evolution In Stickleback Fish

Limnetic (top) and benthic (bottom) forms of the threespine stickleback from Priest Lake, British Columbia. Differences in spine length, armor plate number, and gill raker number have evolved as adaptation to different niches. Source Photographs courtesy of Katie Peichel and David Kingsley. Limnetic (top) and benthic (bottom) forms of the threespine stickleback from Priest Lake, British Columbia. Differences in spine length, armor plate number, and gill raker number have evolved as adaptation to different niches. Source Photographs courtesy of Katie Peichel and David Kingsley. Source Photographs courtesy of Greg Gibson, from Polaczyk PJ, Gasperini R, Gibson G. Dev Genes Evol 1998 207 462-470.

Some facts and figures

Since the latter part of the nineteenth century, the topography of the Canyon has been further mapped and measured by teams of surveyors laboriously traversing the very difficult terrain by mule and on foot, carrying heavy and cumbersome theodolites and plane tables. More recently, aerial photographs gave extra detail on some of the most inaccessible terrain and now satellite imagery can perform in a second or two what it took Powell and his team 95 days to complete.

Gauging the propellant

As Pete Conrad waited for P64 to begin, he strained at his window to look for a familiar pattern of craters towards which he had been trained to fly. Photographs taken 2 years earlier by a Lunar Orbiter mission had shown that the Surveyor 3 unmanned spacecraft had landed within a 200-metre-diameter crater that formed the torso of a distinctive pattern of five craters known as the Snowman. Planners had decided that this would make a good target to prove the pinpoint landing capabilities of the Apollo system.

A miniSpacelab mission

During STS-32, this 'L-cubed' instrument was used by crew members to take repeat photographs of a geographical feature every 15 seconds the data was then fed into an onboard computer, which calculated two possible sets of latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates. The crew, by knowing whether the target was 'north' or 'south' of their flight path, could then determine which set was correct. The instrument, which utilised a modified Hasselblad large-format camera with a wide-angle lens, proved extremely successful.

Neardisastrous Ascent

Detailed analysis after Columbia's landing traced the cause of the leak to several impact-damaged coolant tubes lining the interior of the affected main engine nozzle. This damage, engineers later concluded after extensive borescope inspections, was probably caused by a 2.5-cm-long steel-alloy pin which came loose and hurtled through the combustion chamber, holing three of the 1,080 coolant tubes. Indeed, photographs taken 15 seconds after STS-93's liftoff revealed an unusual bright 'streak' coming from the suspect engine's bell, strongly indicative of leaking hydrogen.

Practising For The Space Station

They also took stereo photographs of themselves in different postures to provide further evidence of changes in spinal contour, height and the range of motion of their vertebral columns. This was followed by MRI scans after landing. To stimulate their sensory nerves, they applied tiny electrical impulses to their ankles and measured the time it took for signals to reach their brains using a nerve stimulation and recording device. They also monitored their autonomic nerves by squeezing hand grips, as electrodes gathered blood pressure and heart rate data, and synchronised their breathing on audio tape for another heart rate study.

Exploration by Spacecraft First Robotic Missions

Within a few years the Soviet Union and the United States were heavily engaged in a political and technological race to launch manned flights to the Moon. At the time, the Soviets did not publicly acknowledge the full extent of their program, but they did launch a number of human-precursor circumlunar missions between 1968 and 1970 under the generic name Zond, using spacecraft derived from their piloted Soyuz design. Some of the Zond flights brought back colour photographs of the Moon's far side and safely carried live tortoises and other organisms around the Moon and back to Earth. In parallel with these developments, Soviet scientists began launching In December 1968, acting partly out of concern that the Soviet Union might be first in getting people to the Moon's vicinity, the United States employed the Apollo 8 mission to take three astronautsFrank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders-into lunar orbit. After circling the Moon three times, the crew returned home safely with...

Pathfinder For Spacelab

The week aloft enabled the two men to indulge in taking photographs of Earth. This mission had, according to oceanographer Bob Stevenson, given them an opportunity to photograph a virtually cloud-free China and one of their shots almost got them into diplomatic hot water after landing. ''Jack and Gordon were invited to China to speak to a huge audience in some auditorium,'' Stevenson said later, ''and they showed this picture of a lake. It was such a beautiful picture that they had it enlarged and matted and framed and they signed it off to the Premier of China as a gift . When they got to this picture, there was silence. When the talk was over, there was subdued clapping and they didn't know what to think about this. So they turned to the US ambassador and said 'We want to give the picture to the Premier', and he grabs the picture, looks at it and says 'I think let's hold this for a while'. When they were leaving the stage, they said 'What's the problem ' The ambassador replied...

Looking into the abyss of Earth Time

Today, it is hard for us to imagine the impact that Moran's picture had. The scene that is so familiar today from photographs and that we take for granted was then almost unbelievable, beyond imagination and wildest dreams. Moran did not have to exaggerate what he saw and was careful to paint what was actually there in front of him - a gaping chasm broken open to reveal layer upon layer of rock descending into the abyss, all depicted in such realistic detail that it had to be true. Powell himself remarked that the canyons of this region of North America were like ca Book of Revelations in the rock-leaved Bible of geology'.

Observations From Earth

In the modern era Venus has also been observed at wavelengths outside the visible spectrum. The cloud features were discovered with certainty in 1927-28 in ultraviolet photographs. The first studies of the infrared spectrum of Venus, in 1932, showed that its atmosphere is composed primarily of carbon dioxide. Subsequent infrared observations revealed further details about the composition of both the atmosphere and the clouds. Observations in the microwave portion of the spectrum, beginning in earnest in the late 1950s and early '60s, provided the first evidence of the extremely high surface temperatures on the planet and prompted the study of the greenhouse effect as a means of producing these temperatures. Since the Copernican revolution of the 16th century, at which time the Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus proposed a Sun-centred model of the universe, enlightened thinkers have regarded Earth as a planet like the others of the solar system. Concurrent sea voyages provided...

The Rocky Road To

By late March, she had been flown 'piggyback' on top of the modified 747 aircraft to KSC and ensconced in one of two bays in the OPF. The latter is positively dwarfed by the immense VAB and is still used to prepare the Shuttle fleet for their missions, to repair and refurbish them and to install and remove their payloads. It is, however, far more than just a spacecraft hangar due to the extreme volatility of the propellants carried on board the Shuttle, the OPF is fitted with detectors that are so sensitive to explosions that visitors are forbidden from using camera flashes when taking photographs.

Preparing For Space Station Operations

The crew also tended a variety of other experiments. A Canadian-provided Spectrophotometer measured the light-absorption characteristics of Earth's atmosphere, while MacLean took photographs of the Shuttle's tail and flight surfaces during thruster firings in an effort to better understand the mysterious atomic oxygen-induced 'glow' around spacecraft. Heat pipes were tested as part of efforts to develop lighter, more efficient thermal-control systems for future spin-stabilised

Background and Rationale

Photographic documentation and analysis is another mode applied in the paleoimag-ing setting. Standard and filtered photographs allow for continued indirect visual analysis once the researcher has departed the original research site. Newer photographic methods can produce 3-D representations of surface characteristics allowing the researcher to view surface features from various angles.

Praeanthropus Lucy and her relations

Fig. 11.9 The australopiths (a) the lower canine, premolars and molars ofthe chimpanzee Pan troglodytes (top), Ardipithecus ramidus (middle) and Praeanthropus afarensis (bottom) (b) skeleton of'Lucy', the oldest reasonably complete hominid, P. afarensis (c) palate of 'Lucy' fingers of (d) an ape, (e) Australopithecus and (f) a modern human, showing the loss of curvature, used for grasping branches the hindlimbs of (g) an ape, (h) P. afarensis and (i) a modern human, showing changes in pelvic shape, limb bone length and angle. Figure (a) based on White et al., 1994 (b) modified from photographs (c, g-i) after Lewin, 1999, courtesy ofBlackwell Scientific Publications Ltd (d-f) adapted from Napier, 1962, 1962 by Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved. Fig. 11.9 The australopiths (a) the lower canine, premolars and molars ofthe chimpanzee Pan troglodytes (top), Ardipithecus ramidus (middle) and Praeanthropus afarensis (bottom) (b) skeleton of'Lucy', the oldest reasonably complete...

Lari Gulls Auks and Allies

The earliest fossil Alcidae come from North American deposits, which may indicate that the early evolution of these birds was restricted to the northern Pacific, where most extant species of auks occur (Olson 1985). Hydrotherikornis oregonus Miller, 1931 from the late Eocene of Oregon is based on a distal tibiotarsus. This specimen was assumed to possibly be from a procellariiform bird by Warheit (2002), but Chandler and Parmley (2003) reported a distal end of an alcid humerus from the late Eocene of Georgia, which further substantiates the presence of auks in the late Eocene of North America. There is no unambiguous Paleogene fossil record of auks outside North America. A partial skeleton from late Oligocene (MP 30 Mlikovsky 2002) marine deposits of Austria was described as Petralca austriaca by Mlikovsky and Kovar (1987), who assigned it to the Alcidae, within a new subtaxon Petralcinae. The authors did not detail the reasons for their identification of the fossil, and on the basis...

Methods For Medical Evaluations

Panda Electro Ejaculation

Collecting information that could benefit the entire captive population. Multiple medical procedures were chosen for the purpose of most effectively collecting baseline biomedical data, providing unique permanent identification and conducting diagnostic evaluations for individuals with reproductive or medical problems. The medical procedures performed included a physical and reproductive examination, body measurements, body weight and blood sampling. A small (approximately 0.5 x 0.5 cm) skin tissue sample was collected from the medial tibial area for genetic evaluation (see Chapter 10). Biological samples were also obtained for vaginal cytology, urinalysis, faecal parasite examination and faecal cytology. Photographs were taken of dentition, general body condition and detectable lesions.

Difficulties In Observing Mars

Although telescopic photographs of Mars are commonly taken for purposes of record, it is recognized by astronomers that the eye can detect more detail than can be captured on film. This is one reason that photographs do not show any obvious linear features like the canals. Nevertheless, photographs are of great value in providing accurate locations of specific areas the details can then be partially filled in by visual observation. In this way, fairly accurate maps have been prepared showing the principal features of the surface of Mars. A recent example of such a map is given in figure 2.21 at the end of chapter II.

Fossil Dinosaur Foot In Ground

Dinosaur Footprint Sketch

He tells me that dinosaur footprints have been taken from a site north of Broome, and asks if I can help them identify the footprints and provide information about their rarity and scientific value, as well as photographs. After being given more specific details about the exact site and a brief description of the footprints, I confirm that I do have photographs in my files of many of the dinosaur footprints from that site, but to be sure of exactly which ones were missing I need to make some enquiries of my colleagues. I send the Kimberley Land Council a fax expressing concern about loose blocks containing fossil footprints which I knew about at that site.

Task Accomplished Apollo

Michael Collins Suiting For Apollo

Over the subsequent hours, in one of the most memorable television events in human history, first Armstrong and then Aldrin went outside onto the wastes of Mare Tranquillitatis, their activities transmitted to Earth by a black-and-white television camera that gave them a ghostly appearance. There they took photographs, collected samples and set up three simple scientific experiments a small seismic station, a laser reflector and a solar wind collector. The social significance was not forgotten when the flag of the United States was raised on behalf of the nation that had paid for the venture. Additionally, a plaque was unveiled to inform any future visitors to Tranquillity Base that its first visitors came in peace for all mankind and the two explorers took a telephone call from President Richard Nixon. After 2 hours, the moonwalk ended. Armstrong and Aldrin took their exposed film and boxes of rock samples up to the ascent stage, repressurised the cabin and tried to get some fitful...

Debates and the geosphere

Hidden largely by sagebrush were numerous occurrences of current ripple marks. They were discovered because the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation had taken aerial photographs of the area to be irrigated with Grand Coulee water. Then it became clear that some gravel surfaces, curiously humpy, were covered with giant current ripples. An investigator, standing between two humps, could not see over either one. Indeed, the size of these ripple ridges made them really small hills. Finally came the discovery of giant current ripples in parts of Lake Missoula where, in a catastrophic emptying, strong currents were formed.

Dinosaur Teeth Herbivorous and Carnivorous

Theropod Tooth

People with cavity-bearing teeth pulled from their jaws or who have seen X-ray photographs of their teeth have the opportunity to observe a few or most of the tooth parts and their orientations. Teeth have two primary layers, tough enamel on the outside and softer dentine on the inside. The part of the tooth exposed above the gumline of an animal is its crown, whereas the part within the socket is the root. In many cases, the root composed the majority (as much as 75 ) of a dinosaur tooth. The side of a tooth closest to the tongue is its lingual side, whereas the outer side is labial. Small protuberances, in some cases found on the apical (top) parts of the crowns, are denticles. Narrow places on teeth that form blades or ridges, typically on their anterior and posterior sides, are carinae.

Collecting fossil vertebrates

Foto Antiga Praia Piedade

Fig. 2.1 Dinosaur digging in the Lower Cretaceous ofAlberta,Canada (a) Phil Currie (right) and a park ranger inspect a rich dinosaur bonebed at Dinosaur Provincial Park (all the irregular blocks are dinosaur bones) (b) digging away the overburden, and clearing the rock with pneumatic drills (c) mapping the distribution of bones. (Photographs by MJB.) Fig. 2.1 Dinosaur digging in the Lower Cretaceous ofAlberta,Canada (a) Phil Currie (right) and a park ranger inspect a rich dinosaur bonebed at Dinosaur Provincial Park (all the irregular blocks are dinosaur bones) (b) digging away the overburden, and clearing the rock with pneumatic drills (c) mapping the distribution of bones. (Photographs by MJB.) Fig. 2.2 Excavating dinosaurs in the Lower Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada (a) Linda Strong protects some hadrosaur bones with bandages soaked in plaster (note the tail segment and the dorsal vertebral column at the right) (b) shifting the blocks for transport back to the laboratory....

Dinosaur Models and the Estimation of Dinosaur Weights

The important point here is that some artistic interpretations of dinosaurs, which are based on at least some available scientific information, can be tested in a scientific manner for their feasibility. Such tests can demonstrate that any supposed gap between science and popular art is not as wide as we sometimes think. These weight estimates derived from models also help us to better appreciate the possible weights of some dinosaurs relative to living animals. For perspective, an adult African elephant can weigh 5 metric tons, which is about the same weight as our hypothetical tyrannosaur. Realizing that a carnivore, such as T. rex, may have weighed as much as an African elephant adds a sense of realism to it that transcends models, paintings, or photographs of its remains, and brings it more to life.

The fractal tree of life

Both types of fractal share a property known as scale invariance, which is to say they 'look' similar whatever the magnification. For example, the contours of a rock often resemble those of a cliff or even a mountain, and for this reason geologists like to leave a hammer lying around in photographs, to enable viewers to grasp the scale. Similarly, the pattern of river tributaries looks alike for a vast continental system, such as the Amazon basin when viewed from space, or small streams seen from the top of a hill, or even soil erosion in the back garden from the bathroom window. For mathematical 'iterative' fractals, a repeating geometric rule is used to generate an infinite number of similar shapes. Even the most complex and beautiful fractal images, seen adorning T-shirts and posters, are built from reiterations of geometric rules (often quite complicated ones), followed by plotting the points spatially. For many of us, this is as close as we'll ever get to the beauty of deep...

Paranthropus aethiopicus

The Black Skull, Paranthropus aethiopicus, from West Turkana, Kenya (drawn by Kathryn Cruz-Uribe from photographs) (Copyright Kathryn Cruz-Uribe). Skull of Australopithecus garhi from Bouri, Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia (drawn by Kathryn Cruz-Uribe from photographs) (Copyright Kathryn Cruz-Uribe).

The Rest of the Kuiper Belt Population

Conjunction Opposition

After a five-year search, David Jewitt and Jane Luu found the first Kuiper body other than Pluto in 1992 by examining series of photographs taken by the Mauna Kea telescope for moving bodies. The preliminary minor planet designation of this first body, about 150 miles (240 km) in diameter, was 1992 QBt (for more on these strange names, see the sidebar Numbering and Naming Small Bodies on page 128). The discoverers wished to name 1992 QB Smiley, after a character from John le Carre's novels, but an asteroid had already claimed that name. The scientists named the next body they found, 1993 FW, Karla, also from le Carre's novels. By

Ecological Relationships with Other Animals

Cut marks on ungulate bones are unambiguous indicators of hominids' ecological relationship with such deer-like species as Gray's sika (Pseudaxis grayi) and the giant elk (Megalocerus pachyosteus). Tongue was clearly a commonly eaten body part. And we have noted the eating and apparent roasting of horse. There are also what appear from published photographs of fossil specimens that are now lost to be cut marks on bones of rhinoceroses, elephants, and pigs. Smaller animals that may have been eaten include tortoises and birds. Past authors have theorized that Homo erectus hunted these animals. But how did erectus really obtain these food sources

Credits for Illustrations

Black and White Photographs and Line Drawings Page 87 (top) Photograph by Noel Boaz (middle, bottom) Photographs by Russell Ciochon. Page 134 (top, middle) Photographs by Russell Ciochon (bottom) Photograph by Noel Boaz. Digital image by Michael Zimmerman. Page 137 (top, bottom) Photographs by Russell Ciochon and Noel Boaz. Digital images and labeling by Michael Zimmerman. Page 165 Redrawn from figure 2 in Rightmire (1998) Evolutionary Anthropology volume 6. Thumbnail photographs are digital images from casts or scanned images from field photos taken by Russell Ciochon. Digital layout by Michael Zimmerman. Plate 5 (top) Image created by Bruce Scherting and Russell Ciochon, image 2001 Russell L. Ciochon (middle, bottom) Photographs by Russell Ciochon and Noel Boaz. Digital image created by Michael Zimmerman and modified by Nathan Totten.

Dakota Formation In New Mexico

Figure 7.33 Photographs of the K-T boundary in the Scollard Formation at the Red Deer Valley locality in Alberta. Arrows point to the boundary in the distant (a) and close-up (b) views. In b a plastic spike has been driven into the boundary claystone layer, which is at the level of the arrow point and the hammer handle. Figure 7.33 Photographs of the K-T boundary in the Scollard Formation at the Red Deer Valley locality in Alberta. Arrows point to the boundary in the distant (a) and close-up (b) views. In b a plastic spike has been driven into the boundary claystone layer, which is at the level of the arrow point and the hammer handle. Figure 7.34 Photographs of the K-T boundary at the contact between the Frenchman Formation (below) and the Ravenscrag Formation (above) at the Morgan Creek locality in Saskatchewan. Arrows point to the boundary claystone layer seen at a distance (a) and close-up (b) and the basal coal bed of the Ravenscrag is visible a few centimeters above it in b...

Red Deer Valley K-t Boundary

Fossil Data Before After Boundary

Figure 7.28 Photographs of the K-T boundary interval (a) and the boundary claystone (b) at the Sussex locality. The boundary claystone is overlain by a coal bed and underlain by mudstone. In b the thin, dark, uppermost layer contains the maximum iridium concentration and most abundant shocked quartz grains. The color banding of the boundary claystone visible in b is a local variation in its lithology not seen in a. Figure 7.28 Photographs of the K-T boundary interval (a) and the boundary claystone (b) at the Sussex locality. The boundary claystone is overlain by a coal bed and underlain by mudstone. In b the thin, dark, uppermost layer contains the maximum iridium concentration and most abundant shocked quartz grains. The color banding of the boundary claystone visible in b is a local variation in its lithology not seen in a.

Box Chondrichthyan Relationships

Ikan Chondrichthyes

Shark attack in the Late Cretaceous (a) right metatarsal of a young hadrosaur showing an embedded Squalicorax tooth (b) a rib of the mosasaur Platecarpusshowing scratch marks produced by Squalicorax. (Photographs by Jon Haney courtesy of David Schwimmer.) Shark attack in the Late Cretaceous (a) right metatarsal of a young hadrosaur showing an embedded Squalicorax tooth (b) a rib of the mosasaur Platecarpusshowing scratch marks produced by Squalicorax. (Photographs by Jon Haney courtesy of David Schwimmer.)

Micromomyid Skeleton An Example from a Late Paleocene Limestone

We are in the process of preparing a block, originally 20 kg in mass, of fossil-iferous limestone from the last zone of the Clarkforkian land-mammal age (Cf-3, locality SC-327 see Bloch and Boyer, 2001 for locality information). One amazing aspect of this rather large block is that all of the exposed skeletons, representing at least 11 individuals, are articulated (80-100 complete see Bloch and Boyer, 2001, Figure 5). At least one of the individuals is a new genus and species of micromomyid plesidapiform (Figure 1A). Bone orientations and positions within the block were documented in detail during preparation of the specimen by frequently taking digital photographs of exposed bones and by making drawings that summarized the information in separate photographs with precision on the order of 1 mm or less. The micromomyid skeleton was isolated and not likely to be mixed up with any adjacent skeletons. Our main concern was documenting associations of phalanges to hands or feet, and...

Body Form Tagmata and Sex Differences

Bees ofmany genera can be identified to genus at a glance, or at least very promptly, by a person familiar with the bees of the relevant region. This is possible in part because of the diverse body shapes of bees. I have indicated general body shape in the text by a series of terms such that with a single word a person who knows a few common genera of bees can get an idea of what bees of an otherwise unknown genus look like. These terms, following Michener, McGinley, and Danforth (1994), are listed below, arranged in a general way from slender and relatively hairless to robust and hairy. References to the colored plates, as well as to the habitus drawings and photographs, are offered so that the reader might gain a better idea of the meanings of these terms. The terms are subjective, however, and can be used only to give a general idea of body form and often hairiness. (Terms marked by asterisks apply primarily to megachilids and therefore indicate the large-headed megachilid body...

Haloarchaea From Salt Sediments

Scanning electron micrograph of Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 (left panel) and Halobacterium noricense DSM15987T (right panel). Bars, 1 im. (Photographs taken by C. Frethem.) Figure 2. Scanning electron micrograph of Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1 (left panel) and Halobacterium noricense DSM15987T (right panel). Bars, 1 im. (Photographs taken by C. Frethem.)

It Is Intolerably Painful

About an hour after the group from Yevpatoriya arrived at the landing site, they were joined by specialists from the TsKBEM and the TsPK who flew from Moscow. With this group was Aleksey Leonov, commander of the original Soyuz 11 crew. In his book Two Sides of the Moon, he has written When the rescue forces reported that the crew was dead, I was instructed to fly to the landing site immediately with Vitaliy Sevastyanov.8 We were appointed members of the government committee dealing with the aftermath of the disaster and our main task was to secure the spacecraft and take photographs of the scene. It took us about 3 hours to reach the site, by which time the bodies of the crew had already been removed. Their blood-soaked seats and signs that attempts had been made to resuscitate them, were the only evidence of the tragedy.

Mysterious Flashing Satellite

Somewhat-lighter Strategic Reconnaissance Satellite, known as 'SRS'. Still more civilian sources speculated that the satellite, whatever it might have been, was capable of manoeuvring itself to an orbital altitude of about 480 km, from which vantage point it could take photographs with a resolution as fine as a metre. Certainly, it was not - unlike the huge Lacrosse radar-imaging satellite placed into orbit by Hoot Gibson's STS-27 crew in December 1988 - deployed with assistance from the RMS, which apparently was not carried on STS-28. The first photographs of what an SDS-B looked like were not actually made public until the spring of 1998, almost a full decade later, when the National Reconnaissance Office released pictures and videotapes of two military satellites. One was identified as an SDS-B, built by Hughes, and looked physically similar to the drum-shaped Intelsat-VI series of communications satellites.

Box The Rhynie Chert a window on earliest land life

Rhynie Chert Reconstruction

Rhynie is a remote village in northeast Scotland consisting of only 50 or so houses the bus stops there once a day. In 1914, Dr William Mackie, a physician, found traces of plant fossils in some speckled black and white chert rocks. He cut thin sections and took his specimens to Glasgow, where Robert Kidston, the foremost expert in Britain on floras of the Carboniferous, confirmed that the chert contained nearly perfectly preserved plants. Kidston, together with William Lang, Professor of Botany at the University of Manchester, England, published a classic series of monographs (Kidston & Lang 1917-1921) in which they presented superb photographs of microscopic sections through the Rhynie Chert plants. These publications established the Rhynie Chert as one of the oldest land-based ecosystems on Earth.

General Geology of BP and Oasis Impact Structures

Figures 3a and 3b show aerial photographs of BP and Oasis, respectively. The BP structure was suggested to be of meteorite impact origin by Kohman et al. (1967) and Martin (1969). Earlier, it had occasionally been referred to as the Jebel Dalma structure. The only geological description available, until now, is that by Underwood and Fisk (1980), who noted that BP is a relatively small structure defined by two discontinuous rings of hills and a central peak (Fig. 3a). According to these authors, the inner ring has a diameter of 2 km with an average height of 30 m, and the outer ring, which is characterized by strata that dip inwards at fairly low angles, has a diameter of 2.8 km and a maximum relief of only ca. 15 m. The rocks at Fig. 3. Aerial photographs of the BP (a left) and Oasis (b right) impact structures. The image of the BP impact structure shows the two rings of hills and the central peak, whereas for Oasis only the inner ring of hills (diameter 5.1 km) is clearly visible....

Fracture Deformations of Impact Rock Bodies

Apart from the block faulting of the Popigai crater, numerous smaller faults and fractures, which cut separate bodies of impact rocks, were discovered during large-scale mapping of selected areas within the crater these fractures are well-exposed on aerial photographs of areas composed of different impact lithologies, for example, allogenic megabreccia or suevites (Fig. 5, 6). The photogeologic guides of fractures and faults are lineaments of drainage pattern (Fig. 7) zones of abundant vegetation that are indicated by dark colors Fig. 11. Geologic map of the Tongulakh area. All faults obtained from interpretation of aerial photographs are shown. Fig. 11. Geologic map of the Tongulakh area. All faults obtained from interpretation of aerial photographs are shown.

Protection or control

Wombat Breaking Through Fence

For many years, farmers in Europe have built swinging gates that allow badgers to pass through fences. Like the badger, the wombat regularly uses the same trails and the holes in fences along these trails. If a solidly constructed gate, swung from the top, is placed at one of these holes, while at the same time other holes nearby are repaired regularly, the wombat can be trained to use the gate. The wombat can move freely in either direction, but lighter animals such as rabbits are excluded because they cannot push the heavy gate (Figure 7.4). In a management study in southern New South Wales, Philip Borchard installed wombat gates in an existing fence and installed motion sensing cameras. Over a period of a year he obtained many photographs of the wombats using the gates, and of other animals being foiled by them (Figure 7.5). It has been found that wombats will use gates placed up to 800 metres apart in preference to making new holes. However, where wombats have access to improved...

Instruments Used In The Laboratory

Compiling, analyzing, and storing field data transcribing of field notes image analysis of photographs modeling simulations morphometric analysis geographic distribution analysis phylogenetic (evolutionary relationship) analysis sending e-mail to colleagues. Scanning photographs, maps, or other illustrations for either image analysis, publications, or sending to colleagues for review. Examining specimens for detailed, microscopic features and measuring features. Viewing thinly-sliced sections of rock or fossil bone (mounted on slides) under polarized light for mineralogical and textural qualities. Imaging features in rocks or fossils to as little as 1 micron or using other functions to perform elemental analyses under electron bombardment.

Preservation Potential And Some Ancient Analogues

Ancient analogues of structures related to mat desiccation and erosion. All photographs are from the Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran) Vingerbreek Member, Schwarzrand Subgroup of the Nama Group, Farm Haruchas, Namibia. (A) Small sigmoidal, sand-filled shrinkage cracks with tapering ends, preserved on upper surface of sandstone layer. (B) Upper surface of finegrained sandstone layer exhibiting linear, triradiate and subcircular shrinkage cracks with compacted, involute margins. (C) Upper rippled surface of sandstone bed with 'sand clasts' in ripple troughs. (D) Upper surface of sandstone bed showing features related to a previously existing thin mat 1 a patch of mat subsurface that was exposed after local removal (erosion) of the mat 2 domal protrusions of the sandstone bed resulting from 'upward filling' of respective domes developed in the overlying mat 3 subcircular crack with compacted involute margin. Figure 9. Ancient analogues of structures related to mat desiccation and...

Partnerships and capacity building for securing giant pandas ex situ and in situ how zoos are contributing to

Like 'second families' - for example, sharing anecdotes, poking fun at each other's foibles, comparing family photographs and donning silly hats to celebrate birthdays. However, we suspect that it also has to do with a universal commitment among panda biologists who realise that the popularity of the species (and the related funding that it attracts) offers a unique opportunity to make a meaningful difference. In short, the experience brought out the best in everyone involved, both personally and professionally. All evidence so far indicates that these extensive collaborations have spawned enhanced information sharing, better communication and improved animal management, all of which has fostered even more interest in partnering.

More Stable Than Launch

No doubt we're going to have plenty of pictures of this launch. Our crew will be taking pictures of the External Tank after it separates. On Flight Day Two, we're going to be doing an exterior inspection with cameras and lasers of the wing leading edge and the underside of the Shuttle. On Flight Day Three, we're going to do a pitch-around manoeuvre as we approach the space station so that its crew can look at us. I have no doubt that if there's any damage, we're going to know it.'' The key issue, Collins said, was eliminating the source of the debris in the first place, but having additional repair techniques in place as a 'just in case' measure.

Jesenik E sudetica Disturbance Dependent Metapopulation

Fig. 2 Aerial photographs of Jesenik main ridge (above) and a section of Krkonose Eastern ridge (below), with white line showing the position of timberline. Well apparent are the starkly different levels of fragmentation of forest zones of the two mountains Fig. 2 Aerial photographs of Jesenik main ridge (above) and a section of Krkonose Eastern ridge (below), with white line showing the position of timberline. Well apparent are the starkly different levels of fragmentation of forest zones of the two mountains

A giant lightning ball

A few years ago, a reader wrote to the 'Science Times' section of The New York Times about a lightning ball that was seen by her family to 'enter the glass front door, go right past us (or possibly even through us) in the living room and leave by the back window, where it hit a tree, causing some damage'. The Science Times commentator joked, 'Next time, take a picture', because it is one of nature's rarer phenomena and few photographs of it exist. It is also the least understood. Ball lightning has attracted the attention of scientists for two centuries, but it remains an enigma - dismissed by many as a myth or an optical illusion.

The discovery of Phoebe

After re-analysing the data, Pickering announced in late 1904 that Phoebe orbits in a retrograde manner, doing so in an unusually eccentric orbit that varies between 9.8 and 15.6 million kilometres with a period of 546.5 days. P.J. Melotte took a series of photographs of Phoebe using the 30-inch reflector of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich over a four-month period during the ring-plane crossings in 1907 and tracked the moon as it moved clear of Saturn, out to apoapsis, and a little way back in again.

Closest Telescope Position To Spin Axis

Ultraviolet Photometer and Infrared Radiometer to scan Jupiter. However, imaging is difficult from a rotating spacecraft. In interplanetary space this would not matter as there would be nothing specific to look at, but it was unthinkable to send a vehicle to Jupiter and not take pictures of it. In the absence of a stabilised scan platform, Ames added a narrow-angle scanning Photopolarimeter and developed a method of joining a succession of scan strips to assemble an image. This 'spin-scan' technique would serve as a rudimentary imaging system. The principal investigator was Tom Gehrels of the University of Arizona.

Post Impact Tectonic Structure of the Popigai Crater

Geologic map of the Chordu-Daldyn area (the southern part of the Popigai crater). All faults obtained from interpretation of aerial photographs are shown. Fig. 8. Geologic map of the Chordu-Daldyn area (the southern part of the Popigai crater). All faults obtained from interpretation of aerial photographs are shown.

Terrestrial Planet Finder Infrared TPFI

Interferometers allow smaller, widely separated mirrors to work together as a giant virtual telescope. The resolution obtained would be the same as a single telescope the size of the separation between the individual telescopes. To develop a good picture the interferometer must rotate around its line-of-sight to different relative positions and take repeated exposures. In addition to taking pictures, an interferometer can obtain spectra of the targets. The joint mission with the European Space Agency is to launch in 2020.

Expert In Space Rendezvous

Vladimir Shatalov

On his next space mission in October 1969, Shatalov was not only commander of Soyuz 8 but also in charge of the three spacecraft participating in the 'group flight'. This mission came as a surprise, as in August he and Yeliseyev had entered training as the single backup crew for the Soyuz 6 and 8 two-man crews and, with Kolodin, as the backup crew for the Soyuz 7 three-man crew. The prime crew for Soyuz 8 was Nikolayev and Sevastyanov but they failed several simulations, and therefore on 18 September, following the final examinations, the flight was reassigned to the backup crew. The three spacecraft were launched on successive days, Soyuz 8 on 13 October. Its primary objective was to rendezvous and dock with Soyuz 7. During these operations, the cosmonauts on Soyuz 6 were to fly close by and take pictures of the other two vehicles. Unfortunately, the Igla system on Soyuz 8 failed. Shatalov attempted to continue the approach manually, but without success. On landing on 18 October...

Aleksey Arkhipovich Leonov

Salyut Leonov

Three hours later they undocked and took spectacular photographs of one another prior to moving clear. Leonov and Kubasov returned to Earth on 21 July. As had been the case for the launch and docking, the landing was also broadcast 'live' on TV - marking a new degree of openness in the Soviet space programme. For this mission Leonov was awarded a second Gold Star of a Hero of the Soviet Union and was promoted to Major-General.

Balls of ice and dust

Comets are fossils - frozen relics from the time of the infant Sun. By studying them, astronomers can find out how the Sun and the planets were born. In the early 1950s Fred Whipple and other astronomers provided an insight into the structure of comets. Whipple said that a typical comet has three parts a frozen central part called a nucleus, a fuzzy cloud surrounding the nucleus called a coma (or head), and a tail consisting of gas and dust. The nucleus, usually only a few kilometres across, is a 'dirty snowball' made of grains of frozen mass consisting of water, methane, ethane, carbon dioxide, ammonia and many other gases. In 1986 the European Space Agency's Giotto spacecraft proved that Whipple's model was fairly accurate when it took close-up photographs (from a distance of 480 kilometres) of the nucleus of Halley's comet a comet nucleus resembles a fluffy snowball coated with a crust of black material and spouting jets of vaporised ice.

Above the Surface The Chromosphere and Corona

Figure 24.1 shows that the photosphere is enclosed by a thin atmosphere involving high temperature with the emission of high energy radiation. This is the chromosphere. This relatively thin region is encased in a more extensive region called the corona. Before observations with spacecraft were possible, which have allowed full photographs of the Sun such as Figs. 24.1 and 24.5 to be obtained, details of the outer regions enclosing the visible surface could only be detected during a short time (a very few minutes) of a solar eclipse by the Moon. One excellent modern example of a traditional eclipse is shown in Fig. 24.2, taken from the High Altitude Observatory on Mauna Kea in Hawaii in 1991. It is seen that the region away from the Sun, called the corona, is highly ordered. The equatorial plane is well marked by an extended gaseous region while the polar regions show distinctive plumes away into interplanetary space. The fluid lines remind one of the paths of magnetic lines of force...

The Apollo flights a brief history

Control and communication procedures to be tested. On a philosophical level, the flight gave the human race its first glimpse of its home planet as seen from another world. The crew returned TV images of Earth to millions from a vantage point between the two worlds. While orbiting the Moon, they photographed Earth rising over a barren lunar horizon as they watched in awe. These photographs became a catalyst for the rise of the environmental movement and icons of the age.

The Patterson Gimlin Film

In addition to folk tales, eyewitness accounts, and tracks, the other critical piece of evidence cited in defense of the existence of North American bipedal hominids is photography. Though many photographs and filmed images have been produced, the image usually granted the highest level of credibility is the Patterson-Gimlin footage from 1967. The well-known footage of a female Sasquatch walking along a dry creek bed while casting a glance over her right shoulder has been subjected to various types of analysis in order to determine its authenticity. As with Bigfoot prints, the options are pretty clear cut - either 'Patty,' as the creature in the film is affectionately called, is a hoax or Patty is a hairy hominid.

Of Ferns Bears and Slime Molds

It is a sunny Saturday morning in early August when I arrive at Newfound Gap with park service biologist Keith Langdon. The parking lot is already beginning to fill, and people are piling out of cars with daypacks and cameras. This is not going to be an ideal day for scenic photographs, however. Despite several days of cleansing rains, bright haze shrouds the green slopes nearby and obscures the ancient mountains beyond.

Hints on How to Observe

Paleontologists learn how to find fossils through experience, in which their errors are continually corrected with scientific methods. In this respect, the old saying practice makes perfect should actually be perfect practice makes perfect. A paleontologist who sees a small piece of bone in the ground, picks it up, and identifies it as a seashell, will continue to make that mistake until corrected. Correct experience in identifying fossils typically begins with looking at already identified specimens, preferably well preserved, or excellent photographs or illustrations. Then the

Geology And Dating Methods

Before mounting an expedition, paleontologists first look to geologic maps of a region to determine if the right time period is actually present. Then, ideally, they look at aerial photographs or they make a visit by airplane, automobile, or foot to determine if those rocks are exposed and accessible and free of thick vegetation or water cover. Often paleontologists and geologists will explore regions of interest together. If they are interested in fossil hominins they look at rocks dating to the Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene. But if they spot enormous bones spilling out of Cretaceous rock layers, they will alert their colleagues who study dinosaurs.

Introduction And History Of Discoveries

This study was funded as a part of the Leverhulme Trust project 'Ancient Human Occupation of Britain'. Writing took place in the Dept. of Prehistory and Europe at the British Museum and I thank Jill Cook, head of the Quaternary Section, and Nick Ashton, Senior Curator, for their support. I would like to thank all the curators and staV of the institutions whose collections I have used in piecing together this account the Trustees of the British Museum for permission to Wgure material from the collection John Prag and Phil Manning at Manchester Museum and Ian Wall at the Creswell Crags Museum and Education Centre for allowing me to include drawings and photographs of specimens in their charge. My thanks are also due to Daryl Garton for permitting the study of the material from Farndon Fields and to Jenny Brown for all her help. The drawings of quartzite artefacts are by Mike Angel and those of the flint artefacts by Hazel Martingell. The bone and antler objects from Church Hole were...

Paris Basin Anoplotherium

Oviraptor Outlines

How dramatically some hypotheses can change Back in the 1920s, when the first American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) expedition went to Mongolia, some of the most spectacular finds were nests containing dinosaur eggs. The nests were scooped in the sand, and each contained 20 or 30 sausage-shaped eggs, arranged in rough circles, and pointing in to the middle. Around the nests were skeletons of the plant-eating ceratopsian dinosaur Protoceratops (see p. 457) and a skinny, nearly 2-meter long, flesh-eating dinosaur. This flesh eater had a long neck, a narrow skull and jaws with no teeth, and strong arms with long bony fingers. Henry Fairfield Osborn (1857-1935), the famed paleontologist and autocratic director of the AMNH, named this theropod Oviraptor, which means egg thief . A diorama was constructed at the AMNH, and photographs and dioramas of the scene were seen in books and magazines worldwide Oviraptor was the mean egg thief who menaced innocent little Protoceratops as she tried...

The Eye of the Beholder

In the early 1900s, the Lowell Observatory staff changed the course of astronomical photography by developing the first technical apparatus and procedures that made it possible to photograph a planet. Carl O. Lampland, working at Flagstaff, did pioneering research in planetary photography. Lampland made seven hundred photographs of Mars when it was in a prime viewing position in 1905. Lowell announced that not only had Lampland captured Martian canals on his photographic plates, but he had also photographed the first snowfall of the season near the Martian north pole. News of these accomplishments appeared in the popular and scientific press of Europe and America. The scores of articles describing Lampland's groundbreaking work did not include photographs ofthe canals. Lampland had succeeded in obtaining photographic images of Mars, but they were very small pictures about one-quarter inch in diameter. It was impossible to enlarge these tiny delicate images for transfer to the printed...

Nodal Points In Regulatory Networks And The Evolution Of Character Number And Pattern

The dorsal hair patterns of five members of the melanogaster species group shown schematically. The distribution of short denticles (small blue projections), fine hairs (curved thin lines), and large denticles (large blue projections) on an individual segment are depicted (anterior cells are open rectangles, posterior cells are shaded blue). In D. sechelia, the fine hairs are absent due to differences at the shavenbaby locus (see photographs on right).

First attempts at detection and first disappointments

A century later, improved techniques allowed astronomers to search for even smaller companions for example, 'brown dwarf stars or giant planets. By the 1940s the search for giant exoplanets was beginning. Patience was the key. Remember that within our solar system the periods of revolution of the giant planets around the Sun vary from 12 years in the case of Jupiter to 164 years in the case of Neptune. After several reports (later unconfirmed) of companions detected in the vicinities of the stars 61 Cygni and 70 Ophiuchi, a serious candidate took the stage when the Dutch astronomer Piet van de Kamp announced the discovery of a planet orbiting Barnard's Star. This star is a probable target for exoplanetary research, as it is the fourth closest star to the Sun. In 1964, on the basis of photographs taken over a twenty-year period, van de Kamp described the characteristics of the planet its mass was 1.6 times that of Jupiter, and the period of its elliptical orbit was 24 years. As more...

The Setting of Pseudotachylitic Breccia in Impact Craters


Fig. 7. (a - upper, b - lower, c - right) Photographs show millimeter to sub-millimeter wide veinlets of pseudotachylitic breccia that would represent the so-called A-Type pseudotachylite of Martini (1991). Note the undulating geometry of these veins. In (b), a network of such veinlets is actually observed. Country rock Government Reef quartzite, from northwest of the Smilin Thru Resort in the northern collar of the Vredefort Dome. Hammer for scale ca. 25 cm long. (c) Drill core specimen from the Inlandsee borehole ca. 4 km south of the geographic center of the Vredefort Dome. This sample consists of pseudotachylitic breccia, of mottled appearance, that does not display a distinct boundary to the gneissic component in this image (at right and left sides). Rather the dark breccia appears to grade into the country rock. The latter only locally displays the originally strong gneiss fabric. Clearly the entire assembly of dark breccia and lighter gneiss seems to have been plasticised....

Mokele Mbembe and the Loch Ness Monster

Loch Ness Ancient

In April of 1934, newspapers published the first photograph of the creature, a photograph that came to be known as the 'surgeon's photograph.' This photograph was taken by Lieutenant Colonel Robert Kenneth Wilson, a London gynecologist, and shows what appears to be the head and neck of the creature (96). Though there have been many photographs taken of something purported to be the creature, the surgeon's photograph was for many years regarded as the best evidence, although it has recently been questioned because of claims of a hoax perpetrated with the use of a miniature model of the creature attached to a child's toy submarine.

Selected Kuiper Belt And Oort Cloud Objects In Approximate Size Order

In February 2004 Brown, Trujillo, and their colleague David Rabinowitz from Yale University had a new announcement about the then-largest-known Kuiper belt object, having found a new object designated 2004 DW that is still larger than Quaoar. Based on its current distance of about 48 AU from the Sun, its brightness, and its presumed albedo, 2004 DW has been estimated to be around 870 to 990 miles (1,400 to 1,600 km) in diameter, or more than half the size of Pluto. As with many other found objects, once they are identified they can then be found in photographs from sky surveys in the past. The object 2004 DW has been found in a First Palomar Sky Survey photo-

Of Hornheads And Duckbills

With detailed notes and photographs in hand, I began studying horned dinosaurs housed in other North American museums like the Royal Tyrrell Museum, the Canadian Museum of Nature, the Royal Ontario Museum, the American Museum of Natural History, and the Academy of Natural Sciences. It soon became apparent that previous paleontologists working on this group had got it right after all. Key differences were pretty much limited to variations in ornaments on the skull roof. I could lay out multiple examples of, say, the maxilla (the toothed upper jawbone) on a table and find as much or more variation within a given species as I did between two or more of them. The same was true of vertebrae and limb bones. In other words, even if you were to find a complete skeleton, without the top of the skull it would be difficult to identify exactly which dinosaur species the bones belonged to. Although subtle differences might be revealed through measurements, the small number of bones available for...

Space Exploration as a Human Enterprise II The Public Interest

The current resurgence of interest in the ecology of the planet Earth is also connected with this longing for a cosmic perspective. Many of the leaders of the ecological movement in the United States were originally stimulated to action by photographs of Earth taken from space, pictures revealing a tiny, delicate, and Another viewpoint worth considering is space exploration as entertainment. A Viking Mars-lander could be completely funded through the sale, to every American, of a single issue of a magazine, containing pictures taken on the surface of Mars by Viking. Photographs of the Earth, the Moon, the planets, and spiral and irregular galaxies are an appropriate and even characteristic art form of our age. Such novel and oddly moving photographs as the Lunar Orbiter image of the interior of the crater Copernicus and the Mariner 9 photography of the Martian volcanoes, windstreaks, moons, and polar icecaps speak both to a sense of wonder and to a sense of art. An unmanned roving...

Cassini Spacecraft And Mission

Although some have internal scanning capability. The main investigations for ring observations are the four optical remote sensing (ORS) instruments fastened to the side of the spacecraft, and the high-gain antenna itself. The ORS instruments include the narrow-angle (high-resolution) and wide-angle cameras of the imaging science subsystem (ISS), which can take pictures in up to 16 different sets of color filters the visible and near-infrared mapping spectrometer, or VIMS, which scans portions of the rings to return relatively coarse images in hundreds of spectral bands at once the thermal infrared instrument (CIRS), which measures the temperatures of the ring particles as they move from day to night and the lit face of the rings to the unlit face and an ultraviolet imaging spectrograph (UVIS). UVIS and VIMS are also designed to conduct dozens of stellar occupations by the rings (and planet), in which the brightness of a star is monitored every few milliseconds as it is covered up, or...

Space Exploration as a Human Enterprise III The Historical Interest

In the long view, the greatest significance of space exploration is that it will irreversibly alter history. As we mentioned in Chapter 1, the group with which Man identifies has gradually broadened during this history of mankind. Today the bulk of the world's population has at least a major personal identification with national superstates. While progress has not been smooth, and there are occasional reversals, the trend is clearly toward a group identification with mankind as a whole. Space exploration can hasten this identification. Astronauts and cosmonauts have remarked with great feeling about the beauty and serenity of the Earth viewed from space. For many of them, a flight into space has been a religious experience, transfiguring their lives. National boundaries do not appear in photographs of Earth from space. As Arthur C. Clarke somewhere remarked, it is difficult to imagine even the most fervent of nationalists not reconsidering his views as he sees the Earth fade from a...

Recording And Extracting Fossil Finds

Sketch maps that show the various layers, or horizons, at a site allow scientists to give fossils an accurate date based on comparisons with other documented sites. They look for rock features like grain size, how crumbly the layer is, the kinds of fossils in place, if any, and color of the rock. Sketch maps include measurements recording the depths of each layer. Photographs can be useful, especially if they show easily recognized landmarks. Field notebooks should also contain frame numbers and a description of the fossil captured in each photograph to easily identify them later.

Reverberations around the globe

On the evening of the explosion, bright, colourful and prolonged dusks were noticed across the Continent as far as Spain. Photographs of the sky taken on that night at the Heidelberg Astronomical Observatory were badly clouded because of the bright sky. A Hamburg photographer who took a picture of the sky at 11 p.m. described it as 'volcanic dust', as the memory of the 1883 Krakatoa volcano, modern history's most violent eruption, was still fresh in people's memory. After sunset brilliant sunset , the only peculiarity being that the brightness stretched more to the north than is usual, and endured, so that at one o'clock in the morning it extended well across the north of the horizon, and the northern sky above was of a brightness approaching that of the southern sky at the time of Full Moon.' The unsigned article went on to say that observations failed to give any evidence that it was an auroral display but 'the light, indeed, was sufficient to take photographs of terrestrial...

Surprise Inside

Galileo carried the first digital camera ever flown in space and, while bouncing among Jupiter's moons, made photographs with a level of sharpness and detail new to space exploration. The strange beauty of these distant worlds raises some questions Why should these places, where no terrestrial eye can ever before have wandered, be beautiful to us What structures, deep within our brains or deep within the physical universe that created both Gaia and Europa, are resonating when we gaze upon an alien landscape for the first time and find exhilarating beauty Would alien souls feel it, too

Lost Eyes

Imagine a latter-day Helmholtz presented by an engineer with a digital camera, with its screen of tiny photocells, set up to capture images projected directly on to the surface of the screen. That makes good sense, and obviously each photocell has a wire connecting it to a computing device of some kind where images are collated. Makes sense again. Helmholtz wouldn't send it back.

Hubble Captured

In his journal entry for Rendezvous Day, Grunsfeld wrote ''Scott slowly brought the Shuttle in close, with Duane backing him up. Jim Newman was on the laptop computer providing situational awareness calls from a program that displays our trajectory on the screen. Rick manned the hand-held laser and Nancy and Mike prepared the robotic arm to reach out and grab HST. My job was to work the Hubble communication procedures, which also allowed me to take pictures of HST on approach.''

Collision With

On March 25, 1993, a previously unknown comet positioned close to Jupiter was noted by Eugene and Carolyn Shoemaker and David Levy in photographs taken at Palomar Observatory in California. Most unusual was its appearance it comprised at least a dozen cometary nuclei lined up like glowing pearls on a string. Week after week the nuclei spread farther apart until a total of 21 fragments were visible. An analysis of their common orbit revealed that the original comet, which had been revolving about the Sun, had grazed Jupiter's atmosphere and nearly crashed into it on July 8, 1992. At that time, tidal gravitational forces from the giant planet had broken the nucleus into many pieces, which were captured by Jupiter's gravity and thrown into an elongated two-year orbit around the planet. Astronomers calculated that


And was supplanted by the dirty snowball (or icy conglomerate) concept. Much circumstantial evidence supported the latter, but confirmation was lacking until 1986, when the Giotto spacecraft returned detailed, close-up photographs of Comet Halley's nucleus. Yet, while these photographs corroborated the general idea of


Prior to Voyager 2's encounter, Neptune's only known moons were Triton, discovered visually through a telescope in October 1846 by English astronomer William Lassell shortly after the discovery of Neptune, and Nereid, discovered in telescopic photographs more than a century later in 1949 by American astronomer Gerard Kuiper. In 1989, Voyager's observations added six previously unknown moons to Neptune's system. All are less than half of Triton's distance from Neptune and are regular moons i.e., they travel in prograde, nearly circular orbits that lie near Neptune's equatorial plane. These moons are probably synchronous rotators that is, their rotational and orbital periods are the same.

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