Jaw Muscle Function and the Origin of Primates Vinyard C J Ravosa M J Williams S H Wall C E Johnson K R and Hylander W L

Introduction 179

Functional Morphology of the Primate Masticatory 180 Apparatus

Interpretations of the Masticatory Apparatus in the

First Primates 192 Tree shrew Feeding Ecology and Jaw Morphology—

A Reasonable Early Primate Model? 196

Materials and Methods 197

Jaw-Muscle EMG 197

Comparative Primate EMG Data 202

Results 203

Treeshrew EMG 203

Comparison of Treeshrew and Primate EMG 206

Discussion 209 Jaw-Muscle EMG and Jaw Morphology in Treeshrews and Primates 209 Jaw-Muscle EMG and the Conservation of Primate

Masticatory Behaviors 213 Mastication in the First Primates: In vivo Evidence from Treeshrews and Primates 217

Conclusions 219

Acknowledgments 219

References 220

7. Were Basal Primates Nocturnal? Evidence From Eye and

Orbit Shape 233 Ross, C. F., Hall, M. I., and Heesy, C. P.

Introduction 233

Orbital Convergence 235

Orbit Size and Shape 237

Reconstructions of Orbit Size and Shape in Basal Primates 240

Materials and Methods 241

Eye Shape Measures 241

Orbit Shape Measures 241

Results 242

Eye Size and Shape 242

Orbit Size and Shape 246

Discussion 248

The Eyes of Basal Primates 248

The Eyes of Haplorhines 251

Conclusions 252

Acknowledgments 252

References 253

8. Oculomotor Stability and the Functions of the

Postorbital Bar and Septum 257

0 0

Post a comment