Martin R D

Introduction 29

The Fossil Record 30

The Molecular Evidence 35

Quantifying the Incompleteness of the Fossil Record 37

Preservational Bias in the Fossil Record 43

Acknowledgments 46

References 46

3. The Postcranial Morphology of Ptilocercus lowii (Scandentia, Tupaiidae) and its Implications for

Primate Supraordinal Relationships 51

Introduction 51

Taxonomy and Phylogeny of the Family Tupaiidae 52

Taxonomy 52

Supraordinal Relationships of Tupaiids 53

Significance of Ptilocercus 59

Materials and Methods 60

Results 62

Discussion 65

Conclusions 67

Acknowledgments 69

References 75

4. Primate Origins: A Reappraisal of Historical Data

Favoring Tupaiid Affinities 83 Godinot, M.

Introduction 83

Limits of Cladistics Confronted with Large Data Sets 86

Facing Primatomorpha 90 Are Paromomyid Dental Characters Compatible with

Dermopteran Origins? 90

Dermopteran Incisors 92 Paromomyid Postcranials, Gliding, and Apatemyid

Adaptations 95

On Postcranial Characters and Archontan Phylogeny 97

Skull Characters and Conclusion 100

The Plesiadapiform Radiation and Primate Ancestry 101

Temporal and Geographical Extension 102

Plesiadapiform Dental Characters and Primate Origins 104

Other Characters and Conclusion 108

Returning to Tupaiidae 112

Important Tarsal Characters 116

Conclusion: Tupaiids as Sister-Group of Primates 120

Remarks on Scenarios of the Acquisition of Nails 122

Concluding Remarks 126

Fossils, Methods, and Primate Origins 126

Primate Morphotype Locomotor Mode 129

Summary 131

Acknowledgments 133

References 133

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