Results

Analysis 1: The single most parsimonious tree from Beard's (1993b) analysis is shown in Figure 2. When Ptilocercus is used to represent Scandentia, the only change in topology is that Scandentia, rather than Chiroptera, is the sister to Primatomorpha (Figure 3). Primatomorpha, however, is still supported (Figure 3). The tree is 52 steps long, the consistency index (CI) is 0.85, and the retention index (RI) is 0.83.

Analysis 2: A single most parsimonious tree with a length of 64 steps (CI: 0.77; RI: 0.67) was recovered (Figure 4). Ten trees were 65 steps long and 10 trees 66 steps long. These 21 trees varied in terms of the placement of the 3

Primatomorpha i-1

Outgroup Tupaia Microchiroptera Megachiroptera Primates Micromomyids Plesiadapids Paromomyids Dermoptera

Primatomorpha i-1

Outgroup Tupaia Microchiroptera Megachiroptera Primates Micromomyids Plesiadapids Paromomyids Dermoptera

Figure 2. Phylogeny from Beard (1993b). CI = consistency index; RI = retention index. Note that Tupaia was used to represent Scandentia.

Euarchonta

Primatomorpha i-1

Outgroup Microchiroptera Megachiroptera Ptilocercus Primates Micromomyids Plesiadapids Paromomyids Dermoptera

Primatomorpha i-1

Outgroup Microchiroptera Megachiroptera Ptilocercus Primates Micromomyids Plesiadapids Paromomyids Dermoptera

Figure 3. Phylogeny from Analysis 1. CI = consistency index; RI = retention index. Note that Ptilocercus was used to represent Scandentia and that Primatomorpha was still supported. However, the molecular concept of Euarchonta is also supported when Ptilocercus is used to represent Scandentia.

plesiadapiform families due to missing data in these fossil groups. Volitantia was supported in all 21 of the most parsimonious trees (Figure 4), while Primatomorpha was not supported in any of them. Bootstrap support for Volitantia (79%) was also relatively strong (Figure 5). Volitantians, scanden-tians, and plesiadapiforms consistently formed a clade (with primates as the sister taxon) that had relatively strong bootstrap support (78%). When Beard's (1993b) tree was reproduced using this data set, the resulting tree was 82 steps long. In other words, forcing Beard's (1993b) tree topology to be recovered requires 18 additional steps. In fact, 82 steps is closer to the longest tree at 94 steps than it is to the shortest tree at 64 steps, and there were 2647 trees more parsimonious than Beard's (1993b) topology (i.e., those that were 64-81 steps long).

Analysis 3: A single most parsimonious tree with a length of 51 steps (CI: 0.88; RI: 0.74) was recovered (Figure 6). When Chiroptera was removed from the analysis (as suggested by molecular evidence), Primatomorpha was still not supported. Instead, a Dermoptera-Scandentia clade was supported (Figure 6).

Volitantia

Outgroup Primates Plesiadapids Scandentia Micromomyids Paromomyids Chiroptera Dermoptera

Figure 4. Single most parsimonious tree from Analysis 2. CI = consistency index; RI = retention index. Note that Volitantia is supported and that Scandentia is the extant sister to Volitantia.

Volitantia

Outgroup Primates Plesiadapids Scandentia Micromomyids Paromomyids Chiroptera Dermoptera

Figure 5. Bootstrap analysis from Analysis 2. CI = consistency index; RI = retention index. Note that Volitantia is well supported at 79%.

Outgroup Primates Plesiadapids Scandentia Micromomyids Paromomyids Dermoptera

Outgroup Primates Plesiadapids Scandentia Micromomyids Paromomyids Dermoptera

Figure 6. Single most parsimonious tree from Analysis 3. Note that Scandentia, not Primates, is the extant sister taxon to Dermoptera. Hence, Primatomorpha is not supported, but a Dermoptera-Scandentia clade is supported. The latter conclusion is congruent with the results of molecular analyses (see text).

Figure 6. Single most parsimonious tree from Analysis 3. Note that Scandentia, not Primates, is the extant sister taxon to Dermoptera. Hence, Primatomorpha is not supported, but a Dermoptera-Scandentia clade is supported. The latter conclusion is congruent with the results of molecular analyses (see text).

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