20-50 (CH4)

Mt: Total mass of the planet (in Earth masses)

Mps: Mass of heavy elements in the protosolar (Mps = Mt x 0.02) (in Earth masses)

Mtps: Total mass of heavy elements in the planet (Mtps = Mc + Mps) (in Earth masses)

Et: Enrichment in heavy elements (relative to the solar value) predicted assuming an initial core of

12 Earth masses: ET = MTPS/MPS

Eobs: Observed enrichment in heavy elements

Galileo probe. Apart from three elements (Ne, He, and O) for which various explanations may be found, overall the elements measured (Ar, Kr, Xe, C, N, and S) exhibit an enrichment by a factor of 3 ± 1, relative to hydrogen (Fig. 4.22). For Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, we are only able to use remote sounding measurements of CH4. The enrichments measured are 6 for Saturn, and between 20 and

Table 4.3 A list of parent molecules detected in comets. (After Encrenaz et al., 2004)


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