Pai j

where particle diameter dp and Fmax are in cm, impact velocity v is in km s-1, p is density, a is the yield stress, and subscripts p, t, A1 and Fe refer to particle, target, aluminium and iron respectively. In the model we use the normal component of impact velocity (v cos A) in Equation 5. As an indication of how Fmax depends on particle diameter dp, Fmax ~ 5dp at 20 km s-1, and Fmax ~ 15dp at 70 km s-1 (assuming a particle density of 2500 kg m~3 impacting onto aluminium).

It is worth noting that the model, implemented as described here, has been adopted as the European Space Agency's 'reference' isotropic model incorporated into the new release of ESABASE which is ESA's environmental simulation software tool [55].

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