Info

-0.03 -0.02 -0.01 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 XSM (Re) Fig. 6 Particle orbits around the stagnation point (X, Y)sm (0.00, 6.00) Re with amplitudes of wave potential a a 0.00 kV, b a 0.25 kV, and c a 0.50 kV the wave field essentially assumes coherent waves, which is not necessarily a good description of the turbulence that exists. When a perturbed potential with a 0.25 kV is added, the particle orbit starts to deviate at a distance 0.02 RE from the stagnation point (Fig. 6b). In this case, the...

Conclusion

Cluster and Image are pioneer space missions with regards to plasmaspheric wave phenomena thanks to their new experimental capabilities. Some of the results highlighted in this paper were considered among the science objectives of these missions such as the source location of waves (Sects. 3 and 8) or the remote sensing of density profiles along geomagnetic field lines (Sect. 5). Now, Cluster and Image have also brought or led to a wealth of unforeseen results, just like pioneer missions do....

Mlat

Differing field line structure, they respond differently to mass-density depending on its field line distribution. For instance, the fundamental mode, with an antinode in the electric field perturbation (radial) and velocity perturbation (azimuthal) at the equator, is slowed down by a concentration of mass density at the magnetic equator, while the second harmonic, with a node for these quantities at the magnetic equator, is not. Thus the ratios of the harmonic frequencies can be used to infer...

Ram

Relies on the assumption that magnetic field lines are equipotentials. This assumption, however, may be violated in regions where field-aligned currents exist and during periods of geomagnetic disturbances. It is thus important to derive an electric field model from in situ measurements made closer to the magnetic equator in the inner magnetosphere in order to mitigate the influence of the field-aligned potentials. The Electric Drift Instrument (EDI) on each of three CLUSTER satellites provides...

Overall Plasma Distribution and Plasmapause Position

As discussed above, the Image and Cluster missions provided us with a new appreciation of the plasmasphere through global and multipoint plasmaspheric observations. The overall geometry and context of the time varying distribution of plasmaspheric plasma has been revealed in ways not previously possible. The global images obtained from EUV onboard Image provide an overall view of the plasmasphere. They can be used to infer the plasmapause position, by looking at the He+ edge, i.e., the...

ULF Resonances

The attempt to use pulsation data to remotely sense plasmaspheric mass properties has a long history (Troitskaya and Gul'Elmi 1969 Lanzerotti and Fukunishi 1975 Webb et al. 1977 Takahashi and McPherron 1982). A variety of methods have been developed to identify inner magnetospheric field line resonances, which can arise from a driving impulse. These include complex demodulation (Webb 1979), methods of evaluating the spectral matrix (Arthur 1979), such as state vector analysis techniques (Samson...

SAPS Electric Fields

During storms, the effects of magnetospheric electric fields and E x B plasma convection extend deep into the mid-latitude ionosphere producing dramatic effects. At the PBL, strong electric fields associated with storm-time ring current enhancement contribute to the formation of the deep mid-latitude ionospheric density trough and the erosion of the overlying plasmasphere. This process is associated with M-I coupling and ionospheric feedback in the region where magnetospheric FACs attempt to...

Comparison Between MHD and Kinetic Approaches

Numerous theoretical models describing the outflow of ionospheric plasma at polar and mid-latitudes have been based on numerical integration of hydrodynamical transport equations or moment equations. Unlike the case of kinetic models, where plasma is described by the velocity distribution functions of its different particle species, in hydrodynamical models the plasma is described in terms of the total number density or of the partial density of the electrons and different ion species, of their...

Notches

One of the recently named plasmaspheric density structures identified by EUV are notches. It is one of the largest density structures in the plasmasphere after the plume. Notches are also observed by CLUSTER but are often difficult to distinguish from other types of density structure. The observation of the evolution of notches reveals departures from corotation in the plasmasphere. Notches are characterized by deep, mostly radial density depletions in the outer plasmasphere that can extend...

Shoulders Channels Fingers Crenulations

Mercury Plasmasphere

Many other medium-scale density structures exist in the plasmasphere, but could not be clearly distinguished before data from the global imaging mission Image and the four-spacecraft mission CLUSTER became available. New terms have therefore been given to those structures, like shoulders, channels, fingers and crenulations. An example of previously unknown phenomena first detected by Image is the shoulder (Burch et al. 2001a, 2001b). A shoulder appears as a sharp azimuthal gradient, which forms...

Bodo W Reinisch Mark B Moldwin Richard E Denton Dennis L Gallagher Hiroshi Matsui Viviane Pierrard Jiannan Tu

Originally published in the journal Space Science Reviews, Volume 145, Nos 1-2, 231-261. DOI 10.1007 s11214-008-9481-6 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009 Abstract Empirical models for the plasma densities in the inner magnetosphere, including plasmasphere and polar magnetosphere, have been in the past derived from in situ measurements. Such empirical models, however, are still in their initial phase compared to mag-netospheric magnetic field models. Recent studies using data from CRRES,...

James L Burch C Philippe Escoubet

Originally published in the journal Space Science Reviews, Volume 145, Nos 1-2, 1-2. DOI 10.1007 s11214-009-9532-7 Springer Science Business Media B.V. 2009 The Image and Cluster spacecraft have revolutionized our understanding of the inner magnetosphere and in particular the plasmasphere. Before launch, the plasmasphere was not a prime objective of the CLUSTER mission. In fact, CLUSTER might not have ever observed this region because a few years before the CLUSTER launch at the beginning of...

Bibliography

Ohtani, S.I. Solovyev, D.G. Baishev, K. Yumoto, Simultaneous identification of a plasmaspheric plume by a ground magnetometer pair and IMAGE Extreme Ultraviolet Imager. J. Geophys. Res. 111, A11202 2006 B. Abel, R.M. Thorne, Electron scattering loss in Earth's inner magnetosphere 1. Dominant physical processes. J. Geophys. Res. 103 A2 , 2385-2396 1998 M.L. Adrian, D.L. Gallagher, L.A. Avanov, IMAGE EUV observation of radially bifurcated plasmaspheric features...

History of Plasmasphere Data Interpretation

In this section we illustrate the fundamental modes of data interpretation that have been used prior to Image and Cluster, so that the significance of the new analysis methods used in conjunction with those missions can be more fully appreciated. We discuss plasmasphere data interpretation by highlighting a few historical milestones a more complete account of the history of plasmaspheric research before the Image and CLUSTER missions can be found in the monograph by Lemaire and Gringauz 1998 ....

S

SAPS, see subauroral polarization stream shielding, 20, 66, 90, 113, 116-117, 120-121, 178, 195-196, 209, 234, 248, 253 shoulder, 21, 26, 58, 90, 195 SOHO, 25 solar wind, 8, 12, 26-27, 64-65, 112, 116, 118-119, 182, 205, 209, 219, 232234, 246-249, 252 solar wind-magnetosphere interaction, 8, 12, 26, 57, 112-113, 116-120 spacecraft potential control, 8, 11 effects, 11,75 measurement, 23, 181, 233, 251 spectrogram, 12-13, 22, 30-35, 64, 70, 7879, 87, 141-142, 148, 152-156, 172, 174, 178-180, 201,...

Arnaud Masson Ondrej Santolik Donald L Carpenter Fabien Darrouzet Pierrette M E Dcrau Farida ElLemdani Mazouz James L

Originally published in the journal Space Science Reviews, Volume 145, Nos 1-2, 137-191. DOI 10.1007 s11214-009-9508-7 Springer Science Business Media B.V. 2009 Abstract This paper highlights significant advances in plasmaspheric wave research with Cluster and Image observations. This leap forward was made possible thanks to the new observational capabilities of these space missions. On one hand, the multipoint view of the four Cluster satellites, a unique capability, has enabled the estimation...

References

Acu a, M.W. Dunlop, T.J. Beek, P. Brown, K.H. Forna on, E. Georgescu, K.H. Glassmeier, J. Harris, G. Musmann, T. Oddy, K. Schwingenschuh, The Cluster Magnetic Field Investigation overview of in-flight performance and initial results. Ann. Geophys. 19 10-12 , 1207-1217 2001 R.F. Benson, P.A. Webb, J.L. Green, L. Garcia, B.W. Reinisch, Magnetospheric electron densities inferred from upper-hybrid band emissions. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L20803 2004 D. Berube, M.B....

Fabien Darrouzet Dennis L Gallagher Jiannan Tu

Originally published in the journal Space Science Reviews, Volume 145, Nos 1-2, 7-53. DOI 10.1007 s11214-008-9464-7 Springer Science Business Media B.V. 2009 Abstract Ground-based instruments and a number of space missions have contributed to our knowledge of the plasmasphere since its discovery half a century ago, but it is fair to say that many questions have remained unanswered. Recently, NASA's Image and ESA's Cluster probes have introduced new observational concepts, thereby providing a...

Hiroshi Matsui John C Foster Donald L Carpenter Iannis Dandouras Fabien Darrouzet Johan De Keyser Dennis L Gallagher

Originally published in the journal Space Science Reviews, Volume 145, Nos 1-2, 107-135. DOI 10.1007 s11214-008-9471-8 Springer Science Business Media B.V. 2009 Abstract The electric field and magnetic field are basic quantities in the plasmasphere measured since the 1960s. In this review, we first recall conventional wisdom and remaining problems from ground-based whistler measurements. Then we show scientific results from Cluster and Image, which are specifically made possible by newly...

Viviane Pierrard Jerry Goldstein Nicolas Andr Vania K Jordanova Galina A Kotova Joseph F Lemaire Mike W Liemohn Hiroshi

Originally published in the journal Space Science Reviews, Volume 145, Nos 1 2, 193 229. DOI 10.1007 s11214-008-9480-7 Springer Science Business Media B.V. 2009 Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy IASB-BIRA , 3 Avenue Circulaire, 1180 Brussels, Belgium e-mail viviane.pierrard oma.be e-mail lemaire astr.ucl.ac.be V. Pierrard J.F. Lemaire Center for Space Radiations CSR , Louvain-La-Neuve, Belgium J. Goldstein Space Science and Engineering Division, Southwest Research Institute SwRI , San...

Hiss

The last comprehensive review on plasmaspheric and mid-latitude hiss was done by Hayakawa and Sazhin 1992 . The following two sections are not an update to that work, but rather tries to put into context recent advances obtained on these natural waves thanks to the Cluster and Image satellites. Plasmaspheric hiss is an electromagnetic emission confined to the plasmasphere. It occurs at all local times but is more intense on the dayside, and further intensifies with geomagnetic activity Dunckel...