Our understanding of some of the cell biology aspects of plastids have improved significantly in the last two decades and the plastid has risen above the status of an organelle that carries out only photosynthesis. The advent of omic technology has the potential for describing subtle differences between different types of plastids and may give clues as to how master controlling genes work, if they exist. Even so, we are still a long way from a clear understanding of what determines a particular plastid type in a particular type of cell and what facilitates the interconversions of different plastid types. Maybe the next decade will see big advances in addressing these questions.

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