Role of multiple and diverse promoters

Although genes exist that are transcribed from a single promoter, transcription of plastidial genes and operons by multiple promoters seems to be a common feature. For example, the psbD-psbC operon is transcribed from up to three different PEP promoters (Fig. 5; Yao et al. 1989; Berends Sexton et al. 1990; Christopher et al. 1992; Wada et al. 1994; To et al. 1996; Hoffer and Christopher 1997) and the tobacco rpl32 gene from two promoters far upstream of the coding region (NEP-Prpl32-1101, PEP-Prpl32-1030; Vera et al. 1996). Similarly, the tobacco atpB

Table 1. Diversity of promoter usage in different species.

Gene

Arabidopsis

tobacco

maize

barley

accT)

NEP: PaccD-251; VaccD-112

NEP: PaccD-129

n,d.

n. d.

atpB

PEP: PaipH-520

PEP: PatpB-611; PaipB-502; PatpB-255

PEP: PatpB-29%

PEP: n.d.

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