Eight Open Source

AND IN HIS INTESTINES: Fricker, Spigelman, and Fricker, 1997.

LAWRENCE AND OCHMAN ESTIMATED: J. G. Lawrence and Ochman, 1998.

IN 2006, OCHMAN AND SEVERAL OTHER COLLEAGUES: Wirth et al., 2006.

SCIENTISTS COULD THEN COMPARE IT: Perna et al., 2001.

HORIZONTAL GENE TRANSFER MIGHT HAVE IMPORTED A FEW GENES: Wirth et al., 2006.

OF ALL THE E. COLI GENES SCIENTISTS HAD NOW IDENTIFIED: Welch et al., 2002.

THE LIST OF GENES SHARED: Binnewies et al., 2006; Chen et al., 2006.

IT'S UP TO 11,000 GENES NOW: David Ussery, personal communication.

VIRUSES IN THE OCEAN TRANSFER GENES TO NEW HOSTS: Sullivan and Baross, 2007.

OPEN-SOURCE EVOLUTION: Frost et al., 2005.

JUST AS IMPORTANT AS THE GENES SHIGELLA GAINED: Casalino et al., 2005.

SCIENTISTS WHO STUDY E. COLI O157:H7: Wick et al., 2005.

THEY SPECULATE THAT O157:H7'S TOXINS STIMULATE: Ferens, Cobbold, and Hovde, 2006.

WHEN PROTOZOANS ATTACK E. COLI COLONIES: Meltz Steinberg and Levin, 2007.

THEY FOUND GENES FOR CELL-KILLING FACTORS: Hejnova et al., 2005.

IT'S POSSIBLE THAT THE BACTERIA BENEFIT: Gamage et al., 2003, 2004, 2006; Shaikh and Tarr, 2003; Zhang et al., 2006.

ICHIZO KOBAYASHI, A GENETICIST AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TOKYO: Kobayashi, 2001.

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