Ten Playing Nature

A $75 BILLION INDUSTRY: S. Lawrence, 2007b.

NOW 250 MILLION ACRES OF FARMLAND: S. Lawrence, 2007a.

A NEW KIND OF GENETIC ENGINEERING CALLED SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY: Baker et al., 2006.

BIOTECHNOLOGY WAS BORN MANY TIMES: Bud, 1993.

THE FIRST NEOLITHIC BIOTECHNOLOGISTS WERE MANIPULATING MICROBES: Mira, Pushker, and Rodriguez-Valera, 2006.

BY BOMBARDING THE MOLD THAT MAKES

PENICILLIN: Adrio and Demain, 2006.

J.B.S. HALDANE INDULGED IN SOME SCIENCE FICTION: Haldane, 1923.

AND THOSE TOOLS WOULD EVENTUALLY BE USED: My account of the history of genetic engineering is based mainly on Hall, 2002; Jackson and Stich, 1979; Krimsky, 1982; Rogers, 1977; Singer, 2001; Wade, 1977; Watson and Tooze, 1981; Wright, 1994; and Zilinskas and Zimmerman, 1986.

SOMEONE HAD ISOLATED GENES: Shapiro et al., 1969.

"THE STEPS DO NOT EXIST NOW": quoted in Reinhold, 1969.

"ARE WE WISE ENOUGH TO BE TAMPERING": quoted in Krimsky, 1982, p. 35.

"I DIDN'T WANT TO BE THE PERSON": quoted in Krimsky, 1982, p. 31.

"NEW STRAINS OF LIFEā€”OR DEATH": Cavalieri, 1976.

"IT WAS NEVER THE INTENTION": Watson and Tooze, 1981, p. ix.

" SCIENTISTS ALONE DECIDED TO IMPOSE A MORATORIUM": quoted in Jackson and Stich, 1979, p. 101.

"BY THE YEAR 2000 VIRTUALLY ALL THE MAJOR HUMAN DISEASES": quoted in Dutton, Preston, and Pfund, 1988, p. 200.

IN 1977, THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES HELD A PUBLIC FORUM: National Academy of Sciences, 1977.

"FROM THE POINT OF PUBLIC HEALTH": quoted from Cavalieri, 1976.

"AN IRREVERSIBLE ATTACK ON THE BIOSPHERE": Chargaff and Simring, 1976.

"NIGHTMARISH AND DISASTROUS": Berg and Cohen quoted in Watson and Tooze, 1981, p. 389.

"WE WERE JACKASSES": Watson and Tooze, 1981, p. 437.

"I'M AFRAID THAT BY CRYING WOLF": Watson and Tooze, 1981, p. 155.

HUMULIN, ITS MICROBE-PRODUCED INSULIN: Figure from Eli Lilly and Company, "Humulin,"

http://www.lillydiabetes.com/product

/humulin family.jsp?reqNavId= 5.3; accessed June 27, 2007.

"THE FIRST SYNTHETIC LIFE FORM": Service, 2003, p. 640.

SCIENTISTS HAVE ADDED OVER THIRTY MORE UNNATURAL ACIDS: Wang, Xie, and Schultz, 2006.

MICHAEL ELOWITZ AT CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY: Elowitz and Leibler, 2000.

THE SECOND REPORT CAME FROM THE LABORATORY OF JAMES COLLINS: T. S. Gardner, Cantor, and Collins, 2000.

IN 2004, STUDENTS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AND THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, SAN FRANCISCO: Levskaya et al., 2005.

THE DRUG, KNOWN AS ARTEMISININ: M. C. Chang and Keasling, 2006.

SINCE 2001, DREW ENDY AND THOMAS KNIGHT OF MIT HAVE BEEN BUILDING: Endy, 2005.

GEORGE CHURCH AND HIS COLLEAGUES HAVE DRAWN UP A LIST: Forster and Church, 2006.

ALBERT LIBCHABER TOOK AN EVEN SIMPLER APPROACH: Noireaux et al., 2005.

"BIOTECH HAS ALREADY IGNITED WORLDWIDE PROTESTS": quoted in ETC Group, 2006.

THEY FOUND THAT THE BACTERIA RAPIDLY DISAPPEARED: Bogosian and Kane, 1991; Heitkamp et al., 1993.

STUDIES SUGGEST THAT EVEN IF AN ALIEN GENE GAVE BACTERIA A COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE: Nielsen and Townsend, 2004.

THE INCIDENCE OF TYPE 2 DIABETES HAS DOUBLED: Statistics from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Diabetes Data & Trends," http ://www.cdc .gov/ diabetes/ statistics/prev/national /figpersons.htm; accessed June 27, 2007.

CASES OF DIABETES WORLDWIDE HAVE INCREASED TENFOLD: World Health Organization, Media Centre, "Diabetes," http://www.who/int/mediacentre/factsheets /fs312/en/' accessed June 27, 2007.

E. COLI HAS PROVIDED INSULIN: Eli Lilly Company, "Humulin," http://www.lillydiabetes.com/product /humulin family.jsp?reqNavId= 5.3; accessed June 27, 2007.

THAT SUGAR COMES INCREASINGLY FROM HIGH-FRUCTOSE CORN SYRUP: Crabb and Shetty, 1999.

THE COMPANY HAD TO PAY $50 MILLION TO SETTLE CHARGES: Nordenberg, 1999.

WE MUST RESIST EMPTY FEAR AND EMPTY HYPE: Avise, 2004.

"THE AFFLUENT NATIONS CAN AFFORD": Borlaug, 2000, p. 489.

GOLDEN RICE, A STRAIN OF RICE ENGINEERED: Babili and Beyer, 2005.

"THIS RICE COULD SAVE A MILLION KIDS A YEAR": Nash, 2000.

"IN FIGHTING AGAINST 'GOLDEN RICE' REACHING THE POOR": Potrykus, 2001, p. 1160.

IT MAY NOT BRING MUCH BENEFIT AT ALL: Krawinkel, 2007.

VITAMIN A HAS TO BE CONSUMED ALONG WITH DIETARY FAT: Schnapp and Schiermeier, 2001.

ABOUT 80 PERCENT OF ALL THE TRANSGENIC CROPS: Service, 2007.

STUDIES INDICATED THAT FARMERS WHO GREW THE TRANSGENIC CROPS: Raney, 2006.

FARMERS BEGAN TO NOTICE HORSEWEED AND MORNING GLORY: Owen and Zelaya, 2005.

AND ONCE THE WEEDS EVOLVED THEIR RESISTANCE: Zelaya, Owen, and VanGessel, 2007.

THEY HAD ENGINEERED PLANTS WITH GENES THAT

MAKE THEM RESISTANT: Behrens et al., 2007.

FARMERS CAN RESORT TO OLD-FASHIONED METHODS: Sandermann, 2006.

"WE CAN NOW TRANSFORM THAT EVOLUTIONARY TREE": quoted in Jackson and Stich, 1979, p. 97.

THE MIT BIOLOGIST JONATHAN KING DECLARED: quoted in Hall, 2002, p. 51.

"THE GENETIC STRUCTURES OF LIVING BEINGS": Silver, 2006, p. 287.

"LET THE EARTH BRING FORTH GRASS": Gen. 1:11-24 (King James version).

"THOU SHALT NOT LET THY CATTLE": Lev. 19:19 (King James version).

"NEITHER SHALT THOU LIE": Lev. 18:23 (King James version).

"USING HUMAN PROCREATION": Jones, 2006.

"REPUGNANCE MAY BE THE ONLY VOICE LEFT": Kass and Wilson, 1998, p. 19.

PRESIDENT BUSH CALLED FOR A BAN: Bush, 2006.

"RESPECT FOR HUMAN DIGNITY AND THE INTEGRITY OF THE HUMAN SPECIES": U.S. Congress, 2005.

"A THING EITHER IS OR IS NOT A WHOLE HUMAN BEING": George and Gomez-Lobo, 2005, p. 202.

E. COLI STARVES AND SUFFERS: Chou, 2007.

EACH KIND HAS ITS OWN ESSENCE: Gelman, 2004.

"THE THING IS AN ABOMINATION": Wells, 1896.

CONSIDER A GENE CALLED MICROCEPHALIA Evans et al., 2006.

"IN A WORLD WHOSE ONCE-GIVEN NATURAL BOUNDARIES": Kass, 1997.

AND SOME CHIMERAS WILL PROBABLY BE BANNED: Scott, 2006.

ELEVEN: N EQUALS 1

"BUT ITS DOMAIN HAS BEEN LIMITED": Lederberg, 1963.

"INVASION FROM MARS? MICROBES!": Los Angeles Examiner, March 20, 1960.

"THESE QUESTIONS MIGHT BE ANSWERED IN TWO WAYS": Lederberg, 1963.

"WE CAN DEFER OUR CONCERN": Lederberg, 1960, p. 394. NASA AGREED: Dick, 1998.

"THAT'S THE BALL GAME": quoted in Dick and Strick, 2004.

"WE CAN NO LONGER BE CONFIDENT": quoted in McElheny, 1976.

SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY BLURS INTO ASTROBIOLOGY: Benner, Ricardo, and Carrigan, 2004.

PLANETS MAY TRADE BITS OF THEMSELVES: Gladman et al., 2005; Warmflash and Weiss, 2005.

THE MOST EXTREME FORM OF PANSPERMIA: Napier, 2004.

IT FLOATS INSIDE THE BODIES OF THE ASTRONAUTS: La Duc et al., 2004.

"THE FIELD IS HAUNTED BY THINKING": quoted in Clarke, 2001, p. 248.

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