A

Adaptations, 32, 43 Air sacs, 71 Alamosaurus, 55 Alexander, R. McNeill, 98

Allosaurus discovery of, 74, 77,

92-93 as gigantic carnivore, 15, 86, 90, 106, 126

as grapple-and-bite predator, 104 senses of, 96, 97 Amargasaurus, 48, 49 Amazonsaurus, 48 Angiosperms, 30,

123-124 Ankylosauria, 15-16,

29, 116-125 Ankylosauridae, 118, 125

Ankylosaurus, 116,

118-119 Antarctosaurus, 55 Antetonitrus, 41-42, 84 Apatosaurus as diplodocid, 49 discovery of, 74, 77, 126

head movement of, 65 image of, 36, 38-40,

42, 44 lifestyle of, 56

Archaeopteryx, 15, 105,

107, 127 Archosaurs, 22 Argentinosaurus, 47,

55, 82 Armor

Ankylosauria and, 116, 118, 120-122, 124

herbivores and,

14, 15 ornithischians and,

108-111, 127 Stegosauridae and, 113-114 Auca Mahuevo, 83 Aucasaurus, 63 Australodocus, 49 Avetheropoda, 88, 92-94, 106

Bakker, Robert endothermy and,

68-69 feeding of sauropods and, 73 nostrils of sauropods and, 62-63 running and, 98 terrestrial sauropods and, 40, 57-59 Barosaurus, 37, 49, 77 Barriers, 32, 34 Baryonyx, 92 Basal sauropods, 46

Basal tetanurans, 90 Beaks, 110 Benton, Michael, 87, 110

Binocular vision, 96 Biogeography, 31-33 Biomechanics, 97-99, 102 Birds, 15

Blikanosaurus, 42, 46 Bochu, Christopher,

96-97 Bogert, Charles M., 70 Brachiosauridae, 29, 50 Brachiosaurus, 47,

50-53, 65 Bradymetabolism, 68 Braincases, 89, 100 Brains, 95, 100-102,

115-116 Brontosaurus, 36, 38-40, 56. See also Apatosaurus Buckland, William, 91

Camarasauridae, 29, 50 Camarasaurus camarasauridae clade and, 50 discovery of, 74, 76,

77, 126 illustration of, 36,

38, 56 as neosauropod, 47 skull of, 64

Carcharodontosaurus,

Cope, Edward Drinker

Eggs, 79-81, 85

94, 96, 104

Allosaurus and,

Elaphrosaurus, 88-90

Carlin, W.E., 76-77

92-93

Emausaurus, 111

Carmen Funes

dinosaur bone rush

Embryos, 81-84

Museum, 82

and, 55-57, 74-78

Endothermy, 66-73

Carnivores, 15. See also

illustrations and, 36,

Environment, evolution

Predators

38, 40

and, 31

Carnosauria, 92-94

Laelaps and, 128

Eobrontosaurus, 49

Carnotaurus, 99

Coral reefs, 25

Eocursor, 110

Cathartesaura, 48

Coria, Rudolfo, 82

Eoraptor, 21

Cedarosaurus, 50

Cowles, Raymond B., 70

Equisetopsids, 123

Cedarpelta, 117

Cretaceous Period,

Erickson, Greg, 102

Ceratopsia, 30, 108

evolutionary

Erketu, 54

Ceratosaurs, 87, 88-90,

milestones of, 20

Euoplocephalus, 117,

106

CT scans, 93, 96-97,

118, 125

Ceratosaurus, 42, 87,

100-101

Europasaurus, 54

88-89, 97

Currie, Phil, 93

Eusaropods, 46-47,

Cercharodontosaurus, 88

D

84-85

Cetiosaurus, 38, 49,

Eustreptospondylus, 92

55-56

Darwin, Charles, 16, 28

Evolution

Chevrons, 48, 49

Defensive armor. See

endothermy and,

Chewing. See Jaws

Armor

72-73

Chiappe, Luis, 81-83

Deinonychus, 103-104

factors influencing, 34

Chubutisaurus, 55

Dicraeosauridae, 48

natural selection

Circulatory systems, 71

Dicraeosaurus, 48

and, 31

Cladistic analysis,

Digestive systems, 71,

paleobiogeography

46, 87

122

and, 31-33

Claws, 44, 103-104

Dilophosaurus, 87

of plants, dinosaurs

Climate zones, 26

Dingus, Lowell, 81-83

and, 15, 28-30

Clutches, 81, 85

Diplodocidae, 29,

principles of, 16

Coal deposits, 25, 26

48-49

Eyes. See Vision

Coelophysis, 21, 87

Diplodocus, 47, 49, 65,

F

Coelurosauria, 15, 94

126

Coevolution, 28-30

Dispersalist

Falkenbach, Charles,

Colbert, Edwin, 69-70

biogeography, 32

39-40

Cold-bloodedness,

Dodson, Peter, 71

Falkenbach, Otto,

66-73

Dracopelta, 117

39-40

Colorado Plateau, 25

Dromaeosaurs, 103-104

Farlow, James, 61-62,

Como Bluff, 76-77

E

72, 99

Compsognathus, 90, 94

Fastovsky, David, 28

Conifers, 28, 123

Ears. See Hearing

Feeding methods,

Continental drift,

Ectothermy, 66-73

59-61, 102-105,

31-32

Edmontia, 117, 121

122-124

Feet, 44 Femurs, 43

Fermentation, 61-62, 71 Fermentative endothermy, 71 Ferns, 123

Finches, coevolution and, 28 Flowering plants. See

Angiosperms Footprints, 97. See also

Trackways Forelimbs, 42, 43, 53,

99, 112-113, 116 Fossil record, 21-22 Fox, Marilyn, 83

Galapagos Islands, 28 Gargoylesaurus, 117 Gastonia, 119, 120 Gauthier, Jacques A., 87 Genes, evolution and, 16 Geographic isolation.

See Isolation Giganotosaurus, 88, 104

Gigantism, 14, 15,

42-43, 46 Gigantosaurus, 82 Gigantothermy, 67 Gigantspinosaurus, 114

Ginkgo, 25-26, 60 Gobi Desert, 80 Gondwana, 23, 32 Gongxianosaurus, 42 Grapple--and--bite predators, 104, 107 Grapple--and--slash predators, 103-104, 107

Grazing, 60 Gymnosperms, 30, 123

Habitats, evolution and,

16, 32 Hadrosauridae, 30, 108

Hay, Oliver P., 39-40 Hearing, 96, 106 Hendrickson, Sue, 96 Herbivores, 14-15, 28-30. See also Ornithischians; Sauropods Herding, 60

Heterodont dentition, 61 Heterodontosaurids, 29 Heterodontosaurus, 110

Hip structure, 14, 108,

109-110 Holtz, Thomas Jr., 87, 102

Homeothermy,

66-73, 85 Horner, John, 72-73 Huabeisaurus, 55 Huayangosauridae,

111-113 Huayangosaurus,

112-113 Hutchinson, John, 99

Ice caps, 27 Iguanodontia, 29, 108 Insulation, 71 Intelligence, 100-102 Irritator, 92 Isisaurus, 55 Isolation, 31, 32-33, 34

Janensch, Werner,

112, 125 Jurassic Period, 20, 25-31

Kentrosaurus, 113-114 Kermack, Kenneth,

56-57 Killing tactics,

102-105 Kitching, James, 42 Knight, Charles,

38-39 Kotasaurus, 42

Laelaps, 128 Lakes, 24

Lakes, Arthur, 75-76 Land bridges, 32, 34 Laurasia, 23, 32 Leaves, fossilized, 26 Lesothosaurus, 21, 110 Limaysaurus, 48 Locomotion, 73,

78-79 Lourinhanosaurus, 93 Lucas, O.W., 76

Macronaria, 49-50 Malawisaurus, 55, 64 Mamenchiasaurus, 47 Mapusaurus, 94 Marsh, Othniel Charles Allosaurus and,

92-93 Ceratosaurus and, 89

Marsh, Othniel Charles

Ornithischians

Pneumaticity, 79

(continued)

Ankylosauria,

Poikilothermy, 68

dinosaur bone rush

116-124

Polacanthus, 119

and, 55-56,

evolution of,

Populations, evolution

74-78

109-111

and, 16

illustrations and,

feeding methods of,

Pouech, Jean-Jacque, 84

36, 38

122-124

Predators, 15, 94-

importance of, 128

overview of, 14-16,

105, 106. See also

Stegosaurus and, 113,

21, 108-109,

Carnivores

115-116

124-125, 127

Predator-to-prey ratios,

Megalosauridae,

Stegosauria, 111-116,

68

91-92

122-124

Premaxillas, 112

Megalosaurus, 91

Ornithomimosaurs, 98

Prosauropods, 28-30,

Mesozoic Era, 20-22,

Osborn, Henry

40-41, 44

25-31, 33

Fairfield, 39

Protoceratops, 104

Metabolism, 15,

Ossicles, 114

Pteridophytes, 123

65-73, 85

Owen, Richard, 38, 55

Pursuit-and-bite

Molnar, Ralph, 31

P

predators, 104, 107

Monolophosaurus, 93

Q

Morrison Formation,

Pachycephalosauria,

25, 59-60, 75-76

108

Quadrupeds, 43, 58, 73,

Mymoorapelta, 117

Padian, Kevin, 72-73

113, 116

N

Paladino, Frank V., 71

Quaesitosaurus, 55

Paleobiogeography,

R

Nasal passages, 118

31-32, 33

Natural selection, 31

Pangaea, 23, 24,

Rapetosaurus, 55

Neck structure, 45, 65,

26-27, 32

Rayfield, Emily, 93, 102

126

Panthalassic Ocean, 23

Rebbachisauridae, 48

Neosauropods,

Paralititan, 55

Rebbachisaurus, 48

47-55, 85

Parrish, J. Michael, 65

Reed, W.H., 76-77

Nests, 79-84, 85

Patagonia, 81-84

Rees, Peter McAllister,

Neural spines, 48

Patagosaurus, 47

26

Nodosauridae, 116,

Paul, Gregory, 98

Restorations, 36

119-122, 125

Pawpawsaurus, 117

Running. See Speed

Nostrils, 45, 58, 64

Pelvis. See Hip structure

S

o

Phillips, John, 56

Phuwiangosaurus, 55

Sacral vertebrae. See

Oceans, 27

Pisanosaurus, 110

Vertebral columns

Olfactory organs,

Plants, evolution of, 15,

Sanders, R. Kent, 89

95-97

28-30

Saurischia, 14, 21

Omeisaurus, 47

Plate tectonics, 31-32

Sauropelta, 117, 121

Ornithischian hips, 108,

Plates, 114-115, 124,

Sauropodomorpha, 36,

109-110

127. See also Armor

40-41

Sauropods anatomy of, 43-44, 61-65, 73, 78-79, 84-85 changing images of,

38-40 eggs and nests of,

79-84 evolution of, 41-43 feeding methods of,

59-61 groups of, 45-55 lifestyles of, 55-59 locomotion of, 73,

40-41, 84-85 physiology and metabolism of, 65-73 tiering and, 29 Sauroposeidon, 47, 50 Scelidosaurus, 111 Scutes, 111 Scuttellosaurus, 111 Seismosaurus, 49 Senses, 95-97, 106 Sereno, Paul, 87 Shunosaurus, 47, 63 Sight. See Vision Sinraptor, 86, 93 Skeletons, 36 Skulls ornithischians and,

109, 114, 116 sauropods and, 45,

61-65 theropods and, 93, 95 "Slash and tear"

Smith, Joshua, 28 Speed, 97-99, 102, 106

Speeds, maximum, 73 Spikes, 113-114, 122, 125

Spines, 48, 113-114 Spinosauridae, 92, 106

Spinosauroidea, 88,

91-92 Spinosaurs, 88 Spinosaurus, 92, 104 Spotila, James R., 71 Stegosauria, 15-16, 111-116, 122-124 Stegosauridae, 29, 111, 113

Stegosaurus, 74, 112,

113-116, 126 Stevens, Kent, 65, 96 Stormbergia, 110 Struthiomimus, 99 Suchomimus, 92 Supersaurus, 49

Tachymetabolism, 68 Tails, 58, 104-105, 114, 119

Tazoudasaurus, 42 Tectonic plates, 23 Teeth ornithischians and,

110, 112, 125 sauropods and, 45,

58, 61-65 theropods and, 104-105 Temperature regulation,

Tethys Ocean, 23 Thermoregulation,

66-73, 115, 126-127 Theropods. See also Archaeopteryx Ceratosauria, 87,

88-90 overview of, 15,

86-87,106-107 predatory adapta--tions of, 94-105 Tentanurae, 88, 90-94 Thyreophora, 110-111,

124 Tibia, 43 Tiering, 28-29 Titanosauria, 29, 53-55,

73, 83 Titanosaurus, 76 Toes, 44, 59, 109 Tornier, Gustav,

39-40 Torvosaurus, 92 Trackways, 60, 73, 97 Transitional forms, 41 Triassic Period, evolutionary milestones of, 20 Triceratops, 74 Troodon, 95, 96, 101 Tuokiangosaurus, 113 Tyrannosaurus birds and, 93 as gigantic carnivore, 88 as pursuit--and--bite predator, 104 senses of, 95-99 speed of, 102, 106

Upchurch, Paul, 46, 65

Valdes, Paul J., 26 Velociraptor, 96, 104 Vertebral columns,

43-44, 53, 59, 109-110 Vicariance biogeography, 31-32 Vision, 95-96, 106

Von Meyer, Hermann, 105

Vulcanodon, 21, 42, 46

Warm-bloodedness,

66-73 Wilson, Jeffrey, 46

Yangchuanosaurus, 93 Yates, Adam, 42

Zallinger, Rudolf, 40 Zhiming, Dong, 93 Ziegler, Alfred M., 26

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