A

Actinistia, 104 Actinoxylon, 50 Adaptations, overview of, 15, 31-33, 38-42, 86-88. See also specific adaptations Ahlberg, Per, 103 Aistopoda, 120 Algae, 28, 35-36, 43, 55 Amber, 69 Amnion, 127, 157 Amniotes anapsida, 17, 137,

138-139 branches in evolution of, 17, 136-138 as competition for amphibians, 117, 123, 124 diapsida, 137-138,

147-152 euryapsida, 138,

152-157 Mesozoic era and,

158-159 origins of, 126-135 synapsida, 137,

139-147, 158-159 Amphibians, 86, 93, 95,

116-122, 128-129 Anapsida, 17, 137, 138-139

Angiosperms, 38, 40 Anteosaurus, 143 Anthracosauria, 120 Arachnids, 57, 58, 76-83 Archaeognatha, 65, 67 Archaeopteris, 50, 53 Archosaurs, 148,

149-151 Archysctina, 68 Arthropleuridae, 59, 63 Arthropods, 29, 57-58, 79, 82. See also specific groups Asthenohymen, 68 Atmosphere. See Gases Atterocopus, 81 Auchenorrhyncha,

68-69 Averof, Michalis, 73

Baphetes, 119 Baragwanthia, 45 Beerling, David J., 49-50 Beetles. See Coleoptera Biramous, 58 Blattaria, 64, 70-71 Blue-green algae, 28,

35-36 Book lungs, 77 Breathing, 92-93, 146. See also Gills; Lungs; Tracheal systems Buccal pumping, 93 Burrowing creatures, 27, 84

Caelifera, 69 Calamites, 48 Cambrian Period, 15, 22, 23

Carbon dioxide, 28-29,

49-50 Carboniferous Period,

22, 24, 28-29, 116-123 Centipedes, 57-63, 82 Centra, 133 Ceresiosaurus, 155 Chaloner, William G.,

49-50 Chasmatosuchus, 150 Chekarda fossils, 71 Chelicerae, 74-75, 77, 80-81 Chert, 65, 78-80, 84 Chlorophyll, 35 Cicadas, 69 Clack, Jennifer, 91-92, 95, 99, 109, 117-118 Climates, 16, 21, 53 Coal reserves, 25,

28, 48 Coates, Michael, 109 Coelacanth fish, 102 Coelurosauravus, 149 Cohen, Stephen, 73 Coleoptera, 64, 71-72 Colosteidae, 119 Competition, 117, 123, 124

Conducting systems, 36-37

55-56 Continental drift,

23-26, 30 Cooksonia, 45, 46, 47, 49 Coprolites, 132 Cordaites, 51, 53 Costal ventilation, 93 Crassigyrinidae, 117 Cratons, 23-24, 32 Crustaceans, 57, 58, 82 Cuticle, 39, 56 Cuvier, Georges, 156 Cyamodontoidea,

153-154 Cyamodus, 153, 154 Cyanobacteria, 28, 35-36 Cycads, 38, 39 Cynodonts, 144-147 Cynognathus, 147

Daeschler, Ted, 17, 98-99, 105-107, 110, 114-116 Darwin, Charles, 18 Dendrerpeton, 119-120 Dermal scales, 92 Desiccation, 39, 56 Detritus, 58, 67 Devonian Period, 22, 28 Diapsida, 17, 137-138,

147-152 Dicynodonts, 143-144 Digits, tetrapods and,

91-92 Dimetrodon, 140, 146, 159

Dinocephalids,

142-143 Diplocaulus, 121 Dipnoi (lungfishes), 93, 96, 102, 104

Diptera, 64 Dogs, 147

Dragonflies, 64, 67-68, 72, 84

Drought, adaptations to, 97-98

Ears, 94, 146 Ectotherms, 140 Edaphosaurus, 140-141, 159

Eggs, 127, 157 Elginerpeton, 103, 113 Elkinsia, 53, 54 Elpistostege, 103 Endotherms, 142 Engel, Michael, 66 Ensifera, 69 Eryopoidea, 122 Erythrosuchus, 150 Estemmenosuchus, 163 Eukarya, 35, 55 Euparkeria, 150-151 Euryapsida, 17, 138,

152-157, 160 Eurypterids, 75-77 Eusthenopteron, 90, 94,

104-105 Evergreen trees, 38, 39,

55-56 Exoskeletons, 62, 71 Extinctions, mass, 17, 22, 162 Eyes, 94-95, 136-137

Feeding, 31

Fenestrae, 136-138, 152, 159

Ferns, 38, 39, 46, 47, 53 Fins, 86, 95-99, 156. See also Lobe-finned fishes

Fish, 23, 86-91, 95-100. See also Dipnoi; Lobe-finned fishes Flight, 62, 73. See also Wings Fortey, Richard, 62, 80 Fossils, 58, 71, 98 Frills, 150 Fruits, 38, 40 Fungi, 43

Gait, 146-147 Gametophytes, 51 Gases. See also specific gases arthropod gigantism and, 60-62

evolution of leaves and, 49-50, 56 insects and, 73-74 life on land and,

41, 42 Paleozoic Era and, 28-29, 32 Genes, 66

Genoa River trackways,

103-104 Gigantism, 24, 29,

60-62, 77, 84 Gilboa fauna, 59, 66 Gills, 60, 73, 75, 84 Glaciations, 24 Global chemostat, 162 Glossopteris, 51, 53-55 Gondwana, 23-24 Gravity, 88-92 Green algae, 35, 36,

43, 55 Greenhouse effect, 162

Greererpeton, 119 Grimaldi, David, 66 Ground cover, 26-27, 32

Gymnosperms, 38, 39, 51-56

Habitats, 18 Hearing, 94-95, 146 Hemiptera, 64, 68-69 Herbivory, 72, 132, 139,

142-144 Horneophyton, 79-80 Hornworts, 44-45 Horseshoe crabs, 75 Horsetails, 47, 56 Hylonomus, 130-131, 134, 135, 137-138, 159

Hymenoptera, 64 Hynerpeton, 112, 113

Ichthyosaurs, 155-156,

157, 160 Ichthyostega, 98, 108-109, 110-112, 113, 130, 133 Insects adaptations of, 29, 60,

72-74 Archaeognatha,

Zygentoma, 65, 67 Blattaria, 70-71 body plan of typical,

63, 65 Coleoptera, 64,

71-72 Hemiptera, 64, 68-69 Odonata, 64, 67-68 origins of, 82 Orthoptera, 64,

69-70 overview of, 57, 58, 63-67 Isopoda, 58 Isoptera, 65

Jaekelopterus, 75 Jakubsonia, 112, 113 Jarvik, Erik, 108-109 Jaws, 145-146, 147, 152, 159

Jenkins, Farish, 17,

105-106, 116 Joints, flexible, 91, 110

Kronosaurus, 157

Land, requirements for living on, 31 Land plants. See Plants

(land) Lariosaurus, 155 Lateral undulation of the trunk, 91 Leafhoppers, 69 Leaves, 47, 49-50 Lepidodendron, 48 Lepidoptera, 64 Lepidosaurs, 148,

151-152 Lichens, 43, 44, 56 Limbs, 57, 86, 95-99, 107-108, 111. See also Skeletons Liopleurodon, 157 Livoniana, 103, 113 Lobe-finned fishes, 88, 93, 102, 104-107, 113, 124

Longisquama, 150 Loxomma, 118-119 Lungfishes. See Dipnoi Lungs, 77, 93, 96-98 Lycopodium, 80 Lycopods, 46-47, 56 Lystrosaurus, 143-144, 162

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