March Onto Land

The Silurian Period to the Middle Triassic Epoch

Th om Holmes i

CHELSEA HOUSE

PUBLISHERS

An imprint of infobase Publishing

THE PREHISTORIC EARTH: March Onto Land

Copyright © 2008 by Infobase Publishing

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval systems, without permission in writing from the publisher. For information, contact:

Chelsea House

An imprint of Infobase Publishing 132 West 31st Street New York NY 10001

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Holmes, Thom. March onto land / Thom Holmes.

p. cm. — (The prehistoric Earth) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-8160-5959-1 (hardcover)

1. Vertebrates, Fossil—Study and teaching—United States. 2. Geology, Stratigraphic—Triassic. I. Title. II. Series.

QE841.H655 2008

560—dc22 2007045330

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Text design by Kerry Casey Cover design by Salvatore Luongo Section opener images © John Sibbick

Printed in the United States of America

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Contents

Preface

7

Acknowledgments

10

Foreword

12

Introduction

15

Section One: The Greening of the

Paleozoic World

19

Chapter 1 Paleozoic Terrestrial

Environments

21

Chapter 2 The First Land Plants

34

Chapter 3 The First Land Animals

57

Section Two: Vertebrates on Land

85

Chapter 4 Going Ashore:

Becoming a Land Animal

86

Chapter 5 The Diversity of

Early Tetrapods

102

Section Three: The Evolution of

Early Amniotes

125

Chapter 6 Taking Over the Land:

Reptiles and Their Kin

126

Chapter 7 Vertebrates Branch Out

136

Conclusion

161

Appendix One: Geologic Time Scale

165

Appendix Two: Anatomical Directions

166

Glossary

167

Chapter Bibliography

173

5

Picture Credits 185

Index 186

About the Author 192

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