Protorosaurus Scorpion

Obruchevicthys, 103 Oceans, oxygenation of, 28

Opisthothelae, 81-82, 83 Organic matter,

26-27, 72 Orthoptera, 64, 69-70 Osborne, Colin P., 49-50

Osteolepiformes, 93, 104 Osteolepsis, 104, 124 Oxygen arthropod gigantism and, 60-62, 84 evolution of leaves and, 49-50 flight and, 73 life on land and, 43 Paleozoic Era and,

28-29, 32 tetrapod breathing and, 93 Ozone, 29-31, 43

Paleaeodictyopteroids, 72

Paleophonus, 76 Paleothyris, 130-131,

134, 137-138, 159 Paleozoic Era atmospheric gases and, 28-31 continental drift and,

23-26 Earth's changes during, 21-23, 32-33 evolutionary mile-stones of, 22 ground cover forma--tion during, 26-27 living on land dur--

ing, 31 role of water during, 27-28

vertebrates leaving water and, 15-16 Panderichthys, 94, 107, 113

Pangaea, 25, 26, 71-72 Panthalassa, 26 Pareiasaurs, 138-139 Pederpes, 117-118 Pedipalps, 74-75, 77, 80 Pelycosaurs, 140-141 Permian Period, 22, 26, 116-123, 162, 163-164 Permopsylla, 68 Petrolacosaurus,

148-149 Pholiderpeton, 120 Photosynthesis, 28, 35-36, 41-42, 49-50 Pioneers, plants as,

38-39 Placerías, 143-144 Placodonts, 153-154, 160

Planocephalosaurus,

152 Plants (land)

adaptations of for life on land, 38-42 evolution of, 34,

43-55 as food for vertebrates, 131-132 fossils of, 79-80 nonvascular, 37,

35-38 vascular plants, 3637, 41, 44-51, 55, 72, 80 Plesiosaurs, 156-157, 160

Pliosaurs, 157 Pollination, 38, 40, 41 Porolepiformes, 104 Predators fish to tetrapod transition and, 96, 100

insect gigantism and, 61 insects as, 72, 84 reptiles as, 133, 149-157 Probelesodon, 147 Procynosuchus, 145 Progymnosperms, 53 Proterogyrinus, 120 Protists, 35-36 Protohymen, 68 Protorosaurus,

149-150 Psilophyton, 46 Pterosaurs, 72 Pterygotus, 75-76

Red Hill site, 109-110,

112, 113 Reproduction, 31, 41, 95,

126-129 Reptiles, 127-128, 130-132, 152-153, 158-159. See also Amniotes Respiration, 31, 60-62 Rhynia, 45, 50, 80 Rhynie Chert, 65,

78-80, 84 Rhyniella, 65-66, 78, 82 Rhyniognatha, 66, 78 Ribs, 133

Sailbacks, 140 Salopella, 45 Sarcopterygians. See Lobe-finned fishes Sauripterus, 98-99 Sauropleura, 121 Scales, 92

Scouring rushes, 48 Scutes, 111 Scutosaurus, 139 Sea scorpions, 75-77, 83 Seedless vascular plants,

37, 44-51 Selden, Paul, 83 Sensory capacity,

94-95 Seymouria , 122 Shubin, Neil, 17, 105-106, 110, 114-116 Sight, 94-95, 136-137 Silk, 77, 81-82 Silurian Period, 22, 24 Sinostega, 112, 113 Siphonaptera, 65 Skeletons, 62, 71, 88-92,

105-106 Skulls, 88, 130-131, 133, 136-137, 144-146 Smell, 95

Soils, 26-27, 32, 43-44 Solar radiation, 23 Spathicephalus, 118 Sphagnum peat moss, 37 Sphenodon, 151, 160 Sphenopsids, 47-48, 56 Spiders. See Arachnids Spines, 90-91 Spiracles, 77 Spores, 27, 41, 44-45,

Steganotheca, 45, 46 Sternorrhyncha, 68-69 Stomata, 41, 42, 56 Stromatolites, 43 Strud jaw, 113 Swimming, 86, 95-99, 156

Symbiosis, 43, 44, 80 Synapsida evolution of, 17 importance of,

161-163 Mesozoic era and,

158-159 overview of, 137,

139-140 pelycosaurs,

140-141 therapsida, 141-147

Tanystropheus, 150 Tarantulas, 82-83 Tectonic activity, 24 Telangium, 52 Temperature regulation,

140, 142, 146 Temporal fenestrae, 136-138, 152, 159 Tetrapods basal Devonian,

102-104 breathing and,

92-93 Carboniferous and Permian Period and, 116-123 competition and, 123 earliest on land, 110-116 evolution of, 17,

132-134 lobe--finned fishes and, 104-107 mobility and, 95-99

near-terrestrial,

107-110 overview of, 86-87,

101, 123-124 reproduction and, 95 searching for,

114-116 sensory capacity and,

94-95 water loss and, 92 weight-bearing anatomy of, 88-92 Theraphosa, 83 Therapsida, 141-147 Thermoregulation, 140,

142, 146 Thrinaxodon, 146-147 Tiktaalik, 17, 105-107,

113, 114-116 Titanophoneus, 142 Trace fossils, 58 Tracheal systems, 62,

73-74, 77 Trackways, 103-104 Transitional life forms, 72 Trigonotarbids, 78, 81 Tulerpeton, 110-112, 113

Tusks, 119, 144

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, 23, 39, 43 Unnamed specimen ANSP 21350, 109-110 Undulation, 91 Uniramous, defined, 58

Vascular plants, 36-37, 41, 44-51, 55, 72, 80 Venom, 81

Ventastega, 109, 113 Vertebral columns,

90-91, 132-134, 135 Volcanism, 30

Water adaptations preventing loss of, 92

benefits of living in, 31 life on land and, 39 return to, 138 role of in Paleozoic

Era, 27-28 seedless plants and, 51 vascular vs. nonvas--cular plants and, 36-37

Weight-bearing anatomy,

88-92 Whatcheeriidae, 117, 118

Zygentoma, 65, 67

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