The Unusual Women of Mpimbwe

The Pimbwe live in the Rukwa Valley of present day western Tanzania. Impacts from German, Belgian, and British colonial escapades in this central African region were indirect (Tambila 1981), but colonial wildlife policies had more severe impacts, effectively displacing Pimbwe from parts of their traditional chiefdom (Borgerhoff Mulder et al. 2007). In the socialist era (mid 1970s), Pimbwe families were settled in government villages, but many have now returned to ancestral lands that lie...

Primatology and the

The findings of behavioral primatologists have been spectacular. Monkeys and apes form long-term social relationships that they use to exchange services and favors, including grooming, sex, and coalitionary support in conflicts (Silk and Boyd, this volume) reconcile when they have conflicts commit infanticide and deploy various social and sexual strategies to reduce that risk (Palombit, this volume) demonstrate sophisticated and surprisingly detailed knowledge about the social goings-on in...

Pair Bonds in Humans

Claims regarding the universality of human pair bonds are controversial but this is so because they are often confused with statements about origins. The ethnographic record displays a range of grouping patterns, from small two-adult family groups to large multimale multifemale bands (e.g., Pasternak et al. 1997), but within these formations, specialized relationships emerge, between (usually) heterosexual individuals, typically glossed as marriage. Although it is widely recognized that these...

Fatherhood and the Expansion of Kinship

Whatever its timing and exact causes, the evolution of stable breeding bonds in the hominid lineage transformed kinship from a low-profile factor in the social organization of early hominids to the prominent role it plays in simple human societies. The key event was the evolution of systematic paternity recognition and fatherhood. From the time the father associated with the mother, children were in a position to recognize their fathers, and the fathers their children, even in the absence of...

References

Aaron RI (1965) Wittgenstein's theory of universals. Mind 74 249-251 Agoramoorthy G, Mohnot SM, Sommer V, Srivastava A (1988) Abortions in free-ranging hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) - a male induced strategy Hum Evol 3 297-308 Altmann J, Altmann SA, Hausfater G (1978) Primate infant's effects on mother's future reproduction. Science 201 1028-1029 Andersson M (1994) Sexual selection. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ Andersson M, Simmons LW (2006) Sexual selection and mate choice....

Kin Recognition in Early Hominids

With this background information, we may come back to the issue of kin recognition in a chimpanzee bonobo society and, by way of inference, in early hominid society. In chimpanzees, mother-offspring recognition is well documented, and so is the recognition of maternal siblings (Goodall 1986 Pusey 1990, 2001 Lehmann et al. 2006 Langergraber et al. 2007). But given that males do not normally grow up with their mother's kin, the domain of uterine kin recognition is, in general, limited to these...

Counterstrategy Male Female Association

The counterstrategies to sexual conflict are as diverse as the manifestations of conflict itself. They may be morphological, such as the thick skin of female blue sharks (Prionace glauca) vulnerable to bites from courting males (Pratt 1979), or the large body size of some female lemurs, which is argued to limit sexual coercion during the mating season (Foerg 1982 Taylor and Sussman 1985 Richard 1992 Morland 1993 Brockman 1999). Female sexual behavior - particularly promiscuity - can limit...

Is Sexual Coercion Beneficial to Females

It is possible that sexual coercion may actually enhance female fitness by providing a behavioral filter for higher quality males as mates or guaranteeing that females' sons will carry sexually antagonistic traits that enable them to achieve higher reproductive success (Eberhard 1996 Cordero and Eberhard 2003). If the net effect on female fitness is therefore positive, then sexual conflict becomes a mechanism of female choice, which Eberhard (2005) contends explains most male mating aggression...

The Evolution of Stable Breeding Bonds

The transition from sexual promiscuity to enduring breeding bonds in the course of hominid evolution is the single-most important event that launched the exogamy configuration on its evolutionary path. How did that happen Answers to this question have traditionally focused on the adaptive aspects of pair-bonding, but they must also take into account the relevant phylogenetic constraints set by the ancestral mating system of hominids. Up to 80 of human societies combine monogamy with polygyny,...

The Atom of Between Group Alliances

As pointed out earlier, chimpanzees and bonobos are territorial they avoid other groups and may even attack strangers. In chimpanzees, intergroup fights are initiated and conducted by adult males, and the targets include other adult males, infants, and, sometimes, mothers. The local community is, thus, the most inclusive level of social organization in our closest relatives. Assuming that early hominids were territorial, it follows that a necessary condition for the evolution of between-group...

Hvd

Symbols kin recognized by Ego, assuming that Ego recognizes his uncles, aunts, nieces, and nephews. Empty symbols kin not recognized by Ego and were male philopatric, male relationships in these groups were minimally differentiated on the basis of kinship. This may appear somewhat intriguing considering that kinship is a central organizing factor in small-scale human societies, which, therefore, would have evolved from a comparatively kinshipless type of society. As we shall see, the key to...

Parental Investment Theory and Beyond

Models predicated on the differential postzygotic investment of males and females Trivers 1972 have dominated the study of sexual and reproductive strategies in most mammals, and provided a theoretical context for the classic finding that males benefit more from multiple matings than do females. Key to this discussion has been the regression of reproductive success on mating success, known as Bateman's gradient Bateman 1948 . Whichever sex has the steepest gradient is the sex that experiences...

Approaches to Studying Sexual Conflict

There are three general approaches to studying sexual conflict. The first method is exemplified by the now classic study of seminal proteins in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Rice 1996 Holland and Rice 1999 . These proteins originate in accessory glands, are transferred with sperm to female mates, and influence females in a number of ways that benefit males, such as 1 increasing the rate of female egg-laying Chen 1984 2 decreasing female receptivity to additional matings Ravi Ram and...

Kinship in Early Hominid Society

The chimpanzee bonobo hypothesis is an integral part of the larger issue of the suite of traits characterizing the last common ancestor of chimpanzees, bonobos, and humans. The traits common to all three species have been described by Wrangham 1987 , Ghiglieri 1987 , and Foley 1989 , and provide a cladistic model Moore 1996 of their common ancestor. Besides a multimale-multifemale composition, they include 1 territoriality, 2 male philopatry - male localization coupled with female transfer -...

Dominance Power and Politics in Nonhuman and Human Primates

As long as politics is the shadow cast on society by big business, attenuation of the shadow will not change the substance Power today resides in control of the means of production exchange, publicity, transportation, and communication. Whoever owns them rules the life of the country. The machinery of power is business for private profit reinforced by command of the means of publicity and propaganda. John Dewey, quoted in Westbrook 1991 440, 442 Abstract Dominance is a common, although not...

Penis Morphology and Female Injury

In strepsirrhines, keratinized penile spines, plates, or papillae are so conspicuous, widespread, and variable as to have long informed taxonomy Bearder et al. 1996 . Similar, but generally simpler, anatomical features are also found in a few platyr-rhines and catarrhines Dixson 1998 . Spines develop upon sexual maturity Perkin 2007 , suggesting testosterone mediation and a mating-related function, but the precise nature of that function remains obscure. Adaptive hypotheses include tactile...

The Unusual Women of Mpimbwe Why Sex Differences in Humans are not Universal

Abstract Parental investment theory provides a strong basis for generalizations about how male and female mating strategies might vary, and has generated a large number of successful predictions regarding gender differences in human reproductive strategies. There are, however, many situations in which traditional sex roles are not observed, and behavioral ecologists are beginning to determine how and why this might be. In this chapter, I explore the implications of generalizations about...

Forced Copulation

This form of sexual coercion involves the physical restraint and forcible insemination of resistant females. Among primates, forced copulation has been noted occasionally in several species chimpanzees Tutin 1979 patas monkeys Chism and Rogers 1997 spider monkeys Gibson et al. 2008 , but it is regularly observed in only two species, the orangutan Pongo pygmaeus van Schaik and van Hooff 1996 and Homo sapiens Smuts 1992 Goetz et al. 2008 . Although forced copulation occurs in a number of...

What is Reciprocal Exogamy

Kin Exogamy

What follows is a synthetic summary of reciprocal exogamy as far as it relates to my objective of characterizing the deep structure of human society. This summary is written from a primatological and evolutionarily informed perspective. Accordingly, I stress aspects that Levi-Strauss did not necessarily emphasize, and I use terms that he did not necessarily employ. In particular, I spell out the structural connections between what I consider to be the core features of reciprocal exogamy from a...

The Origins of Exogamy and Postmarital Residence

Exogamy lies far back in the history of man wrote Edward Tylor long ago, and perhaps no observer has ever seen it come into existence, nor have the precise conditions of its origin yet been inferred Tylor 1889, p 267 . Tylor could hardly have foreseen that the answer to this enigma lay in our close relatives. From an evolutionary perspective, exogamy primitive out-marriage is simply the incidental by-product of the combination of two otherwise typical primate patterns between-group transfer and...

Conclusion

If reciprocal exogamy is the deep structure of human society, the configuration of elements listed in Table 2.1 may be seen as the most sophisticated form the structure had reached prior to the evolution of the symbolic capacity. Some crucial elements are still lacking at that stage, notably the actual exchange of kinswomen by men, an aspect which probably required language. Table 2.1 may also be read as the list of human universals that stemmed from the presymbolic and prenormative state of...

Brother-brother Bond In Primates

Studies, the widespread phenomenon of avuncular relationships, those special bonds between maternal uncles and their sororal nephews. It is precisely in relation to that problem that Levi-Strauss 1963 discussed the atom of kinship. From here, we are in a position to understand still another central aspect of reciprocal exogamy, namely, cross-cousin marriage, which Levi-Strauss described as the elementary formula for marriage by exchange 1969, p 129 and the simplest conceivable form of...

Sexual Harassment versus Sexual Intimidation

Sexual harassment refers broadly to the fitness costs of mating to females sensu Daly 1978 , particularly costs connected with persistent male courtship, repeated intromission attempts, or the nature of copulation itself. Sexual intimidation refers to situations in which males punish females that refuse to associate with them or that associate with other males and is thus designed to reduce female resistance or promiscuity Clutton-Brock and Parker 1995, p 1353 . When males use sexual...

Post Copulatory Sexual Conflict Prezygotic

Sexual conflict after copulation may involve processes occurring at or prior to fertilization prezygotic or thereafter postzygotic Table 3.1 . The postcopulatory manifestation of intrasexual selection is sperm competition along with associated factors such as genital locks, penis morphology, etc. , which has attracted much study e.g., Birkhead and M0ller 1998 . Postcopulatory intersexual selection is cryptic female choice Eberhard 1996 , which primarily concerns the differential treatment of...

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Fig. 2.5 Two evolutionary paths leading to the modal composition of human groups the multi-family community Fig. 2.5 Two evolutionary paths leading to the modal composition of human groups the multi-family community multimale-multifemale groups and had a chimpanzee bonobo-like promiscuous mating system. It follows that stable breeding bonds and biparental families evolved at some point after the Pan-Homo split, producing the multifamily composition. The second logical possibility is the reverse...