Structural Concept And Structural Index Istr

Structures 1 and 2 (Table 4.7) are from reasonably recent reports (1993) concerning metal thermal protection systems (TPS) with current advanced titanium and metal matrix composite materials. Structures 3, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 are from the Hypersonic Research Facilities Study (HyFAC) conducted for NASA by McDonnell Aircraft Company, Advanced Engineering Department, from 1968 to 1970. One of the authors (PC) was the Deputy Study Manager for that program. Except for structure 3, which anticipated...

The Challenge Of Flying To Space

A predisposition to use rockets derived from military ballistic missiles, forced by the military competition between the United States and the former USSR, curtailed efforts to develop alternatives to chemical rockets together with practical commercial developments. With the orbiting of Sputnik, the aircraft path to space, represented in the US by the series of X planes Miller, 2001 and with the X-15 Jenkins and Landis, 2003 came to an end. With the X-15 demise, all efforts to fly to space...

Commercial nearEarth space launcher a perspective

Before there can be any space exploration, there must first be an ability to reach low Earth orbit (LEO) from Earth's surface. The required speed for low Earth orbit is given in Table 3.1. For all practical purposes 100 nautical mile and 200 kilometer orbital altitudes are equivalent. Whether it is an expendable launcher or a sustained-use, long-life launcher, the launcher must reach the same orbital speed to achieve LEO. From here the spacecraft can move to a higher orbit, change orbital...

The simple mirror configuration

At the simplest level, a mirror configuration consists of a pair of Helmholtz coils with currents flowing in the same direction (as shown in Figure B.6). Magnetic field intensity varies along B with a minimum value Bmin at the middle and a maximum value Bmax at the coil location. Confinement in the simplest mirror configuration is described by the conservation of energy E mv2 2 and of the first adiabatic invariant (the magnetic moment p mv 2B, v being the particle velocity perpendicular to B)...

Operational Concepts Anticipated For Future Missions

For current concepts of expendable systems the configuration choice of cylinders is practical. At best the solid boosters for the United States Space Shuttle are recovered from a low Mach number separation close to the Florida shore. However, for reusable vehicles and long-life, sustained-use vehicles the requirements for glide range become important enough to shape and even determine the configuration of the launcher and launcher components. As discussed in Chapter 2, the first example is that...

Major Sequence Of Propulsion Cycles

There are a significant number of propulsion system options that have been studied and reported. In this chapter 14 different classes of propulsion systems are discussed that are suitable for either hypersonic flight or space launchers. The authors have focused on those that are applicable to SSTO transatmospheric vehicles and hypersonic cruise vehicles. If the rocket ascent to orbit is deleted from the analysis then a SSTO that uses airbreathing propulsion to Mach 10 is essentially the first...

Fusion Propulsion Reactor Concepts

The history of fusion concepts for space propulsion goes back almost to the very beginning of the US fusion program for power generation (the Matterhorn Project). At that time plasma was imagined confined inside a ''magnetic bottle'' by means of a specially shaped magnetic field, with hydrogen isotopes fusing while traveling back and forth between the two bottle ends. About half century later, we are still struggling with the many facets of confining plasma Miyamoto, 2007 , but substantial...

The tandem mirror

The idea behind the tandem mirror (TM) is to modify the electrostatic potential shape along B in such a way as to confine both escaping ions and electrons. In the tandem mirror (Figure B.8) two smaller mirror cells are added at each end of the larger central cell where fusion reactions are supposed to take place. The axial profiles of density and temperature in the two end cells are tailored, using external methods such as radiofrequency heating and neutral beam injection, so as to transform...

Lightcraft

One of the limitations of the space launcher it the quantity of propellant that must be carried to achieve orbital speed. Even the most optimistic airbreathing system has a mass ratio of 4, so the propellant is three times the operational weight empty. During the 1984 International Astronautical Congress held at Brighton, England, Viktor Legostayev approached the author to discuss space developments in the Soviet Union Legostayev, 1984 . Part of the material presented was an experiment where a...

Shielding

Together with other minor factors, it is tokamak fuel kinetics that determines the fraction of fusion energy released as particle kinetic energy useable as thrust, and that in the undesirable form of radiation (see Section 7.4.1). Among the many technical issues associated to fusion and fusion propulsion, that of radiation and its shielding occupies a special place. Some of the radiation is useful, e.g., neutrons are indispensable to convert the liquid lithium coolant blanket behind the first...

Info

N MrEf - r(Pb + Ps) (n kTi + k ) (8.17) where (w) is the rate parameter, Ef is the fusion heat release and PB, PS are the bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation power losses. n1 and n2 are the particle number densities of the two reactants (see Figure 8.8), in general at different temperatures T1 and T2, respectively. k is the Boltzmann constant. Rate parameters and power losses may be found in Huba, 2002, pp. 45 and 56-57 . Equation (8.17) is an ignition criterion based on a steady-state...

Engine Thermal Integration

When discussing propulsion, hypersonic flight or atmospheric entry, the question of cooling is always prominent cooling implies discarding the rejected energy Ahern, 1983, 1992 . Thermal management implies that a fraction of the rejected energy creates useful work or thrust Barr re and Vandenkerckhove, 1993 . The concept of thermal management begins typically with two separate engines that are thermally integrated by having the fuel in this case hydrogen flowing through both engines before a...

Ldy

It is important to observe that as velocity is increased both the specific impulse, Isp thrust per unit fuel flow and specific thrust, Tsp thrust per unit air flow decrease inversely proportional to velocity, even though 9 may increase with velocity to a plateau value. Making a direct comparison between the energy conversion efficiency of Builder 9 using the enthalpy ratio C and the temperature ratio definition of C by Yang and Heiser and Pratt did not produce a clear cut Figure 4.26. Pulse...

Tokamak MCF rockets

The next stage of power fusion research took place in the 1960s and focused on curing the leaking plasma problem at the two ends of the magnetic mirror. The idea was to bend the plasma sausage at the two leaking ends and join them the result is no longer a sausage but a doughnut, in which B has two main components one toroidal, its field aligned with the doughnut larger circumference s , and one poloidal, the lines directed as the smaller cross-section circles . This is the tokamak reactor...

References

Alladio, F., Mancuso, A., Micozzi, P., Pieroni, L., Alessandrini, C., Apruzzese, G., Bettinali, L., Buratti, P., Coletti, A., Costa, P. et al. 2001 Proto-Sphera, ENEA CR Report, Frascati, Italy, July 2001, p. 13. Available at www.fascati.enea.it ProtoSphera Bodin, H.A.B., and Newton, A.A. 1980 ''Reversed Field Pinch Research'', Nucl. Fusion, Vol. 20, p. 1255 Borowski, S.K. 1995 ''Comparison of Fusion Antiproton Propulsion Systems for Interplanetary Travel'', in T. Kammash Ed. , Fusion Energy...

Natural orbital station

A natural orbital station is a habitat for humans to exist located on a natural satellite of Earth. It is true the Moon's environment is also an inhospitable and hostile environment. But with the presence of gravity and a soil surface there are options that do not exist for the artificial orbital station. General Stafford's Synthesis Group is not the first to study the Moon as a suitable operational crewed orbital station. Science Applications International Corporation SAIC generated such a...

Limits Of Chemical Propulsion And Alternatives

All considerations made in Sections 7.1 and 7.2 should convince that chemical propulsion is inadequate to explore interplanetary space and perform planetary missions within reasonable times and budgets. The main reason is low Isp, at most of order 450 s. The Tsiolkowski equation predicts most of the mass of propellants will be spent accelerating the propellants themselves, and that the payload will be a small fraction of the initial mass, of order 1-3 for AV of order 7-8km s. The Tsiolkowski...

Emerging Propulsion System Concepts In Development

This section will discuss two propulsion systems that operate in a manner different from conventional airbreathing chemical combustion systems. The first originated in the former Soviet Union, probably in the 1970s, as a total energy concept that coupled aerodynamic forces with electromagnetic forces and required a local plasma flow to exist for the system to work. The Russian name for the system is Ayaks, or Ajax, and is described as a magneto-hydro-dynamic MHD energy bypass system. If the...

Energy requirements for orbital inclination change

Using equation 5.11 , the variation in incremental velocity with altitude as a function of plane change angle is given in Figure 5.12 for five orbital altitudes, from 100 nautical miles 185.2 km to 19,323 nautical miles 35,786 km . For a 90-degree plane change at 100 nautical mile orbital altitude the incremental velocity is just over 35,000 ft s 10,668 m s . Compare that to the incremental velocity for the orbital altitude change from 100 nautical miles to 19,323 nautical miles of 12,900 ft s...

Earthmoon Characteristics

The Moon, at least on the side we can see, is characterized by bright, rugged, heavily cratered highlands and large sparsely cratered, level dark areas called by Galileo Galilei maria, or seas in Latin, as shown in Figure 6.2. The Moon has a mass of 1 81.3 Earth masses. Analysis of the lunar rocks returned by the Apollo astronauts indicates an age of about 4.5 billion 4.5 x 109 years. The orbit of the Moon around Earth is nearly circular, the eccentricity, e, being only slight e 0.0549 its...

Particle Bed Reactor

Following the end of the NERVA work, USAF took over research in nuclear propulsion Lawrence, 2008 , one of its priorities being a nuclear-powered reusable space tug more formally, the Orbital Transfer Vehicle OTV . With all the safety caveats, a space tug is a striking alternative to orbit raising chemical stages for commercial satellites. USAF started in the mid-1970s by modifying the NERVA I reactor, recognizing it rightly as the critical element of the entire propulsion system. The NERVA...

Electrostatic Ion Thrusters

Nuclear-powered electrostatic acceleration Bussard and DeLauer, 1958, p. 330 Sutton, 1992 is essentially that in commercial ion engines an applied voltage creates an electrostatic field, and the Coulomb force accelerates electrically charged ionized propellant. With nuclear power, the only conceptual difference is in the larger voltages and power one can afford. What is known about ion engines tells that thrust is limited by space charge, breakdown voltage and size of engine exit cross-section...

Conclusions With Respect To Continuous Cycles

Carl Builder was one of The Marquardt Company team that developed the Air Force Scramjet Program. Builder, Charles Lindley Lindley, 1963 and John Ahern were responsible for developing the thermodynamic analysis for the scramjet. The standard approach for the ramjet and its extension to scramjets was based on an isentropic stagnation conditions analysis where First Law inefficiencies were evaluated in terms of stagnation pressure losses and an aerodynamic analysis of the engine flow path based...

Maneuver Between Leo And Geo Change In Altitude At Same Orbital Inclination

The nominal LEO is 100 nautical miles 185.2 km or 200 km 108 nautical miles . To reach a higher-altitude orbit is usually a two-step process, as shown in Figure 5.6 for GSO for example. For a general elliptical orbit the lowest altitude is the periapsis and the highest is the apoapsis. Specifically for selected bodies The first step is an elliptical transfer orbit to the orbital altitude desired, which requires a propulsion burn to leave the low-altitude orbit the second step is a propulsion...

Index

Propulsion Systems

Air collection and enrichment system, 73, 146, 148, 154-155, 165-166, 175 air flow, 109-111 airbreathers, 7-8, 14, 51, 73-74, 78, 82-84, 93, 99, 101-102, 105-106, 120, 127, 134, 139, 165, 191, 211 Ajax, 184-186 alpha decay, 435 alpha particles, 295 An-225, 15, 56-57 Andrews, Dana, 293 Andromeda Galaxy, 4-5, 22, 28, 413-414, 418 Anfimov, Nikolai, 206 anti-gravity, 3 anti-mass, 3 Apollo, 12, 36-37, 249, 252, 262-264, 270, 272 Ariane V, 24 asteroids, 19, 278, 361 Atlas, 44, 300 AURORA, 306...

Lateral Mass Ratio Aircraft

Hypersonic Rocket Aircrafts

Wetted area parameter from Figure 3.9 correlates with Kuchemann's tau yielding a geometric relationship to describe the delta planform configurations of different cross-sectional shape. VT Vtotal. tau 0.10 vicinity. Airbreathing space launchers are in the range of 0.18 to 0.20. Rocket-powered hypersonic gliders are in the range of 0.22 to 0.26 tau. A correlating equation provides a means of translating Kuchemann tau into the S parameter, Swet V o66i7. As implied in Figure 3.10, as...

Aerospike Nozzle

Aerospike Nozzle

The performance of the propulsion systems in this chapter are based on a conventional convergent-divergent C-D nozzle Figure 4.45 . At low altitudes, external Figure 4.45. Alternate expansion nozzle configuration. Figure 4.45. Alternate expansion nozzle configuration. atmospheric pressure causes the nozzle flow to separate from the nozzle wall under-expanded in Figure 4.45 . Because the nozzle exit area is now larger than the under-expanded flow, the transonic base drag can be very large. The...

Bibliography

Aerospace America 1989 ''Nuclear thermal rockets next step into space'', by S.K. Borowski, E.A. Gabris, and J. Martinell, p. 17 ''The beginnings'', by R.J. Bohl, W.L. Kirk, and R.R. Holman, p. 18 ''Mars mission safety'', by D. Buden, p. 22, June 1989. Aerospace America 2000 Joint Propulsion Meeting Program, April 2000, pp. B64 and B70. Aerospace America 2004 Roundtable discussion on NP, November 2004 see it also at http Alta 2003 ''Technology and System Options towards Megawatt Level Electric...

Conflicts Between Expendable Rockets And Reusable Airbreathers

Air Launcher Ssto

The fundamental question always posed is Why airbreathers '' One observation is that specific energy energy mass is a function of speed squared. So if an airbreather only flies to 12,000 ft s rather than orbital speed of 25,573 ft s it achieves only 22 of the orbital energy. For specific energy this is correct. However, the launcher is much heavier at launch than when entering orbit. So the total energy Btu or MJ is a very different value. Figure 2.14 shows the total energy for launch vehicles...

Spectrum Of Airbreathing Operation

As the speed increases, the engine performance becomes characterized by energy conservation rather than by combustion energy conservation is far more important than chemistry Ahern, 1992 . The result is a spectrum of operation over the speed regime developed by Czysz and Murthy 1991 and shown in Figure 4.7. This figure illustrates the extent to which the kinetic energy of free stream air entering the vehicle inlet capture area and the fuel mass and internal energy become gradually more...

Fusion Propulsioninertial Confinement

Inertial Confinement Fusion Propulsion

Historically, this strategy for confining fusion fuel was proposed about 10 years after the Matterhorn fusion project of the 1950s in Basov and Krokhin, 1964 and Dawson, 1964 . Two factors contributed to start work in inertial confinement the first was the realization that MCF presented more difficult problems than initially thought the second was the availability of pulsed lasers in the GW class. The second factor especially suggested the possibility of bypassing the MCF need of large...

Hybridcombined Ntrner Engines

In this class of proposed concepts the purpose is to integrate nuclear reactor, electric propulsion and superconductivity technologies in a single engine. Except solid-core NTR, all nuclear engines must necessarily reject a large fraction of the heat generated in Rubbia's engine this is almost 50 in other NEP concepts this fraction is even higher . NTR reject most of the heat to the propellant, so a radiator is not needed at all. In all other nuclear engines it looks convenient to recycle waste...

Pulse detonation engine performance

Detonation Engine Definition

Analysis of engine flowpath physics, anchored to available experimental and CFD data, has shown this performance gain to be dependent on the propellant combina tion of choice, the chosen feed system, and other design parameters. It is only through detailed component energy balancing, coupled with unsteady detonation analysis and loss modeling that accurate estimates of the PDE PDRE performance may be obtained. Three key parameters that determine performance are, nozzle length compared to the...

Variable cycle turbo ramjet

Turbo Ramjet

Repeating part of the conclusion from Builder's 1964 report, there is an observation about a hypothetical engine at that time , the air turboramjet. To quote, In a sense, a fan-ramjet might be a suitable name for such a cycle the duct-burning turbofan and the air-turborocket could be considered close cousins to this hypothetical engine. At the higher speed end, around Mach 10, we can postulate a very efficient engine called the transonic combustion ramjet. There is still another important class...

Key Relationship Between Volume and Wetted Area

Controlling drag, that is skin friction resulting from wetted area, is the key to higher lift-to-drag ratios. Figure 3.9. Controlling drag, that is skin friction resulting from wetted area, is the key to higher lift-to-drag ratios. with different missions and propellants. Figure 3.9 shows the approach. Normally, to increase its volume a vehicle is made larger, as in photographic scaling. That is, all dimensions are multiplied by a constant factor. This means that the configuration...

Power Sources For Quasiinterstellar And Stellar Propulsion

The physics at our disposal is still based on that developed up to the late 1920s special relativity and quantum mechanics, besides Newton's Third Principle . Within its formulation, energy and mass are interchangeable. Einstein's E mc2 holds the only key to potential ''new'' power sources. In this light, there is no longer a question of finding new power sources as much as of finding new energy technologies exploiting E mc2. In fact, even combustion heat release about 1.3 x 107J kg when...

Nuclear Propulsion A Historical Perspective

A by-product of the need for carrying the heavy atomic and thermonuclear bombs of the 1940s, nuclear propulsion was explored in great depth in the US and Soviet Union from the late 1940s throughout the 1950s and until the early 1990s. In the US the rationale for starting its development by the Atomic Energy Commission, AEC, in 1953, through the program ROVER was the perceived need for a 75,000 lbf thrust nuclear thermal rocket to power the third stage of US intercontinental ballistic missiles...

Airbreathing Rocket Propulsion

Airbreathing rocket-derived propulsion systems are generally operated up to Mach 6 or less because of pressure and temperature limits of the air induction system Miki et al., 1993 . At Mach 6 inlet diffuser static pressures can typically equal 20 atmospheres and 3,000 R 1,666 K . Airbreathing rocket propulsion concepts employ a method to reduce the temperature of air entering the inlet system so it can be compressed to rocket chamber operating pressures with reduced power requirements. There...

Takeoff And Landing Mode

The switchblade wing version of the FDL-7C that is, the FDL-7MC was the preferred version for the 1964 studies. A switchblade wing version of the McDonnell Douglas Model 176 configuration, without a windshield, is presented in Figure 3.22. This was part of the McDonnell Douglas TAV Trans-Atmospheric Vehicle effort that vehicle was powered by either an Aerojet, Sacramento, Air Turboramjet or an airbreathing rocket propulsion system. The inward-turning, variable capture area inlet DuPont, 1999...

T D

Because of its lower thrust, a hydrogen-fueled turbojet is about equivalent in effective specific impulse in the transonic region to a hydrogen-oxygen rocket. In afterburner operation, the rocket outperforms the turbojet. Thermally integrated together the combination is better that the sum of individual engines, as demonstrated in Figure 4.16. The thermal energy from both the rocket and turbojet is used to power the expansion turbines that drive the propellant turbopumps. If there is remaining...

MHD interaction parameter S

It defines the strength of the interaction between the magneto-hydro-dynamic energy and the airflow. S aB L MHD interaction parameter 4.22 with a flow electrical conductivity mho m , p gas density kg m3 , u gas velocity along MHD device m s and pu mass flow per unit area kg m2 s . The mass flow per unit area along a vehicle increases by 25 or more from the nose to the engine area as the flow is compressed. This means that the Russian installation of a nose MHD device and plasma generator, to...

Black Holes And Galactic Travel

The time, energy and logistic limits posed by traveling in reasonable times to our closest stars let alone to Galactic destinations motivate the search for propulsion means alternative to what is based on current physics. This is a common goal among science fiction writers and scientists alike. The measurements taken from scientific satellites indicate the space-time continuum of the Theory of General Relativity is nearly flat if space-time could be warped, that is, curved, the force and energy...

Mcf And Icf Fusion A Comparison

The plasma responsible for thrust in rockets based on mirror MCF is controlled by B fields, as mentioned in Section 8.9. At a B of the order of a few tesla, gyration radius may be of the order 1 cm, and overall plasma cross-section ''bottle'' cross-sectional area is determined by the mass flow-rate to obtain a certain thrust. In sizing an MCF fusion chamber the next question is, what is the length of the mirror ''bottle''. An accurate estimate involves much calculating and assuming, but a quick...

B FRC formation and equilibrium

Ionized Propulsion System

A FRC is a variety of compact toroids with the following characteristics no appreciable toroidal field, values of fl of the order of unity, no rotational transform, all the equilibrium currents maintained by diamagnetism, a scrape-off layer exhausting heat and particles outside the coil system. FRCs are reviewed in Tuszewski, 1988 . FRCs were accidentally discovered in the 1960s in 0-pinches. In order to understand the main features of this configuration it is useful to consider the main...

Rubbias Engine

This concept has been proposed by the 1984 Nobel prizewinner C. Rubbia, in 1998 during a CERN lecture. The very first suggestion of using fission fragments to directly heat rocket propellant was made in 1948 Shepherd and Cleaver, 1948 . Quite independently, the same idea was also investigated in Israel by Professor Y. Ronen at Ben-Gurion University Ronen, 2000 . In Italy this concept has been developed since 1998 by an ad hoc research team led by C. Rubbia and funded by the Italian Space...

Mcf Reactors

MCF reactors go back to the very beginning of fusion studies, when confining plasma was thought to be possible only by means of a steady magnetic field. In fact, since plasma must be kept hot at all times, it cannot touch physical walls they must be kept at a much lower temperature for structural reasons . Were this to happen, reactor walls would melt, plasma would cool too much and too fast quench , and fusion would stop. Basically, plasma can be confined if the pressure exerted by the...

Buran Aft Black Tiles

Strapon Star Wars

Orbital insertion of payload carrier Orbital insertion of payload carrier Landing Goal - 1800 launches in 20 years Figure 2.10. Energia was an approach to achieve a fully reusable all major components recoverable , extended-life launcher at least 50 launches without overhaul with a Saturn V heavy-lift capability that the United States discarded. Right side shows strap-on booster configurations and payload to LEO. Energia M was in development in 1990. new. The Buran center tank has a very low...

Hyfac M

Transonic Ludwieg Tube

Ejector ram-scramjet powered HTOL SSTO with a gross weight of 300 tons, a weight ratio of 4.3 and an oxidizer fuel ratio of 2.2. Figure 4.36. Ejector ram-scramjet powered HTOL SSTO with a gross weight of 300 tons, a weight ratio of 4.3 and an oxidizer fuel ratio of 2.2. erates through the transonic flight regime. It is depicted climbing from an air launch from a C5A, but it could just as easily have separated from an An225. If this were a TSTO vehicle, a smaller version of the...

Geostationary orbit satellites sizes and mass

The first step is to examine a number of geostationary orbit GSO satellites from the open literature and determine a representative reference value. The goal is to generate a ''reference GSO satellite'' that is heavy enough to represent future satellites and provide a reasonable estimate of the orbital propellant required. Table 5.5 gives the dimensions of the satellite main body, with all antennas folded. The mass ratio determined by the ''beginning-of-life'' mass and the ''empty'' mass is the...

Present FRC experiments

Parameters achieved so far in the various FRC facilities range from 5 x 1019m-3 to 5 x 1021 m-3 in plasma density, 3keV ion temperature and 0.5 keV electron temperature, plasma beta in the range 0.75-0.95. The high values of plasma density are particularly remarkable although obtained in first-generation, short-duration experiments. As the configuration lifetime increases, the trend is towards lower density. Typical values of rs rc are in the range 0.4-0.6, although values up to 0.9 have been...

Stoichiometric combustion rocket engine SCORE

SCORE is a high-performing, low-thrust, gaseous hydrogen oxygen rocket engine designed by ORBITEC to operate at a stoichiometric mixture ratio as part of the water rocket program being sponsored by DARPA for Earth orbit spacecraft. SCORE is a small 20 lbf on-orbit spacecraft rocket engine intended to serve as the primary thruster for the water rocket system. The water rocket calls for the use of liquid water as a propellant supply. The liquid water is electrolyzed on orbit into hydrogen and...

Mpd Thrusters

High-power MHD thrusters are less developed than ion engines, and to a large extent are still laboratory items. Exploiting the Lorentz force, MHD acceleration occurs when a flow of charges, e.g., electrons and ions, in all respects equivalent to a current, J, moves in a magnetic field B. The Lorentz force is F J x B it accelerates charged species moving in the magnetic field B and according to Newton's Third Principle, creates thrust. The state of a gas containing charged species, that is, an...

Tajmar Mcculloch

Alcubierre, M. 1994 ''The Warp Drive Hyper-fast Travel within General Relativity, Classic and Quantum Gravity, Vol. 11, L73-L77. Ambjarn, J., Jurkiewicz, J., and Loll, R. 2008 ''The Self-Organizing Quantum Universe'', Scientific American, Vol. 299, No. 1, July, pp. 24-31. Anderson, J.D., Laing, E.L., Liu, E.L., Nieto, M.M., and Turyshev, S.G. 1998 ''Indications, from Pioneer 10 11, Galileo and Ulysses Data, of an apparent weak anomalous, longrange acceleration'', Phys. Review Letters, Vol. 81,...

Vortex hybrid rocket engine VHRE

With the goal of achieving practical and functional hybrid rocket propulsion systems, ORBITEC has patented a unique hybrid propulsion technology called the vortex hybrid rocket engine. Rather than injecting oxidizer parallel to the fuel port at the head-end, as in a classic hybrid, oxidizer is injected tangentially through a swirl ring at the aft-end of the fuel grain. This injection method generates a bidirectional, co-axial vortex flowfield in the combustor. The swirling, high-velocity gas...

Orbitec Vortex Rocket Engine

In a conventional rocket engine there is an ejector plate at the base of the combustion chamber that injects fuel and oxidizer into the combustion chamber at a specified fuel-to-oxidizer ratio. The key challenge is to control the combustion process so that heat transfer to the walls is minimized. The group that best controlled wall heating was probably the former Soviet Union rocket engine designers Bruno and Accettura, 2008 . Eric Rice, President of ORBITEC had a different approach some years...

Thermally Integrated Combined Cycle Propulsion

As the Mach number increases, the kinetic energy of the air increases by the square of the speed. As we saw in Figure 4.3, the kinetic energy of the air rapidly exceeds the thermal energy available to be transferred to the engine working fluid, air. The fraction of the combustion energy rejected as unavailable for conversion to useful work is also significant. In a modern turbojet engine only about 23 of the fuel combustion energy is actually converted to thrust, and 44 is discarded out of the...

Superluminal Speed Is It Required

At subluminal speed we have shown that round-trip conventional i.e., exploiting Newton's Third Principle spacecraft journeys to distant galactic destinations cannot be accomplished within the lifespan of the Earth-bound project team. But what if the spacecraft can exceed the speed of light Some investigators have been so bold to postulate the possible existence of faster-than-light entities Tanka, 1960 Bilaniuk, 1962 . There is a mathematical approach to the Lorentz transformations that avoids...

Lawson Diagram For Selfsustaining Fusion Burns

Generic fusion rocket geometry from Santarius and Logan, 1998 . j Inptil power not Indeed In mode ' Figure B.4. Generic fusion rocket geometry from Santarius and Logan, 1998 . efficiency vd or by thermal conversion for the remaining part with an efficiency vth into electrical power Pel vd d Vth 1 - d 1 - fr Pfus Paux . A certain fraction of this power must be used for auxiliary systems. If the efficiency for auxiliary power generation is vaux, such a fraction is given by Paux vaux...

Vasimr Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasmadynamic Rocket

VASIMR is a high power, electrothermal plasma rocket concept currently under development at its NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston by a team headed by astronaut Dr Franklin Chang Diaz Musser and Alpert, 2000 Chang Diaz, 2000 . VASIMR technology borrows heavily from US fusion R amp D, and especially from the vast experience in plasma heating by radio-frequency electromagnetic waves, or RF heating for short. A recent survey of the status of VASIMR can be found in Negrotti, 2008 . Although...