During the International Geophysical Year (IGY), the USSR lofted the first artificial earth satellite (Sputnik I) into low Earth orbit by adapting a military ICBM, the SS-6 (Figure 2.7), to become their first launcher [Clark, 1988]. That can be defined as typical of Russian design procedures. The United States has achieved its expendable and partially reusable launchers in a similar manner. The US Army Redstone IRBM was the vehicle to launch the First US astronaut (Alan Shepherd) into space on a
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