Relaxation Techniques

Relaxation Audio Sounds Dusk At The Oasis

Relaxation Audio Sounds Dusk At The Oasis

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Brain Evolution System

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C Relaxation algorithms

Another approach, widely used in remote sensing, is the relaxation method originally applied to the temperature retrieval problem by Chahine (1968). In the development of this algorithm it is assumed that measurements are available at a discrete set of wavenumbers, vi (i 1, m), which are associated with a set of weighting functions W(v,, z) whose maxima are well distributed over the atmospheric levels of interest. A first estimate of the temperature profile is obtained from the relation to these temperatures. The solution is then iteratively improved using the relaxation algorithm

Late Modification Stage Tectonic Deformation of the Popigai Impact Structure Russia

The 35-Ma-old Popigai impact structure (about 100 km in diameter) is characterized by its good preservation state and exposure, and detailed investigations that were made through deep drilling and mapping. The present contribution shows data on the post-impact faulting in the Popigai crater that were obtained from detailed mapping combined with aerial photo interpretation. The fracturing of impact rock bodies is widespread throughout the crater. Two hierarchic groups of fracture deformations are distinguished (1) Main radial and concentric impact-related faults, which determine a block structure of the crater (2) Small-size local faults and fissures from 0.5 to 5.5 km in length and from some centimeters to 10-20 m wide within impact rock sequences. There is no preferred orientation of individual local fractures, but fault systems have near-radial or near-concentric directions. As a typical example, an intensely fractured impact melt body was mapped at the 1 16,000 scale....

Massive stars in clusters

4.3.1 Mass segregation If massive stars form throughout a forming star cluster, energy equipartition will force them to segregate to the centre within a timescale tmsgr 2(m av mm)trelax, where m av and mm are the masses of the average star and the massive stars and trelax is the median two-body relaxation time, as detailed in Kroupa (2004). For example, fortheONC, trelax 0.6Myrand m av m m 10-2 such that tmsgr 0.1 Myr, which is much less than the age of the ONC. No wonder that the ONC sports a beautiful Trapezium, although it could also have formed at the centre (Bonnell & Davies 1998).

Cluster and Image Wave Instrumentation

- At higher frequencies (2-80 kHz), radio wave signals are continuously monitored by the active soundings and passive measurements of the Waves of HIgh frequency and Sounder for Probing of Electron density by Relaxation (WHISPER) instrument. The hardware of WHISPER mainly consists of a pulse transmitter, a wave receiver and a wave spectrum analyzer. Electric signals are acquired by the EFW electric antennas and only the onboard calculated fast fourier transform of the digital electric waveforms acquired are transmitted to the ground. A passive spectrum is recorded every 2.2 s and an active one every 52 s in normal mode for a frequency resolution of 162 Hz. Unlike a passive receiver, such a relaxation sounder enables to trigger plasma resonances when the medium does not show them naturally. For a detailed description of WHISPER, see Decreau et al. (2001).

Magmaassisted rifting

Buck (2004) developed a simple two-dimensional thermal model to illustrate how rifting and magma intrusion can weaken the lithosphere and influence subsidence and uplift patterns. The emplacement of large quantities of basalt in a rift can accommodate extension without crustal thinning. This process has been observed in the mature rift segments of northern Ethiopia (Section 7.8.1) where strain accommodation by faulting has been greatly reduced as magmatism increased (Wolfenden et al., 2005). If enough material intrudes, the crustal thickening that can result from magmatism can lessen the amount of subsidence in the rift and may even lead to regional uplift. This effect is illustrated in Fig. 7.30, which shows the average isostatic elevation through time for magma-assisted rifting compared to a typical subsidence curve for lithospheric stretching due to thermal relaxation (McKenzie, 1978). The uplift or subsidence result from changes in density related to the combined effects of...

Implications Outlook and Some Precautionary Notes

Future simulations must take into consideration effects of yield strength and brittle fragmentation of the material, and for a proper description of the melting process which is not possible using purely deviatoric stresses it is necessary to include the viscoelastic behavior of the material (in particular near the melting point) as a further sink of dissipated energy. The temperature dependence of the maximum shear stress, the kinetics of solid-solid phase transitions and melt production, and the viscous relaxation times of the materials need also to be taken into consideration.

Understanding gene function

To begin with paralogs, Ohno (1970) saw gene duplication as the driving force for innovation. Gene duplication, under a purely neutral mechanism, led to relaxation of selective constraint on both duplicate copies. Both were then free to explore sequence space until one copy no longer achieved the basic function necessary in the genome. That copy remained free to evolve, while the other copy became constrained to uphold the ancestral function. Possible fates for the freely evolving copy were neofunctionalization (the evolution of a new function) and pseudogenization (the loss of gene function).

Summary and Concluding Remarks

Blocks, as well as the restriction of an uplift of Pliocene-Early Quaternary sediments to the southern part of the crater and its southern surroundings, and repeated accumulation of sediments in linear areas during a continuous period, suggest that the principal contribution is a regional tectonic overprint (namely, the rise of the Anabar Shield during Neogene-Quaternary period Novikov 1997), rather than relaxation movements of the post-impact block tectonics of the Popigai crater. Thus, the 35-Ma-long post-impact modification history of the Popigai crater is determined by the superimposition of the regional tectonics on the long-term relaxation movements. As a whole, the late modification stage tectonics is found to have only an insignificant effect on the Popigai crater, so that both the original structure and the crater topography have been retained in good condition.

Protoclusters And Starforming Regions

Young clusters offer the further advantage of being largely free of the effects of dynamical evolution. Some degree of mass segregation exists in even the youngest systems, with the highest-mass stars often more centrally concentrated than the average cluster member. Given typical crossing times of between a few x105-106yr, this concentration is more likely to be a result of the conditions prevailing during the earliest stages of star formation rather than a consequence of dynamical relaxation. Solar-type and lower-mass stars appear to follow nearly identical radial density distributions (as in the Pleiades), thereby minimising potential biases due to incomplete areal coverage.

Malcolm S Longair Moscow

Stalin died in 1953 and the subsequent Khrushchev and Brezhnev eras saw a relaxation of the constraints on astrophysical and cosmological research, but the restrictions on contacts with the West remained in place. Most important for our story is the fact that, although the relaxation came as a great relief to everyone, the political system bequeathed by Stalin and the means of enforcing the restrictions on Soviet life remained in place. In particular, the system set up by the Committee for State Security (KGB) during the Stalin era remained omnipresent in Soviet life and was governed by the same suspicion of individuals which had pervaded the Stalinist era. There is no question but that the USSR was a police-state in which the KGB had essentially unlimited power to make life difficult if one did not follow the written and unwritten rules.

Notes and references

Nimmo, F. (2002) Constraining the crustal thickness of Mercury from viscous topographic relaxation. GRL 29, doi 10.1029 2001Gl013883 Nimmo, F. and Watters, T. R. (2004) Depth of faulting on Mercury Implications for heat flux and crustal and effective elastic thickness. GRL 31, doi 10.1029 2003GL018847.

Methods For Medical Evaluations

Panda Electro Ejaculation

In 12 cases where the procedure was longer than normal (e.g. to conduct abdominal laparoscopy), we used inhalation anaesthesia delivered by face-mask or endotracheal tube. To accomplish the latter, isoflurane and oxygen were administered via a face-mask using a precision isoflurane vaporiser set at 4-5 and a circle-system anaesthetic machine. The animal was placed in lateral recumbency. Once jaw relaxation was achieved, the animal was intubated using a 12-, 13- or 14-mm internal diameter endotracheal tube. The head was extended dorsally as much as possible, and the mouth was held open with ropes held by assistants. The larynx was directly visualised with a laryngoscope and then intubated, or the endotracheal tube was gently guided through the mouth and into the larynx without viewing. In adult animals, laryngoscopy required an extra-long (35-cm) blade to view the vocal folds. Once intubated, the animal was maintained on the appropriate concentration of isoflurane to maintain a...

Nucleosynthesis in a hot big bang

Big Bang Nuclear Synthesis

The earliest discussions of element formation in the big bang picture considered the idea that the relative abundances of the chemical elements and their isotopes might have been determined by relaxation to thermal equilibrium at some hot early stage of expansion of the universe. The concept can be compared to that of the blackbody radiation discussed in Chapter 2. We remarked that at thermal equilibrium the intensity of the radiation at each wavelength is determined by just one quantity, the temperature. At equilibrium the relative abundances of the elements and their isotopes would be fixed by two quantities, the temperature and the density of matter. The analysis by von Weizacker (1938) showed that the situation has to be at least a little more complicated than that. He found that a rough fit to the observed pattern of abundances of the elements would follow if particle reactions generally ceased to be important - the pattern of element abundances were close to frozen in - when the...

Shatter Cone Formation

Different mechanisms have been proposed for the formation of shatter cones. This includes the idea by Johnson and Talbot (1969) that the elastic precursor of a shock front is scattered by a heterogeneity in a rock (see also Sharpton et al. 1996). Gash (1971) proposed that shatter cones were produced from the interaction of an incident shock wave with a tensile wave reflected from a reflective source such as a local heterogeneity in a rock (for example a relatively large grain, pore space, or fracture). Milton (1977) suggested that shatter cones formed during relaxation after peak compression. And Baratoux and Melosh (2003) have just recently advocated that while cone initiation takes place at heterogeneities in a rock, this would occur after the passage of the main plastic compression pulse (ibid). It is obvious that more work, combining geological (i.e., field work) and mineralogical investigations with theoretical advance, is required before a comprehensive model for the formation...

The thermal cosmic microwave background radiation

Solar Irradiance Planck Radio

A warm body radiates you can feel the thermal radiation from a hot fire. In a closed cavity with walls that are at a fixed temperature the radiation in the cavity relaxes to a spectrum - the intensity of the radiation at each wavelength - that is uniquely determined by the temperature of the walls. The time it takes for the radiation to relax to this thermal spectrum depends on how strongly the walls absorb and emit radiation. If the walls are perfectly absorbing - black - the relaxation time is comparable to the time taken by the radiation to cross the cavity. That suggested a commonly used name blackbody radiation is radiation that has relaxed to thermal equilibrium at a definite temperature. The thin line in Figure 2.2 shows the spectrum of blackbody radiation at temperature To summarize, blackbody radiation uniformly filling an expanding universe stays blackbody only the temperature of the radiation changes as the universe expands. This is the essential signature. Since, as we now...

The evolution of rifted margins

As continental rifting progresses to sea floor spreading, the margins of the rift isostatically subside below sea level and eventually become tectonically inactive. This subsidence is governed in part by the mechanical effects of lithospheric stretching (Section 7.6.2) and by a gradual relaxation of the thermal anomaly associated with rifting. Theoretical considerations that incorporate these two effects for the case of uniform stretching predict that subsidence initially will be rapid as the crust is tectonically thinned and eventually slow as the effects of cooling dominate (McKenzie, 1978). However, the amount of subsidence also is influenced by the flexural response of the lithosphere to loads generated by sedimentation and volcanism and by changes in density as magmas intrude and melts crystallize and cool (Section 7.6.7). Subsidence models that include the effects of magmatism and loading predict significant departures from the theoretical thermal subsidence curves.

Results And Discussion

Ketamine HCl was used without any additional sedative drugs on 44 occasions (mean 5.7 mg kg-1 range 4.1-8.8 mg kg-1 mean time to induction 10.3 minutes range 1-58 minutes). The total procedure length averaged 43 minutes (range 28-144 minutes) with a total accumulated ketamine dose averaging 9.1 mg kg-1 (range 4.2-16.7 mg kg-1). In the remainder, ketamine was the primary agent but chlorpromazine, xylazine or diazepam was also used (see p. 60-61). In general, relaxation was poor with ketamine HCl alone, with no noticeable improvement with the additional injectable sedatives at the described dosages. Regardless, all animals were adequately immobilised for transport from the animal's home enclosure to the examination area to begin the procedure. Overall induction time averaged about 10 minutes with the total dosage used averaging about 1.5 times the initial dose. In most cases, oral examination and tattooing were difficult due to poor jaw relaxation and spontaneous head movement, often...

Expanding Earth Hypothesis

Contracting Earth Theory

The universal gravitational constant was decreasing with time as the universe expanded and its constituent matter became more widely dispersed. Gravitational forces are responsible for binding the Earth into a spherical form, and since the gravitational constant directly controls the magnitude of the force of attraction between masses, its decrease would imply a progressive relaxation of the binding forces and an increase in the Earth's radius.

Dinosaur Necrolesties

One day during the Mesozoic, a 3-metric-ton ornithopod died from a horrible, nasty, and painful viral disease. After much aimless staggering, the ornithopod collapsed on to the floodplain of an inland river. Soon after it died, its corpse underwent rigor mortis (the stiffening of musculature in the body) within the first 10 hours or so of death, followed by a relaxation of the muscles. It initially landed on either its right or left lateral surface, with its limbs stretched away from its body and its head turned toward its back as the stronger muscles on the dorsal surface of the neck contracted. The same process affected the tail, and its dorsal muscles pulled the tail toward the back of the body, with the neck and tail forming an arc.

Overcoming Limitations Circumventing The Fixed Backbone

The first attempt at backbone flexibility in a more general protein design algorithm was the SoftROC program by Desjarlais and Handel (Desjarlais and Handel 1999). The intent of their work was to address the problem of compensating for unfavorable core mutations by relaxation of the backbone. Starting from a known crystallographi-cally determined structure, backbone torsion angles were randomly adjusted up to 3 from their original positions to generate a population of conformations (Figure 15.4).

Fiqi q qn

Convergence is usually found to be rather slow however, for many applications, it may be computationally more efficient than the linear method because it eliminates the need for evaluation of the elements of the derivative matrix. This approach, or variations on this approach, has been used extensively for determining gas composition profiles in both the Earth's atmosphere and the atmospheres of other planets. As an example, we consider the retrieval of an ammonia profile on Jupiter from measurements made by the Voyager infrared spectrometer (Kunde et al., 1982). The portion of the spectrum between 850 and 1100 cm-1 was used, as shown in Fig. 8.3.2. A modification of the relaxation method as proposed by Smith (1970) was applied to the data. The retrieved NH3 profile is shown in Fig. 8.3.3 where it is compared with the profile that would exist if ammonia were saturated at the local atmospheric temperature. The atmospheric temperature profile employed in the analysis...

Crustal dimensions

Without seismic data, constraining crustal thickness must employ indirect and model-dependent methods. The best approach combines topography and gravity, which leads to an average value of about 50 km and with variations between about 3-92 km but mostly between 20-70 km. The crust beneath the southern highlands is about 25 km thicker than that beneath the northern plains 10 . Other approaches have included geochemical mass balance, moment of inertia data and viscous relaxation of topography, all of which include various assumptions (that could be avoided with some good seismic measurements). Wieczorek and Zuber 11 reviewed the various approaches and concluded that the average thickness of the crust was 50 12 km, the value adopted here (Fig. 6.1).

Z cpH tRK J

The factor in parentheses on the left side of Eq. (9.2.33) is just the difference between the adiabatic and the actual lapse rate of the atmosphere. Examination of the observed temperature field indicates that the lapse rate is less than adiabatic so this factor is positive. For an upward moving parcel, the left side of Eq. (9.2.33) represents the rate at which the temperature would decrease due to adiabatic expansion, while for a downward moving parcel, this term represents the rate of increase in temperature due to adiabatic compression. These processes are sometimes called adiabatic cooling and heating. Equation (9.2.33) states that adiabatic heating or cooling due to vertical motion is balanced by the radiative relaxation of the temperature field. Thus, if we have sufficient information to calculate the radiative equilibrium temperature field and the radiative relaxation time, the temperature field retrieved from infrared measurements can be used to estimate the...

Lost Worlds

As if that is not enough, promotional literature from the islands claims that it is believed that the island community was once part of the road system of the Lost Continent of Atlantis. It is the ideal place for me to pursue my research into the lost worlds of legend and, perhaps, to enjoy some much needed rest and relaxation.

E Profile retrieval

An alternate approach is to apply a relaxation technique similar to the method of temperature inversion discussed in Subsection 8.2.c. In this case the number of parameters describing the gas profile is chosen equal to the number of wavenumbers for which we have measurements. The radiance at each wavenumber vi is associated with a gas mole fraction qi at the atmospheric level to which the radiance is most sensitive, i.e., nearthe peak of the contribution function. A first guess, q0(i 1, m), is introduced and used in the radiative transfer equation to calculate a set of radiances, I (vi). In order to carry out the radiance calculation it is necessary to adopt some form of interpolation between the levels for which q is initially specified. An improved solution q1 is then obtained using the relaxation relation

The Kinetic Approach

And Sounder for Probing Electron density by Relaxation) (Decreau et al. 2001) observations onboard CLUSTER by Dandouras et al. (2005), Darrouzet (2006) and Sch fer et al. (2007). Moreover, Sch fer et al. (2008) studied the spatio-temporal structure of a poloidal Alfven wave near the dayside plasmapause based on CLUSTER observations of magnetic and electric fields.


Such as the strength of selection, how much variation was available, and population size - modern ER capabilities, along with a modern-shaped body evolved, probably first in H. erectus. These capabilities apparently enabled H. erectus to kill medium- to large-sized animals in the hot, open habitats of Africa in the Early Pleistocene without any weaponry more sophisticated than a sharpened wooden stick. After the ESA, more sophisticated projectile technologies evolved (e.g., stone- and bone-tipped spears, bows and arrows, spear throwers and nets) that gave hunters other, less grueling options to bring home the bacon. As a result, persistence hunting has become less important. In addition, many homi-nins started to move out of Africa into temperate zones where PH was no longer possible. But the traces of our ancestry persist in a body well-suited to ER, a behavior that nowadays serves primarily as a means of relaxation and a way to stay healthy.

Backbone flexibility

Methods incorporating backbone flexibility by optimizing the backbone and side chains simultaneously might represent a more accurate relaxation of local structures because of cross talk between the two components during optimization. The self-consistent mean field method used in the loop design mentioned previously, where the mean field of both the backbone and the side chains are simultaneously considered, is an example of this method. Another approach to this method is the use of molecular dynamics to allow backbone flexibility synchronously with side-chain adjustments. However, during side-chain repacking simulations the protein structure could get trapped in a local minimum. To prevent this from happening simulated annealing protocols are used but this also poses problems because explicit waters and overall protein folds can be distorted. Riemann and Zacharias suggested the use of a potential scaling molecular dynamics method to overcome these issues (Riemann and Zacharias 2005)....


Pedicle Foramen

The linguliformeans (see Fig. 12.1a, b) have organophosphatic shells with pedicles that either emerge between both valves or through an opening called the foramen. The shells develop from a planktotrophic, or planktonfeeding, larval stage, and linguliformeans are characterized by an alimentary tract ending in an anus. In the lingulates, the opening and closing of the valves is achieved by a complex system of muscles and the pedicle emerges between both valves. Withdrawal of the soft parts posteriorly causes a space problem that can force the valves apart relaxation allows the animal to expand again forwards allowing the valves to close. The paterinates are the oldest group of brachiopods, appearing in the lowest Cambrian Tommotian Stage. Although linked to the other linguliformeans on the basis of an organophosphatic shell substance, the shell structure of the group is quite different and the shells have true interareas, del-thyria and notothyria and apparently had a functional...


Kawamori, E., Murata, Y., Umeda, K., Hirota, D., Ogawa, T., Sumikawa, T., Iwama, T., Ishii, K., Kado, T., Itagaki, T. et al. (2005) ''Ion Kinetic Effect on Bifurcated Relaxation to a Field-Reversed Configuration in TS-4 CT Experiment'', Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 45, pp. 843-848. Stuhlinger, E. (1964) Ion Propulsion for Space Flight, McGraw-Hill, New York, Ch. 4. Taccetti, J.M., Intrator, T.P., Wurden, G.A., Zhang, S.Y., Aragonez, R., Assmus, P.N., Bass, C.M., Carey, C., deVries, S.A., Fienup, W.J. et al (2003) ''FRX-L A Field Reversed Configuration Plasma Injector for Magnetized Target Fusion'', Rev. Sci. Instruments, Vol. 74, No. 10, pp. 4314-4323. Taylor, J.B. (1976) ''Relaxation of Toroidal Discharges'', in D.E. Evans (Ed.), Pulsed High


Perchuk et al. (2003) recently embarked on a discussion as to whether some of the dark-matrix breccias, for which the Vredefort impact structure is so famous, should be classified as ultramylonites or pseudotachylite. Their argument in favor of ultramylonite is that the veinlets from Vredefort do not contain glass. In accordance with the modern classification Wise et al. 1984 , these thin viscoelastic deformation features must be regarded as ultramylonites formed through the relaxation of residual stresses This observation is, of course, opposed to extensive observation of evidence for melting, crystallization of vein fillings from melt phases, and - as demonstrated by White (1993) for some veinlets - of presence of glass.