Atlas

In April 1998 Lockheed Martin renamed the Atlas IIAR the Atlas III.162 It had been hoped to make the first flight before the end of 1999, but the manufacturing fault in the RL-10 engine (revealed by a Delta III on 4 May 1999) meant that the Centaur stage of the Atlas was also grounded for four months.16V64 Meanwhile, the Atlas IIIA that had been undergoing test on Pad 36B in May for launch in June was removed.16V66 The plan was to re-erect it in January 2000 and launch it a few months later with Eutelsat W4, which was a Spacebus 3000 built by Alcatel.16V68 It took five attempts, but it was finally launched on 24 May.169 The throttleable RD-180 proved its versatility: it lifted off at 74 per cent thrust in order to minimise any damage to the pad, and as it cleared the umbilical tower it increased its power to 92 per cent. Its 'stately' lift-off was reminiscent of a Saturn V. At T+33 seconds it throttled down to 64 per cent while the vehicle went supersonic, and 30 seconds later, once it was safely through Max-Q, it increased to 87 per cent. Once it had achieved an acceleration of 5.5 g, the engine slowly tailed off to maintain this load. As it was more powerful, the first stage shut down at T + 3 minutes, which was some 2 minutes earlier than the Rocketdyne-powered variant.170 The nozzle bell of the single-

The first Atlas IIIA lifts off on 24 May 2000

with Eutelsat W4.

chamber RL-10 on the Centaur was cranked down without incident.171,m This marked the 50th consecutive success for the Atlas. There was a rich irony in the fact that a vehicle which had been conceived to strike at the Soviet Union was now powered by a Russian engine, and the 'enemy' had become Boeing!

With a single-chamber Centaur, the Atlas IIIA could insert a payload of 4 tonnes into geosynchronous transfer orbit. The two-chamber Centaur would increase this by half a tonne. The first Atlas IIIB had been expected to be launched by the end of 2001, but it was delayed, and did not depart from Canaveral with EchoStar 7 until 21 February 2002.173,174 The next launch on 12 April 2003 was also an Atlas IIIB, and it deployed AsiaSat 4. On 18 December an Atlas IIIB deployed the 11th HS-601-based UFO satellite for the Navy.175 Next was an Atlas IIIA on 13 March 2004 with a satellite for the Mobile Broadcasting Corporation of Japan. In contrast to the Delta III, the Atlas III was proving itself to be a reliable launcher.

There was about 80 per cent commonality of systems between the Atlas III and the 'common booster core' that was being developed for the Atlas V.176 (There was no Atlas IV, perhaps because the company saw the new vehicle as a successor to the Titan IV.177) Nevertheless, the Atlas III was a transitionary vehicle in that it had the original 'balloon' tankage - the new structurally stable tankage would be introduced with the Atlas V.178 In mid 2000, the Air Force decided that the Heavy EELV role would be served by the Delta IV.179,180 Nevertheless, Lockheed Martin continued with the development of the Atlas V-Heavy in order have a vehicle to match the upgraded Ariane V. ILS planned to phase out the Atlas III as soon as the Atlas V entered commercial service, which was expected to be in 20032004.181

The first Atlas IIIA lifts off on 24 May 2000

with Eutelsat W4.

ATLAS V

There were high hopes for the Atlas V as a commercial launcher. "Reliability is the key buying criterion,'' observed ILS president, Mark Albrecht.182 Khrunichev expressed concern that ILS would support its Atlas V at the expense of the Proton -the shrinking commercial market was undermining the production line.183 While it would be cheaper to import the RD-180 engines from Russia, these would have to be made in the USA to achieve the 'All-American' status required for EELV contracts for government payloads. Pratt & Whitney had intended to start production at its plant in Florida as soon the Atlas V entered service, but when it became clear that the vehicle would initially be operated as a commercial launcher, local engine production was postponed to 2007.184

The first Atlas V arrived at Canaveral in June 2001 amid speculation as to whether it would be able to be launched ahead of the Delta IV.185,18V87 In early 2002 it was rolled out, but its launch was slipped from the planned 9 May to 29 July. The launch was again postponed to late August to allow further tests of the umbilical retraction system, and Countdown Demonstration Tests were conducted in March, May and July.188,189,190,1SI1 On 21 August 2002 it was successfully launched from Pad 41 carrying Hot Bird 6 for Eutelsat.19V93 This was the sixth of six Atlas variants to have a successful maiden launch. On 13 May 2003 the second Atlas V carried HellasSat for the eponymous Greek Cypriot-led consortium.194^95

Phasing out the Atlas II

The final Atlas II was launched on 16 March 1998, the last Atlas IIA on 4 December 2002, and the last Atlas IIAS on 31 August 2004.196,197,198 Since 1991, 63 Atlas II, IIA and IIAS vehicles had carried satellites for commercial customers, the Department of Defense and NASA.199 ''This is an awesome accomplishment, being the only US expendable launch vehicle series to have had 100 percent success throughout its entire lifespan,'' observed ILS president Mark Albrecht.

DELTA IV

Boeing's plan to introduce the Delta IV in April 2001 was dashed by the protracted development of the RS-68 engine, which was late partly as a result of the design-to-cost approach.200^01 At 109 per cent of its nominal performance, the SSME gave a thrust of 418,660 pounds with a combustion chamber pressure of 3,000 psia. The RS-68 for the Delta IV had a thrust of 650,000 pounds at 100 per cent — making it the most powerful hydrogen-burning engine yet developed - at the relatively modest pressure of 1,410 psia, and when it was throttled down to 59 per cent this dropped to a benign 836 psia.202,2°3 In a static test of the RS-68 at the Stennis Space Center, a blade in the fuel pump failed due to high cycle fatigue, but the engine shut down safely.204 In early 2001 Boeing integrated its Delta II, III and IV programmes into a single organisation ''to bring production into a single entity to ensure efficient management''.205 In late 2001 the launch was scheduled for 30 April 2002,206 and if a

Satellites Rescue

The inaugural Atlas V lifts off on 21 August 2002 with Hot Bird 6.

On 17 July 2003 an Atlas V augmented by two strap-on rockets lifts off with Rainbow 1.
The inaugural Delta IV lifts off on 20 November 2002 with Eutelsat W5.
Eutelsat Delta Launch
A Delta IV lifts off on 29 August 2003 with DSCS-III-B6.

commercial satellite could not be signed up then it was to fly with a dummy payload.207,208,209,21° On 30 April 2002 the first vehicle was set up on Pad 37B.211 The launch was first slipped to July, and then to late October in order to provide more time to prepare the vehicle.21^213 Meanwhile, Boeing decided that the Delta III would not fly again - in fact, four had been cannibalised for parts in support of the Delta II - and the commercial payloads earmarked for the Delta III were to be transferred to the Delta IV.214 A software glitch in the final minutes of a Countdown Demonstration Test on 30 August prompted a slip to November.215 The first Flight Readiness Firing was successfully conducted on 14 October.216 When launched on 20 November 2002 it successfully deployed Eutelsat W5. In this initial configuration, the core was augmented by a pair of GEM-60 strap-ons.217 Turning to the EELV contracts, on 10 March 2003 the second Delta IV dispatched DSCS-III-A3 to geostationary orbit, and on 29 August 2003 the third launch added DSCS-III-B6 to complete that constellation.218,219,22° Both of these missions used the 'clean' core, without strap-ons. This configuration could insert just over 8 tonnes into low orbit or 4.2 tonnes into geosynchronous transfer orbit, and the use of GEM-60 strap-ons raised these figures to 11.5 tonnes and 6.5 tonnes respectively.

By this point, the Air Force had delayed the introduction of the Atlas V as an EELV, using the Delta IV instead.221 In effect, because the depressed market was insufficient to support both, one was attempting to operate commercially while the other was providing government-funded launches. However, the Atlas V did pick up one EELV contract. On 3 September 1999 the National Reconnaissance Office had selected Boeing to supply the next generation of imaging satellites - a decision that shocked Lockheed Martin, which had led the development of classified imaging satellites since 19 58.222 In accordance with the new mantra, the latest satellites were to be smaller and cheaper. In 2004 the Air Force awarded ILS a contract for a launch in 2006.223 This was to penalise Boeing for a case of ''unethical conduct'' in bidding for the initial EELV contract, when the company had exploited information improperly gained from Lockheed Martin.224,225

Meanwhile, the inaugural flight of the Delta IV-Heavy had slipped into 2003, and it had yet to be decided whether it would carry a dummy payload.226^27 This had three 47-metre-long common booster cores arranged in parallel, and a second stage powered by an uprated RL-10-B-2 engine. With a capability of placing 23 tonnes into low orbit or 13 tonnes into geosynchronous transfer orbit, it was to supersede the Titan IVB. In addition to Pad 37 at Canaveral, this configuration was to use SLC-6 at Vandenberg - one of the least used pads in history.228^29 By the end of 2003 the launch had been postponed to May 2004.230 No sooner had this been slipped to September than the Cape suffered three hurricanes in the space of a few weeks and all operations were temporarily halted. After a series of technical issues, the vehicle was dispatched on 21 December, but the fact that all three main stages shut down 8 seconds early due to a common fault involving propellant quantity sensors, obliged the second stage to extend its parking-orbit burn, with the result that it ran dry attempting to place its payload (which was, after all, a 6.5-tonne demonstration satellite) into geostationary orbit.231

Preparing the inaugural Delta IV-Heavy on the Pad 37B at Canaveral.
The Delta IV-Heavy lifts off on 21 December 2004.

PHASING OUT THE TITAN IVB

The Titan IVB was to be retired once the Delta IV-Heavy became available, but the development of this vehicle was running late, and in early 2001 the Air Force decided to postpone the phase-out of the Titan IVB beyond 2002.232 With Pad 41 being rebuilt for the Atlas V, the Titan IVB was using Pad 40 at Canaveral and SLC-4E at Vandenberg, and despite the improvements to simplify the preparation of this vehicle the turnaround between launches on a given pad was still no shorter than six months. Lockheed Martin shipped its last Titan IVB core in 2002.233 The vehicle that lifted off on 14 February 2004 had the final IUS and the penultimate DSP satellite.234 This was the 37th launch, of which 26 had departed from Canaveral and 11 from Vandenberg. The final Titan IVB was scheduled for Vandenberg in 2005. The final DSP was to ride a Delta IV in 2005.

The verdict on the Titan IV was that it was "one of the Air Force's most successful" launch vehicles. However, it had not yielded the expected operational efficiency. Instead of each launch costing about $100 million, it had averaged five times that amount, which verged on the cost of launching a Shuttle.235 In part, this failure to drive down costs was a consequence of so few vehicles being ordered, which in turn reflected the decline in the demand for heavy military satellites after the end of the Cold War, and the fact that those that were sent up proved to be long-lived. Perhaps the most damning incident was that - despite the hope of achieving a rapid turnaround - when one vehicle sat on the pad for over 1,000 days a frustrated Air Force commander threatened to mount a plaque on it that added up the $3.5-million-per-day bill to the US taxpayer. It was hoped that the new heavyweights would prove more cost-effective than their predecessors.

NOTES

1. Flight International, 17-23 October 1990, p. 39.

2. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 4 April 1994, p. 48.

3. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 4 April 1994, p. 55.

4. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 20 February 1995, p. 48.

5. Flight International, 14-20 June 1995, p. 61.

6. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 12 June 1995, p. 115.

7. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 21 March 1994, p. 25.

8. Flight International, 23-29 April 1997, p. 25.

9. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 6 May 1996, p. 60.

10. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 4 April 1994, p. 45.

11. Flight International, 16-22 November 1994, p. 22.

12. Flight International, 17-23 May 1995, p. 18.

13. Flight International, 21-27 June 1995, p. 17.

14. Flight International, 4-10 October 1995, p. 6.

15. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 25 March 1996, p. 48.

16. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 6 May 1996, p. 60.

17. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 25 March 1995, p. 51.

18. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 5 August 1996, p. 74.

19. Report by the Inquiry Board into the failure of Ariane V flight 501, Arianespace, Paris, 19 July 1996.

20. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 24 June 1996, p. 77.

21. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 29 July 1996, p. 33.

22. Flight International, 23-29 April 1997, p. 26.

23. Spaceflight, May 2003, p. 196.

24. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 9 September 1996, p. 79.

25. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 16 September 1996, p. 55.

26. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 23 June 1997, p. 26.

27. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 27 January 1997, p. 62.

28. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 23 June 1997, p. 26.

29. Spaceflight, January 1998, p. 13.

30. Flight International, 9-15 April 1997.

31. Flight International, 23-29 April 1997, p. 25.

32. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 31 August 1998, p. 29.

33. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 13 December 1999, p. 61.

34. Spaceflight, July 2003, p. 280.

35. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 21 June 1999, p. 46.

36. Spaceflight, August 1999, p. 312.

37. Spaceflight, April 2003, p. 137.

38. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 14 June 1999, p. 212.

40. Spaceflight, March 2001, p. 94.

41. Spaceflight, October 2001, p. 400.

42. Spaceflight, March 2002, p. 92.

43. Spaceflight, May 2002, p. 182.

44. Spaceflight, May 2002, p. 182.

45. Spaceflight, July 2002, p. 268.

46. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 28 June 1999, p. 37.

47. Spaceflight, August 2001, p. 314.

48. Spaceflight, March 2002, p. 92.

49. Spaceflight, May 2002, p. 182.

50. http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/arie5eca.htm

51. Spaceflight, March 2002, p. 99.

52. Spaceflight, February 2002, p. 50.

53. Spaceflight, October 2001, p. 406.

54. Spaceflight, February 2003, p. 54.

55. Spaceflight, June 2004, p228.

56. Spaceflight, July 2004, p. 273.

57. http://www.planetary.org/news/2004/rosetta_launch-delay1.html

58. Spaceflight, May 2003, p. 187.

59. Spaceflight, June 2003, p. 226.

60. Spaceflight, September 2003, p. 357.

61. Spaceflight, April 2003, p. 137.

62. Spaceflight, August 2003, p. 314.

63. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3747808.stm

64. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4054329.stm

65. Spaceflight, June 2003, p. 226.

66. Spaceflight, July 2003, p. 268.

67. Spaceflight, July 2004, p. 273.

68. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 15 May 1995, p. 28.

69. Space News, 15-21 May 1995.

70. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 5 June 1995, p. 68.

71. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 5 August 1996, p. 55.

72. Flight International, 12-18 July 1995, p. 18.

73. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 11 March 1996, p. 64.

74. Spaceflight, November 1998, p. 440.

75. Spaceflight, February 2000, p. 47.

76. Spaceflight, January 1999, p. 9.

77. http://www.boeing.com/defense-space/space/delta/delta3/d3inv.htm

78. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 10 May 1999, p. 30.

79. Spaceflight, September 1997, p. 357.

80. Spaceflight, January 2000, p. 5.

81. Spaceflight, October 1999, p. 406.

82. Delta 269 (Delta III) Investigation Report, Boeing, 16 August 2000.

83. http://www.boeing.com/defense-space/space/delta/delta3/d3_report.pdf

84. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 1 November 1999, p. 31.

85. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 27 September 1999, p. 38.

86. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 1 November 1999, p. 31.

87. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 9 August 1999, p. 79.

88. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 22 November 1999, p. 17.

89. Spaceflight, February 2000, p. 47.

90. Note that Orion 2 was scheduled for October 1999 on an Ariane 4; that is, they were going up out of sequence.

91. Spaceflight, November 1999, p. 444.

92. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 16 November 1992, p. 22.

93. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 23 August 1999, p. 36.

94. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 5 July 1999, p. 22.

95. Spaceflight, December 1999, p. 491.

96. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 19 July 1999, p. 25.

97. Spaceflight, December 1999, p. 491.

98. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 1 January 2000, p. 38.

99. Spaceflight, June 2000, p. 225.

100. Spaceflight, July 2000, p. 268.

101. Spaceflight, September 2000, p. 355.

102. Spaceflight, November 2000, p. 445.

103. Spaceflight, January 2001, p. 5.

104. Spaceflight, December 2000, p. 491.

105. Spaceflight, September 1999, p. 357.

106. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 14 August 1995, p. 52.

107. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 27 June 1993, p. 22.

108. Flight International, 8-14 November 1995, p. 32.

109. Challenge to Apollo, A.A. Siddiqi, NASA, 2000.

110. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 30 March 1992, p. 21.

111. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 25 October 1993, p. 29.

112. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 24 October 1994, p. 25.

113. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 24 April 1995, p. 40.

114. Flight International, 4-10 October 1995, p. 32.

115. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 14 August 1995, p. 51.

116. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 24 April 1995, p. 46.

117. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 14 August 1995, p. 52.

118. The advantage of the RD-180 for the Atlas, would be that it would need only one engine, rather than two NK-33s.

119. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 7 April 1997, p. 41.

120. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 6 November 1995, p. 63.

121. Flight International, 15-21 November 1995, p. 20.

122. Since its development in the early 1960s, the RL-10 had been continually upgraded, and included the RL-10A-3-3A (Titan-Centaur), the RL-10A-4 (Atlas II), the RL-10A-4-1 (Atlas IIAS, III and V) and the RL-10B-2 (Delta III and V).

123. http://www.spaceandtech.com/spacedata/engines/rl10_sum.shtml

124. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 5 August 1996, p. 18.

125. The production of eight Atlas IIAS as a contingency was in addition to the 62 that had been built over the years.

126. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 12 September 1994, p. 55.

127. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 6 November 1995, p. 65.

128. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 5 December 1994, p. 50.

129. http://www.spaceandtech.com/spacedata/engines/nk33_specs.shtml

130. http://www.spaceandtech.com/spacedata/engines/rd180_specs.shtml

131. http://www.boeing.com/defense-space/space/propul/atlas.html

132. Flight International, 4-10 October 1995, p. 32.

133. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 20 November 1995, p. 35.

134. Spaceflight, October 2001, p. 406.

135. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 14 November 1994, p. 63.

136. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 15 May 1995, p. 30.

137. Spaceflight, November 2002, p. 450.

138. Flight International, 6-12 September 1995, p. 19.

139. Flight International, 24-30 January 1996, p. 22.

140. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 23 June 1997, p. 23.

141. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 25 November 1996, p. 17.

142. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 23 June 1997, p. 23.

143. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 10 February 1997, p. 101.

144. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 7 April 1997, p. 40.

145. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 7 April 1997, p. 41.

146. http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/kislerk1.htm

147. http://www.kistleraerospace.com/

148. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 5 August 1996, p. 18.

149. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 26 February 1996, p. 62.

150. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 8 July, 1996, p. 24.

151. Flight International, 15-21 January 1997, p. 22.

152. http://www.spaceandtech.com/spacedata/engines/rs68_sum.shtml

153. http://www.boeing.com/defense-space/space/propul/RS68.html

154. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 6 January 1997, p27.

155. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 23/30 December 1996, p. 13.

156. In the four-digit scheme used for the Delta variants, the digits specify in turn the series, the number of strap-ons, the second stage motor ('0' indicating an AJ-10-118F, '1' a TR-201, '2' a cryogenic stage that was not pursued, and '3' an AJ-10-118K) and the third stage ('0' indicating no third stage, '2' an FW-4D, '3' a Star 37D, '4' a Star 37E, '5' a Star 48B or '6' a Star 37FM). The Delta III became the 8000 series, with a '2' for the cryogenic second stage.

157. Flight International, 15-21 January 1997, p. 22.

158. Spaceflight, November 2002, p. 450.

159. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 9 March 1998, p. 24.

160. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 13 December 1999, p. 54.

161. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 18 October 1999, p. 22.

162. http://www.spaceline.org/rocketsum/Atlas-IIIa.html

163. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 9 August 1999, p. 79.

164. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 27 September 1999, p. 38.

165. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 19 July 1999, p. 25.

166. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 25 October 1999, p. 23.

167. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 27 September 1999, p. 38.

168. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 22 November 1999, p. 52.

169. http://www.spaceandtech.com/digest/flash-articles/flash2000-026.shtml

170. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 29 May 2000, p. 28.

171. Spaceflight, July 2000, p. 312.

172. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 22 May 2000, p. 35.

173. Spaceflight, May 2001, p. 182.

174. ILS had previously launched satellites for the EchoStar Communications Corporation on Atlas II and Proton rockets.

175. Spaceflight, March 2004, p. 96.

176. Spaceflight, July 2000, p. 312.

177. http://www.space.com/businesstechnology/technology/atlas_delta_020320-1.html

178. Spaceflight, February 2002, p. 50.

179. Spaceflight, June 2000, p. 225.

180. Spaceflight, January 2001, p. 5.

181. Spaceflight, October 2001, p. 406.

182. Spaceflight, October 2001, p. 403.

183. Spaceflight, August 2002, p. 316.

184. Spaceflight, July 2002, p. 274.

185. Spaceflight August 2001, p. 316.

186. Spaceflight, November 2002, p. 450.

187. Spaceflight, February 2002, p. 50.

188. Spaceflight, June 2002, p. 224.

189. Spaceflight, August 2002, p. 316.

190. Spaceflight, September 2002, p. 357.

191. Spaceflight, November 2002, p. 450.

192. http://www.ilslaunch.com/atlas/atlasv/

193. Hot Bird 6 was an Alcatel Spacebus 3000B3 with Ka-Band and Ku-Band transponders for TV and radio broadcasting. It joined its partners to broadcast to Europe, North Africa and the Middle East.

194. Spaceflight, August 2003, p. 313.

195. Hellas-Sat was an Astrium-built Eurostar 2000-Plus bus.

196. Spaceflight, March 2003, p. 99.

197. http://www.astronautix.com

198. http://www.ilslaunch.com/atlas/atlasii/

199. http://www.spaceflightnow.com/atlas/ac167/

200. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 13 December 1999, p. 54.

201. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 5 June 2000, p49.

202. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 5 June 2000, p. 49.

203. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 19 July 1999, p. 28.

204. Spaceflight, April 2001, p. 138.

205. Spaceflight, May 2001, p. 182.

206. Spaceflight, January 2002, p. 16.

207. If the first Delta IV-Medium was successful, the second launch would carry DSCS-III-A3 for the Air Force in 2002 and the third, later in 2002, would be commercial. Next in line was to be the first test of the Delta IV-Heavy, hopefully with a commercial customer, followed in 2003 by the second, this time from Vandenberg, that would place the DMSP 17 metsat into polar orbit for the Air Force.

208. Spaceflight, July 2001, p. 272.

209. Spaceflight, October 2001, p. 403.

210. Spaceflight, October 2001, p. 406.

211. Spaceflight, November 2002, p. 446.

212. Spaceflight, July 2002, p. 274.

213. Spaceflight, September 2002, p. 357.

214. Spaceflight, June 2002, p. 229.

215. Spaceflight, November 2002, p. 446.

216. http://www.spaceflightnow.com/delta/delta4/021112rs68/

217. http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/delium42.htm

218. Spaceflight, November 2003, p. 445.

219. http://www.forrelease.com/D20030829/nyf062.P1.08292003203909.02852.html

220. http://www.spaceflightnow.com/delta/d300/

221. Spaceflight, October 2003, p. 402.

222. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 13 September 1999, p. 25.

223. Spaceflight, March 2004, p. 97.

224. Spaceflight, June 2004, p. 228.

225. Spaceflight, December 2004, p.453.

226. Spaceflight, July 2002, p. 269.

227. Spaceflight, January 2001, p. 5.

228. Flight International, 11-17 January 1995, p. 43.

229. SLC-6 was built in the 1960s for the Titan IIIM for the Air Force's Manned Orbiting Laboratory, but this was cancelled in 1969. The facility was rebuilt for the Space Shuttle, but launches from Vandenberg were cancelled in 1986 after the loss of Challenger from Canaveral.

230. Spaceflight, November 2003, p. 445.

231. http://www.spaceflightnow.com/delta/d310/

232. Spaceflight, May 2001, p. 184.

233. Spaceflight, July 2002, p. 269.

234. Spaceflight, April 2004, p. 139.

235. http://www.floridatoday.com/news/space/stories/2004a/021404titan.htm

Part Two

Satellites and space probes

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