The HA

By early 2001 the inaugural launch of the H-2A was still scheduled for 22 July, but it slipped to 29 August. It had a pair of Nissan's solid rockets augmenting the first stage, and carried a Vehicle Evaluation Package to document the stresses that a payload would have to endure.19V95 This launch marked the first time since July 1998 that a Japanese vehicle achieved orbit! If it had failed, it may well have resulted in cancellation of the programme. The second test was slipped to early 2002 and the first operational mission was postponed from mid to late 2002 to provide more time to evaluate the data from the two tests.196,197 The second H-2A lifted off on 3 February 2002 using four large auxiliary strap-ons. The second stage entered the planned 500-kilometre parking orbit, coasted for 12 minutes, and reignited for insertion into geosynchronous transfer orbit. However, while the 450-kilogram Mission Demonstration Satellite to test new technologies for use on communications satellites was successfully deployed, the 86-kilogram Demonstrator of Atmospheric re-entry System with Hyper-velocity (DASH) was not released.198 The investigation found that the signal to initiate the separation sequence had not been issued by the launch vehicle. The interface between the launch vehicle and the Data Processing Unit of the piggyback payload was minimal, preventing a comprehensive test in the launch configuration, and the special non-flight cable and connector used in ground tests did not reveal a pin-assignment error on the drawing of the Data Processing Unit.199 In a revision of the plan, the Data Relay Test Satellite (DRTS) and Unmanned Space Experiment Recovery System (USERS) were assigned to the first operational mission, and ADEOS 2, which was to replace the satellite that fell silent in 1997, slipped one place.200 In order to recover from the protracted development, some payloads were offloaded.201 MBSAT, which had been built by Space Sytems/ Loral for Japan's Mobile Broadcasting System, was reassigned to the Atlas III for launch in 2003. On 10 September the H-2A made its operational debut. After releasing USERS into the 450-kilometre parking orbit with a payload of Japanese microgravity experiments, the second stage reignited and put the DRTS into

An artist's impression of the Data Relay Test Satellite.

geosynchronous transfer orbit, and on reaching apogee this satellite circularised in order to stand in for COMETS as a real-time communications link between the ground and other satellites.202 On 14 December 2002 the fourth H-2A successfully placed ADEOS 2 into Sun-synchronous orbit.203 At 3,700 kilograms, this was the largest satellite launched by a Japanese rocket. Unfortunately, contact was lost on 25 October 2003, possibly due to increased solar activity, and it was declared a total loss.204,205,206

In mid-2003, Japan announced that it was to upgrade the H-2A to put 10 tonnes into geosynchronous transfer orbit to enable the

H-2A to keep pace with the upgrading of the Ariane V. This was to be done by increasing the diameter of the first stage from 3 metres to 4 metres, and adding a second engine to the second stage.207 Then, at the Paris Air Show in June, Boeing, Arianespace and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries announced a plan to provide ''a powerful new commercial launch service ... to ensure on-time launches for customers around the world''. The objective was to enable customers to shift their payloads from one launch provider to another in the group, in the event that the Ariane V, H-2A or Zenit 3SL was grounded by failure.20S

On 29 November 2003, one of the two Nissan strap-ons on the sixth H-2A suffered a nozzle burn-through which disabled the pyrotechnic package that was to have jettisoned it.209,210,211 By T+11 minutes, the 'dead weight' of this appendage had caused the vehicle to veer so far off course that the second stage would not be able to recover the trajectory. It was therefore destroyed.212 The second pair of Information Gathering Satellites were to have augmented the first pair (launched by the previous H-2A on 28 March) for a scheduled constellation of eight satellites intended to enable Japan to monitor North Korean missile tests. (The programme was in trouble anyway, because the performance of the satellites was reportedly disappointing.)

Although the Japanese had designed the H-2A to make it attractive as a commercial

The 6th H-2A lifts off on 29 November 2003.

launcher, and had formed a strategic alliance with its competitors, all of its early flights carried indigenous payloads and it has yet to prove itself in this wider context.

NOTES

1. Memorandum from Secretary of Defense to Secretaries of the Military Departments, et al., Defense Space Launch Strategy, 7 February 1984.

2. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 25 June 1984, p. 159.

3. Spaceflight, April 1980, p. 155.

4. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 11 June 1984, p. 23.

5. Assured Access: 'The Bureaucratic Space War', Dr. Robert H. Goddard Historical Essay by E.C. Aldridge.

6. http://web.mit.edu/orgZs/spacearchitects/Archive/space wars.doc

7. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 18 March 1991.

8. http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/systems/t4table.htm

9. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 9 August 1993, p. 22.

10. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 23 August 1993, p. 26.

11. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 5 December 1994, p. 47.

12. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 20 September 1993, p. 92.

13. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 10 January 1994, p. 26.

14. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 5 September 1994, p. 41.

15. Flight International, 19-25 January 1994, p. 23.

16. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 11 October 1993.

17. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 8 November 1993, p. 73.

18. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 9 May 1994, p. 24.

19. Flight International, 21-27 September 1994, p. 26.

20. Aviation Week & Space Technology 5 September 1994, p. 46.

21. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 12 September 1994, p. 53.

22. Flight International, 15-21 November 1995, p. 20.

23. This was the third Titan IVA of the year, and the 14th since the type was introduced in 1989, of which six had used the Centaur upper stage and four had used the IUS (the others had not needed an upper stage because the payload had been able to make its own set up manoeuvres).

24. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 11 December 1995, p. 20.

25. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 12 September 1994, p. 53.

26. http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/library/news/1998/ns9899.htm

27. http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/systems/t4table.htm

28. http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/library/news/1998/nr98-09-02.htm

29. Spaceflight, November 1998, p. 440.

30. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 24 January 1999, p. 24.

31. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 13 September 1999, p. 24.

32. http://www.globalsecurity.org/space/library/news/1999/n19990119_990066.htm

33. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 19 April 1999, p. 40.

34. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 26 October 1987, p. 3.

35. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 5 December 1994, p. 47.

36. Flight International, 22-28 September 1993, p. 22.

37. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 20 September 1993, p. 92.

38. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 3 March 1997, p. 29.

39. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 6 November 1995, p. 61.

40. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 6 November 1995, p. 61.

41. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 10 February 1997, p. 90.

42. Aviation Week & Space Technology 3 March 1997, p. 29.

43. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 24 March 1997, p. 60.

44. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 19 April 1999, p. 40.

45. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 3 May 1999, p. 46.

46. In 1983 a hydraulic problem had prevented the second stage of an IUS from circularising, and in 1985 the second stage had recovered from the under performance of the first stage.

47. In the case of Chandra, the first stage of the IUS was to produce an interim orbit with an apogee of 60,000 kilometres, which the second stage was to extend to 140,000 kilometres, so it would not be the usual flight profile.

48. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 23 August 1999, p. 34.

49. Spaceflight, July 1999, p. 269.

50. Spaceflight, June 1999, p. 224.

51. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 10 May 1999, p. 28.

52. Spaceflight, August 2000, p. 312.

53. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 21 June 1999, p. 21.

54. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 26 July 1999, p. 27.

55. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 2 August 1999, p. 31.

56. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 13 September 1999, p. 24

57. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 10 May 1999, p. 28.

58. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 31 May 1999, p. 34.

59. Spaceflight, August 1999, p. 310.

60. This was the sixth Titan IVB.

61. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 3 May 1999, p. 31.

62. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 10 May 1999, p. 28.

63. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 13 September 1999, p. 24

64. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 15 May 2000, p. 24.

65. Spaceflight, August 2000, p. 312.

66. The Air Force intended to launch three more DSP satellites, and then switch to the follow-on programme in 2004.

67. Sergei Korolev designated the stages of his launchers alphabetically, and in cyrillic the sequence is A, B, V, G, D and so when he modified the fifth stage of the N-1 to serve as the fourth stage of the Proton it was out of sequence - even although to a Westerner it seemed more appropriately named!

68. http://www.tbs-satellite.com/tse/online/lanc_proton.html

69. Jane's Space Directory, vol. 10, 1994-1995, p. 211.

70. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 9 February 1987, p. 26.

71. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 11 May 1987, p. 34.

72. http://www.spaceandtech.com/spacedata/constellations/glonass_consum.shtml

73. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 4 May 1987, p. 24.

74. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 18 May 1987, p. 22.

75. http://www.tbs-satellite.com/tse/online/lanc_proton.html

76. Jane's Space Directory, vol. 10, 1994-1995, p. 211.

77. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 7 June 1993.

78. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 28 June 1993.

79. Jane's Space Directory, vol. 10, 1994-1995, p. 211.

80. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 20 September 1993, p. 90.

81. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/industry/general_dynamics.htm

82. http://www.fas.org/man/company/lock-mart.htm

83. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 5 September 1994, p. 41.

84. Flight International, 22-28 March 1995, p. 6.

85. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 24 April 1995, p. 40.

86. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 6 September 1993, p. 22.

87. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 22 January 1996, p. 57.

88. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 15 April 1996, p. 22.

89. Flight International, 29 March-4 April 1995, p. 28.

90. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 19 June 1995, p. 27.

91. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 14 August 1995, p. 51.

92. Flight International, 21-27 June 1995.

93. Flight International, 2-8 August 1995, p. 25.

94. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 24 April 1995, p. 40.

95. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 14 August 1995, p. 51.

96. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 22 January 1996, p. 57.

97. http://www.telecomweb.com/reports/satellite2001/news/article3.htm

98. http://www.ilslaunch.com/launches/

99. http://www.ilslaunch.com/newsarchives/newsreleases/rec135/

100. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 25 November 1996, p. 71.

101. http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/text/mars96_timeline.txt

102. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 2 June 1997.

103. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 23 June 1997, p. 66.

104. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 5 January 1998, p. 28.

105. Flight International, 20-26 September 1995, p. 26.

106. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 31 July 1995, p25.

107. Flight International, 20-26 September 1995, p. 26.

108. Flight International, 19-25 April 1995, p. 25.

109. http://www.ilslaunch.com/proton/1protonm/

110. http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/probrizm.htm

111. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 24 April 1995, p. 43.

112. Spaceflight, January 2003, p. 11.

113. Flight International, 30 October-5 November 1996, p. 28.

114. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 15 April 1996, p. 22.

115. Spaceflight, December 1999, p. 491.

116. Spaceflight, January 2000, p. 6.

117. Spaceflight, October 1999, p. 401.

118. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 19 July 1999, p. 27.

119. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 13 September 1999, p. 28.

120. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 12 July 1999, p. 32.

121. Spaceflight, November 1999, p. 447.

122. Flight International, 21-27 February 1996, p. 21.

123. Spaceflight, January 2000, p. 7.

124. Spaceflight, December 2000, p. 489.

125. Spaceflight, November 1999, p. 447.

126. Spaceflight, December 1999, p. 491.

127. Spaceflight, January 2000, p. 6.

128. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 22 November 1999, p. 58.

129. Flight International, 26 October-1 November 1994, p. 26.

130. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 13 September 1999, p. 28.

131. Spaceflight, February 2000, p. 47.

132. Spaceflight, April 2000, p. 136.

133. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 29 November 1999, p. 25.

134. Aviation Week & Space Technology 21 February 2000, p. 47.

135. Flight International, 24-30 May 1995, p. 31.

136. Aviation Week & Space Technology 21 February 2000, p. 47.

137. Spaceflight, May 2000, p. 184.

138. http://www.tbs-satellite.com/tse/online/sat_garuda_1.html

139. Spaceflight, August 2001, p. 316.

140. http://www.spaceandtech.com/digest/sd2000-26/sd2000-26-001.shtml

141. Spaceflight, June 2000, p. 226.

142. http://www.spaceandtech.com/digest/sd2000-25/sd2000-25-006.shtml

143. Prikladnoy Mekhaniki was previously known as NPO PM, which stood for Research and Production Association for Applied Mechanics.

144. http://www.rosaviakosmos.ru/ORG/npopm_e.html

145. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 21 February 2000, p. 50.

146. http://www.ilslaunch.com/proton/1protonm/

147. http://www.ilslaunch.com/proton/1protonm/

148. Spaceflight, July 2001, p. 270.

149. Spaceflight, February 2003, p. 50.

150. Spaceflight, March 2003, p. 94.

151. Spaceflight, October 2001, p. 403.

152. Spaceflight, March 2003, p. 98.

153. Spaceflight, April 2003, p. 143.

154. Spaceflight, May 2004, p. 182.

155. http://www.ilslaunch.com/newsarchives/newsreleases/rec256/

156. http://www.skyrocket.de/space/doc_sdat/eutelsat-w3a.htm

157. http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/h1.htm

158. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 19 July 1999, p. 57.

159. Flight International, 25-31 January 1995, p. 24.

160. Spaceflight, April 1999, p. 149.

161. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 13 March 1995, p. 110.

162. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 27 March 1995, p. 24.

163. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 26 August 1996, p. 68.

164. Spaceflight, April 1999, p. 149.

165. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 7 July 1997, p. 31.

166. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 14 April 1997, p. 61.

167. Spaceflight, April 1999, p. 149.

168. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 16 March 1998, p. 61.

169. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 9 March 1998, p. 17.

170. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 31 January 1994, p. 52.

171. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 4 April 1994, p. 56.

172. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 24 June 1996, p. 52.

173. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 15 July, 1996, p. 25.

174. http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/h2.htm

175. http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/h2a.htm

176. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 21 October 1996, p. 44.

177. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 17 March 1997, p. 40.

178. Spaceflight, November 2001, p. 445.

179. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 22 November 1999, p. 38.

180. Spaceflight, February 2000, p. 47.

181. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 29 November 1999, p. 25.

182. Spaceflight, April 2000, p. 135.

183. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 31 January 2000.

184. Spaceflight, March 2000, p. 92.

185. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 13 March 2000, p. 19.

186. http://www.nasda.go.jp/projects/rockets/h2a/documents/f4/sheet/h2af4_27_e.html

187. Spaceflight, June 2000, p. 226.

188. http://www.loral.com/inthenews/040319.html

189. http://www.bom.gov.au/sat/MTSAT/MTSAT.shtml

190. Spaceflight, September 2000, p. 355.

191. Aviation Week & Space Technology, 13 December 1999, p. 38.

192. Spaceflight, March 2001, p. 94.

193. After five successful flights the H-2 had suffered two consecutive failures, so it was cancelled in order to switch the effort to its 'commercial' successor.

194. Spaceflight, June 2001, p. 228.

195. Spaceflight, October 2001, p. 408.

196. Spaceflight, November 2001, p. 445.

197. Spaceflight, February 2002, p. 52.

198. Spaceflight, April 2002, p. 140.

199. www.isas.ac.jp/dtc/dash-e/dash-e.html

200. Spaceflight, May 2002, p. 185.

201. Spaceflight, September 2002, p. 360.

202. Spaceflight, November 2002, p. 447.

203. Spaceflight, March 2003, p. 94.

204. Spaceflight, January 2004, p. 10.

205. http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/A/ADEOS.html

206. http://www.Spaceflightnow.com/h2a/f4/

207. Spaceflight, October 2003, p. 405.

208. Spaceflight, October 2003, p. 402.

209. http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/h2a.htm

210. With the exception of the first flight (and the one that carried ADEOS 2), all of the H-2A launches had used the 2024 configuration.

211. Spaceflight, March 2004, p. 101.

212. Spaceflight, February 2004, p. 47.

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