Contents

Preface page xiii

1 Observational basis 1

1.1 Historical development 1

1.3 Single stars 11

1.4 Close binaries 16

1.5 Bibliographical notes 21

2 Rotating fluids 25

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 The equations of fluid motion 25

2.3 The vorticity equation 30

2.4 Reynolds stresses and eddy viscosities 33

2.5 Applications to the Earth's atmosphere 36

2.6 The wind-driven oceanic circulation 43

2.7 Barotropic and baroclinic instabilities 49

2.8 Self-gravitating fluid masses 55

2.9 Bibliographical notes 62

3 Rotating stars 65

3.1 Introduction 65

3.2 Basic concepts 66

3.3 Some tentative solutions 69

3.4 The dynamical instabilities 73

3.5 The thermal instabilities 82

3.6 The eddy-mean flow interaction 86

3.7 Bibliographical notes 89

4 Meridional circulation 93

4.1 Introduction 93

4.2 A frictionless solution 94

4.3 A consistent first-order solution 101

4.4 A consistent second-order solution 113

4.5 Meridional circulation in a cooling white dwarf 118

4.6 Meridional circulation in a close-binary component 120

4.7 Meridional circulation in a magnetic star 126

4.8 Discussion 133

4.9 Bibliographical notes 135

5 Solar rotation 138

5.1 Introduction 138

5.2 Differential rotation in the convection zone 139

5.3 Meridional circulation in the radiative core 145

5.4 Spin-down of the solar interior 151

5.5 Discussion 158

5.6 Bibliographical notes 159

6 The early-type stars 162

6.1 Introduction 162

6.2 Main-sequence models 162

6.3 Axial rotation along the upper main sequence 172

6.4 Circulation, rotation, and diffusion 179

6.5 Rotation of evolved stars 182

6.6 Bibliographical notes 185

7 The late-type stars 190

7.1 Introduction 190

7.2 Schatzman's braking mechanism 191

7.3 Rotation of T Tauri and cluster stars 194

7.4 Rotational evolution of low-mass stars 197

7.5 Bibliographical notes 204

8 Tidal interaction 207

8.1 Introduction 207

8.2 The tidal-torque mechanism 208

8.3 The resonance mechanism 214

8.4 The hydrodynamical mechanism 217

8.5 Contact binaries: The astrostrophic balance 230

8.6 Discussion 237

8.7 Bibliographical notes 240

Epilogue Subject index Author index

245 249 252

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