where Q is a suitable mean value^f Q on a meridian (i.e., a mean with respect to 6) and (Q) is a suitable mean value of Q along the radius (i.e., a mean with respect to both 6 and r), with Q describing the 6 variations of Q. Given this decomposition of the angular velocity, Eq. (4.49) implies that

tV tH tES

where tES is the circulation time of the meridional flow (see Eq. [4.37]). We have also let

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