Hell Really Exists

Hell Really Exists

Koonika Miidu is the author and the creator of this helpful program. The author of this program wants to show you that the Hell really exists and no one can change that reality. Though, he believes there's a way you can be saved from it and that is exactly what this program is all about. The program contains a lot of information to help you discover the confirmed facts about hell. There are testimonies from people that have visited hell and come back. Those are the people that want to show you the reality and also advise you to stop gambling with your soul. It is very easy to be convinced that this program is for Christians only. Hell is not for a specific religion. As a matter of fact, every person regardless of their religious background should take caution. The Hell Really Exists program is available in downloadable PDF formats. This means you need an Adobe Acrobat reader so you will be able to download and read it. As a matter of fact, you will get some other DVD format programs with testimonies from over 70 people that wishes to help you along the way. Read more...

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Sympathy for the Devil How DAmino Acids Make Organisms Work

Often, D-amino acids are associated with destructive and toxic effects to living organisms. Recently, it became more and more apparent that some living organisms show sympathy for the devil by making use of the amino acids' wrong enan-tiomers. Desired D-amino acid enantiomers, i.e., D-amino acids produced intentionally by evolutionary processes, have been identified in plants (and in food), where considerable quantities seem to be omnipresent. Small peptides that use in their architecture at least one amino acid in its D-configuration have been found in vertebrates and invertebrates. In these cases, the amino acid's D-enantiomer can indeed be assumed to be intentionally implemented in the molecular construction of these peptides since the peptide looses its biological activity by inversion of the stereogenic center. Interestingly, wanted D-Amino acids have also been identified in the form of free amino acids in mammals, where their specific function, however, is less understood.

Chimpanzee and Human Males as Demonic Killers

Bonobo Eating Meat

One of the new claims to the importance of killing and the biological basis of morality is that of Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson in their book, Demonic Males Apes and the Origins of Human Violence. Their argument rests on the fact that 20 25 years ago we thought human aggression was unique because research on the great apes had revealed that those species were basically unaggressive, gentle creatures. Although early theorists proposed that hunting, killing, and extreme aggressive behavior were biological traits inherited from our earliest hunting, hominid ancestors, many anthropologists still believed that patterns of aggression were environmentally and culturally determined learned behaviors. Our sins were thought by most to be acquired and not inherited characteristics. Our sins were no more original than all the other acquired and culturally transmitted traits manifested by the human species. Wrangham and Peterson argue that new evidence indicates the killer instincts are not...

The Hell Creek Formation

The rocks of what geologists call the Hell Creek Formation are what you see from the road. The formation was named in 1907 by Barnum Brown, a paleontologist from the American Museum of Natural History, based on rock layers near Hell Creek. It is a mixture of sandstone and siltstone that is exposed in Montana, Wyoming, and North and South Dakota. The rock beds that make up the formation vary in thickness, or depth, from 170 meters in Garfield County, where Barnum Brown first identified it, to 40 meters in McCone County, Montana. The formation preserves somewhere between 1.3 and 2.5 million years, depending on different interpretations. These are not just any million or so years. These rock beds are made of sediment deposited at the end of the age of dinosaurs. The Hell Creek Formation is probably the best record anywhere on earth of terrestrial life at the end of the Cretaceous era (210 million to 65 million years ago), just before and right at the mass extinction that wiped out about...

Devils gardens

Main nest, surrounding them with a buffer zone one to three metres in width. This explains why some areas of the Amazonian forest are strangely inhabited by a single species of tree, in clear contrast with the prolific varieties growing in areas close by. People living in these areas called them 'devil's gardens', following the traditional belief that they were the haunt of an evil forest spirit. We now know that the devil lies in the detail of the herbicide used by ants to protect their favourite tree.

Hell Creek Today

Fossil Fish Santana From

The soft rocks of Hell Creek have been steadily eroded by the actions of wind, water, and ice, wearing them into the deep canyons and ravines that characterize the area today. Known as badlands, (because the terrain is bad land to cross over) the dinosaur-bearing rocks lie in thick, horizontal layers. The oldest are at the bottom, and the youngest at the top. This was the biggest carnivore of the Late Cretaceous, and the top predator in the Hell Creek environment. This was the biggest carnivore of the Late Cretaceous, and the top predator in the Hell Creek environment.

Venus Is Hell

1977 Australian Nrl Squad

Curiously enough, there is a place astonishingly like this in the superstition, folklore and legends of men. We call it Hell. In the older belief - that of the Greeks, for example - it was the place where all human souls journeyed after death. In Christian times it has been thought of as the post-mortem destination only of one of two categories of moral persuasion. But there is little doubt that the average person's view of Hell - sizzling, choking, sulfurous, and red - is a dead ringer for the surface of Venus. Although terrestrial biological molecules would fall to pieces rapidly on Venus, there are organic molecules - for example, some with a complex ring structure -that would be quite stable under the conditions of Venus. It is difficult to exclude life there, but we can certainly say it would be quite different from what we are familiar with. Any organism that lives there would be wise to have leathery skin. Because of the high atmospheric pressures, it would even make sense to...

That Universe Is Not Any Greater Than the Space I Occupy

alas, my lord, your dear friend and servant Galileo has for the past month become irreparably blind. Now imagine, Your Lordship, how afflicted I am as I think about that sky, that world and that universe which I with my marvellous observations and clear demonstrations had opened up hundreds and thousands of times more than had been commonly seen by the sages of all bygone centuries now for me it is diminished and limited so that it is not any greater than the space I occupy. 124 The blind old man at Il Gioiello was one of the most famous men in Europe, and despite the embargo on visits, colleagues and admirers came in secret to pay their respects. One of them was John Milton. That great and thoroughly learned English poet was deeply interested in astronomy. In his principal work Paradise Lost the struggle between God, Satan and the angels is set in a carefully constructed universe, although largely built on Ptolemaic principles, mainly out of poetic considerations. Milton (who would...

The Rational Speculator

Carl Sagan spent his life attacking frauds and debunking fabulous flying saucer stories. In one of his last books, The Demon-Haunted World (1996), he exposed the many hoaxes, myths, and superstitions that plague the world today. He made an eloquent plea for a return to rationality in an age when New Age prophets, religious fundamentalists, and promoters of various pseudosciences threaten the growth of science. Sagan saw science as our best hope, a candle of rationality shining in darkness and chaos. However, he was willing to excite the public with tales of ancient Martian civilizations and million-ton satellites if such stories encouraged exploration for extraterrestrial life. Sagan's comments about ancient Martian civilizations are as suspect as many of the fraudulent claims he exposed in The Demon-Haunted World. His friend Bruce Murray claimed that although Sagan understood that Mars was probably lifeless, he had relapses when he would discuss Martian life. If anything, continued...

Through the Invisible

I sent my Soul through the Invisible, some letter of that After-life to spell And by and by my Soul return'd to me, And answer'd I Myself am Heav'n and Hell. In 1980 I attended a weekend seminar in Klamath Falls, Oregon, on Voluntary Controls of Internal States, hosted by Jack Schwarz, a man well known to practitioners of alternative medicine and altered states of consciousness. According to literature advertising the seminar, Jack is a survivor of a Nazi concentration camp, where years of isolation, miserable conditions, and physical torture taught him to transcend his body and go to a place where he could not be hurt. Jack's course was intended to teach the principles of mind control through meditation. Mastery of these principles allows one to voluntarily control such bodily functions as pulse rate, blood pressure, pain, fatigue, and bleeding. In a dramatic demonstration, Jack took out a ten-inch-long rusted sail needle and shoved it through his biceps. He didn't wince and after he...

The Lighter Side Of Pluto

Mercury may be a burnout case, and Mars isn't what he used to be. Venus is a hottie, but she'll make your life hell. With Saturn, it's all about the rings and the bling. Jupiter takes himself waaaay too seriously. Uranus won't stop with the off-color puns, while Neptune's jokes will leave you cold. But Pluto Now that's one funny planet

Venus Mars and the habitable zones around the Sun and other stars

The discussion of the previous section explains why Earth has remained habitable throughout most or all of its history. Abiotic climate stabilization by CO2 and possible biotic stabilization by CH4 both seem to have been involved. There are clearly limits, however, to how robust these climate stabilization mechanisms may be, as evidenced by the observation that they do not appear to have worked on our neighbouring planets, Mars and Venus. Venus is a dry burning hell with no liquid water and a surface temperature of 730 K. Mars is a frozen desert with a mean surface temperature of 218 K.

Chapter The Green Gradient

As demonstrated by human-introduced insecticides such as DDT, insect populations are often able to respond to chemical assaults through evolution, spreading successful mutations that enable subsequent generations of insects to metabolize the poison. Johnson, K. R. 2002. The megaflora of the Hell Creek and lower Fort Union Formations in the western Dakotas vegetational response to climate change, the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary event, and rapid marine transgression. Pp. 329-392 in J. Hartman, K. R. Johnson, and D.J. Nichols (eds.), The Hell Creek Formation and the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the Northern Great Plains An Integrated Continental Record of the End of the Cretaceous. Geological Society of America Special Paper 361. Boulder, CO Geological Society of America

Hot Spots For Fossils In The Twentyfirst Century

Where have happy accidents turned up in the twenty-first century Where are probable hot spots for new discoveries Old sites still produce many surprises. John Foster, in his book Jurassic West, talks about how new dinosaurs are still turning up in exposures of the Morrison Formation in western Wyoming after more than a hundred years of exploration there. The fact that new things can be learned and new animals found in a formation as extensively explored as the Morrison only points out how relatively little we know of what was around at the time and how the animals lived, says Foster. Likewise, Montana's Hell Creek Formation is still producing dinosaurs like the spiky-headed Dracorex, a kind of pachycephalosaur and Dakota, a mummified hadrosaur still wrapped in a nearly complete envelope of fossilized skin.

Say You Want A Revolution

True story During the First Astrobiology Science Conference at NASA's Ames Research Center in April 2000, President Clinton was, by coincidence, landing at the adjacent Moffett Field Air Base, where Air Force One parks when the president comes to the San Francisco area. In a scene right out of The X-Files, one of his Secret Service men, who had stopped a suspicious-looking scientist, was heard to shout anxiously into his walkie-talkie, What the HELL is astrobiology

Fireball in the Dinosaurs

It is 12.5 metres long and 4.5 metres high - as long as a tennis court and tall enough to say hello to you through a second-storey window. It has a terrifying, massive 1.5-metre head and several dozen 18-centimetre long teeth, serrated like bread-knife blades. Its two gigantic birdlike feet have three toes each, but its two-fingered hands and arms appear puny. Its hide is not leathery, but scaly and covered with bumps. The hide is definitely not a Its walking pace is about 5 kilometres per hour. You can stroll alongside it, keeping up with it without difficulty. When running it can achieve a top speed of 30 kilometres per hour. Certainly not as fast as an ostrich or a horse, but a good speed when you consider it weighs 10 tonnes, as heavy as three big elephants. No wonder it has been called a 'roadrunner from hell' - a fitting tribute to its obvious size and power. Arguably, it is the biggest meat-eating land animal of all time. It is the lion of its world, but it is too large, too...

The Letter to Castelli

Caccini took the well known verses from the Book of Joshua and gave them a thorough and literal interpretation. After which he attacked all those who believed differently, in other words Copernicus and his adherents. In a rousing conclusion he pronounced mathematics to be one of the Devil's many arts, and that mathematicians should be driven out of all the Italian states because they spread false teaching. This ageing, but still powerful Jesuit had personally told Prince Cesi that he considered Copernicus' doctrine to be heretical, and that he believed that the notion of the Earth moving was unquestionably at variance with the words of Holy Scripture. Bellarmine, who was a hugely learned man and had studied the physics and geography of the time intensively, assumed that Dante's poetical image of the world represented reality Hell was quite literally at the centre of the Earth, Heaven was the outermost sphere in a closed universe31.

The Second Excavation

Of course we still excavate bones, and we need to. But we also need to look deep into the bones, into their chemistry. A first step is to narrow and deepen our vision, looking at microscopic evidence like the internal structure of bone, and moving even deeper to seek fossil molecules. Mary is a pioneer in this research, and as an inveterate digger myself, I like to think of her work in a similar framework. She is digging, too, but for her the fossil bone is the equivalent of the siltstone of the Hell Creek Formation, and the fossils she is trying to extract are not femurs and skulls but tissues, cells, and molecules, starting with protein and perhaps, one day, even moving on to DNA.

To Kill or Not to Kill

Though this is an expedition intent on capturing the creature, Biscardi does not rule out killing it if we have to. A regiment of Bigfoot hunters from Arkansas has joined Tom's group for this hunt, all of them carrying rifles. In addition, Tom has placed one of our team in a sniper position. Despite the wind and lightning, a member of the team has climbed to the top of a tall pine tree. He sits there, crouching on a hunter's platform with his rifle at the ready. Assuming he can see well enough in the darkness, he has orders to shoot the creature should it place any one of us in danger, or should it be on the verge of escape. As we move closer to the sniper, T.J. breaks his own rule of silence and radioes our position. He doesn't want one of us to be mistaken for the creature and fall victim to the sniper's bullet. The radio is not working properly, however - he can't raise the gunman in the tree. As an alternative, he radioes our position to the command post and asks them to contact...

Whilst This Planet Has Gone Cycling On According To The Fixed Law Of Gravity

What if our planet didn't spin on its axis If it kept one face permanently towards the sun, as the moon does towards us, the half with permanent day would be a roasting hell, while the half with permanent night would be insufferably cold. Could life survive in the twilight hinterland between, or perhaps buried deep in the ground I doubt if it would have originated in such unfriendly conditions, but if Earth gradually spun down to a halt there would be plenty of time to accommodate, and it is not implausible that at least some bacteria would succeed.

Sex and the Single Sasquatch

Well here was Kong with a glowing hard on, standing in front of me. I gave him two apples which he promptly ate. As he stood around I felt uneasy and once again embarrassed. Occasionally he would touch one end of his penis and seemed to be brushing away flies but none were in evidence. He was not masturbating. Finally I told him to get the hell out of here and if he had a female to go and find her. Of course he didn't understand what I was saying . . . (65)

Getting Out of Our Genes

So far, you could say we have been the devil's advocates, or adversaries, depending on your point of view. But, you might ask, what if the portrait of us and our chimp cousins in Demonic Males is correct and both chimps and humans are inherently sinners Are we doomed to be violent forever because this pattern is genetically coded Is original sin an inborn, fixed pattern that will ultimately destroy us, or can we go beyond our past get out of our genes, so to speak. According to Wrangham and Peterson, we can look to the bonobos as our potential saviors from demonic male genes. Bonobos, although more closely related to the common chimpanzee than humans, have become a peace-loving, love-not-war-making alter ego of the chimpanzee human paradigm of violence. How did this happen In the demonic male scenario chimpanzee and human females select partners that are violent. While men have evolved to be demonic males, it seems likely that women have evolved to prefer demonic males. . . . A s long...

Ten Arguments against Evolution and Why Theyre Wrong

For an idea that's almost beautifully simple, evolution certainly has garnered a lot of bad press. To hear some people talk, you'd think Darwin himself was the devil incarnate evolutionary biologists are his handmaids and people who teach evolution in the classroom are corrupting the minds of children across the land. Can we get a little perspective, people

Large Space Settlements Hallmark of a Solar System Civilization

The large space settlement is often viewed as the centerpiece of a grand technical vision, involving the construction of humanmade miniworlds that would result in the spread of life and civilization throughout the solar system. Long before the space age began, the British physicist and writer John Desmond Bernal (1910-71) speculated about the colonization of space and the construction of very large, spherical space settlements (now called Bernal spheres) in his futuristic 1929 work The World, the Flesh and the Devil. Although Bernal's use of the term space colony has yielded to the more politically acceptable expression space settlement, his basic idea of a large, self-sufficient human habitat in space has stimulated numerous space age era studies. These subsequent studies have spawned other interesting habitat concepts some engineering extrapolations of Bernal's basic notion and others dramatically different in form or purpose.

Presentday martian climate

Observations from orbiters and surface landers combined with the numerical modeling from the MGCMs provide a reasonably detailed understanding of the present-day martian atmosphere. Daytime heating results in convection which can lift dust off the surface through dust devil activity from late spring through early summer (Hinson et al., 1999). Convection can extend through an entire scale height ( 10km). The temperature gradient in the convective region approaches that of the dry adiabatic lapse rate of 4.3Kkm-1. At night, convection ceases and strong temperature inversions develop. Nighttime temperatures can drop low enough to cause condensation of atmospheric water vapor, producing the hazes and fog commonly seen in the early morning hours. Thermal tides dominate the circulation at altitudes above 75km, particularly in the tropics, while planetary waves dominate at lower altitudes (Cahoy et al., 2006). Daytime convection and its associated dust devil activity help to lift surface...

The drying up of the land

The giant wombats became extinct, along with most of the rest of the megafauna - the diprotodons and marsupial lions, the giant kangaroos and other outsize marsupials. One of the most intensely cold and dry phases of the Pleistocene occurred between 25 000 and 15 000 years ago, and it was during this time that most of the giant mammals disappeared from the scene. Hunting and firing of the land by the Aborigines may also have contributed to their extinction. A species of wombat closely related and similar in size to the modern bare-nosed wombat, Vombatus ursinus, also became extinct during the late Pleistocene. Fossil remains of this species, Vombatus hacketti, have been found in the Mammoth Cave and Devil's Lair deposits in south-western Western Australia.

Evolutionary Theodicy

But now I want to leave economics altogether. We shall stay with the idea of a planner, a designer, but our planner will be a moral philosopher rather than an economist. A beneficent designer might - you'd idealistically think - seek to minimize suffering. This is not incompatible with economic welfare, but the system created will differ in detail. And, once again, it unfortunately doesn't happen in nature. Why should it Terrible but true, the suffering among wild animals is so appalling that sensitive souls would best not contemplate it. Darwin knew whereof he spoke when he said, in a letter to his friend Hooker, 'What a book a devil's chaplain might write on the clumsy, wasteful, blundering low and horridly cruel works of nature.' The memorable phrase 'devil's chaplain' gave me my title for one of my previous books, and in another I put it like this

Foreword to the First Edition

Inevitably, though, the Dart Ardrey view of mankind's bloody birth ultimately produced a reaction that swung interpretation toward the opposite end of the spectrum of possibilities. Studies by Bob Brain during the 1960s and 1970s of South African australopith assemblages clarified how the fossils came to be jumbled and fragmented as elements washed into underground cavities, or as body parts accumulated by predators or scavengers, rather than as a result of murderous breakage by hominid killers in their lairs. Dramatically, Brain demonstrated that twin punctures in a skull fragment of a juvenile australopith were perfectly In the 1990s, with increasing knowledge of the ways in which our closest living relatives the great apes behave, the pendulum began to swing more emphatically. Beginning with the assumption that early hominids were more in the nature of evolved apes than of unperfected humans (though the conclusions need hardly have differed either way), some primatologists began to...

Lovers of the Extreme

The majority of research on extremophiles has centered on two types of habitats the undersea hydrothermal vents described above and the terrestrial equivalents of the hydrothermal vents geysers and hot pools on land. Volcanic processes create both of these habitats, and accordingly, they provide windows into the deep Earth. Life is tougher than we thought. If bacteria-like organisms can inhabit high-temperature geysers, they can live deep in Earth's crust in the subterranean blackness and heat of the underworld. The deep-ocean hydrothermal vents, and the hot springs and geysers of volcanic regions on land, are places where these previously unknown, deep-Earth assemblages of microbes can be observed and sampled. And they may also offer windows into regions where extraterrestrial life may exist on other planets and moons.

The Discovery of Pluto and the Kuiper Belt

The planet was named Pluto after the suggestion of an 11-year-old named Venetia Burney, who likened the planet's existence in perpetual darkness and cold to the life of the Roman god of the underworld. She reportedly suggested the idea at the breakfast table and her grandfather telegraphed the idea to the observatory, where they voted on names and chose hers. When Lowell calculated the position of Pluto based on the perturbations in Uranus's orbit, he estimated that the mass of the then-undiscovered Pluto was about 10 times the mass of the Earth. As it turns out, the Pluto-Charon system has a mass of only 0.0024 times the mass of the Earth, an error of three orders of magnitude. Lowell's calculations therefore cannot have been correct in even a rough sense, and so it is now thought that Tombaugh's discovery of the planet was just a happy accident. Finally, in 1988, computer power increased to the point that simulations of cometary capture from the Oort cloud could be performed. Three...

Late Cretaceous vegetation

Wodehouseia

Wolfe and Upchurch (1987b) based their summary of the North American Maastrichtian megafloras on literature dating from the 1860s to the 1940s, although they admitted that much of the family- to species-level taxonomy was in need of revision. For this reason, they concentrated on the leaf and wood physiognomy of the floras and primarily characterized the climate and vegetation type rather than defining the species-level floral composition. Their summary included the megafloras of the McNairy Sand of Tennessee the lower Atanekerdluk Formation of west Greenland the Raton and Vermejo formations of the Raton Basin of Colorado and New Mexico the Laramie and Denver formations of Colorado the Hell Creek, Lance, and Fox Hills formations of the Powder River and Williston basins of Wyoming, Montana, and the Dakotas and the Brazeau Formation of Alberta. They concluded that the Maastrichtian floras grew in a subhumid climate that at the end of the Maastrichtian was as warm as the Late Cretaceous...

Chapter Mermaids Water Beings

Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia. Austin University of Texas Press 1992, 131-132. In Nigeria, the Benin people also speak of mermaids. In Benin folklore the River goddess Igbag-hon ruled the underworld, which was below the water. She was waited upon by mermaids who informed her of trespassers who went to the river to wash or to fetch water they never returned from their tasks.11 9. Brewster, Harry. The River Gods of Greece Myths and Mountain Waters in the Hellenic World. London I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd. 1997, 97.

Conflicting hypotheses on the nature of megaevolution

Parasitic Platyhelminthes

This question can be approached in three ways. We can choose to compare the magnitude of changes involved in high- and low-level divergences, the type of changes, or the timing (in development) of changes. Here, I argue that previous work on the first of these has been unproductive and has generated more heat than light but that the second and third offer better prospects for shedding light on this important issue. However, in an unusual strategy, I also play devil's advocate with my own argument at the end of the chapter. This helps to take us in an interesting, final (for now) direction. Let us approach this problem in two ways first, by playing devil's advocate with the 'lots of late changes do not add up to an early one' argument and second, by re-examining the concept of an evolutionary novelty. The devil's advocate argument can be quite a simple one, if the right context is chosen, as follows. Consider two extant high-level sister groups of direct developers, for example two...

Towards a theology of evolution

Darwin was, to put it mildly, a retiring figure, and for a more public, if not melodramatic, view of another trek away from Damascus then it is inevitable that we turn to his staunch supporter, Thomas Henry Huxley. Interestingly, for Huxley, the adoption of the Darwinian world-picture also took on more than a tinge of theology. Thus the religious imagery that accompanies Adrian Desmond's Huxley From devil's disciple to evolution's high priest16 is revealing,17 and while it acknowledges Huxley's secular enthusiasm, perhaps it also distorts the sort of man he really was. It seems that, at first, Huxley was content that any sense of an underlying meaning could be eroded from the fields of biology and evolution. These regions of science fell into a realm of blind chance and unconscious agony, but one that at least allowed a deistic notion that conceded, however feebly, a cryptic arrangement of forces and laws. But in the end this, too, was insufficient Huxley had to become something for...

T he G reatest Inventors

Walls of caves Just for decoration That doesn't seem likely, because the caves were so dark. Of course we can't be sure, but we think they may have been trying to make magic, that they believed that painting pictures of animals on the walls would make those animals appear. Rather like when we say 'Talk of the devil ' when someone we've been talking about turns up unexpectedly. After all, these animals were their prey, and without them they would starve. So they may have been trying to invent a magic spell. It would be nice to think that such things worked. But they never have yet.

Wendigo Skinwalkers and Man Wolves

Despite these reports of animal-like behavior - behavior that seems to indicate a natural explanation for the beasts - Godfrey's files are filled with stories, like the story of the shape-shifting break-dancer, which seem to indicate a more supernatural explanation. Some witnesses insist that what they have seen is an odd, but natural, creature. Others describe it in demonic and supernatural terms. Sometimes, Godfrey notes, what witnesses report cannot easily be classified into either category, but has characteristics of both natural and supernatural phenomena. 'Sometimes,' she writes, 'it is difficult to separate the two categories, as the border between them occasionally turns porous, allowing things to seep fluidly between them' (xii).

Clouds and dust storms

Image Fog Nasa

Yellow clouds have been observed since 1877 and are now recognized as dust storms. Dust is prevalent across the martian surface because of the lack of liquid water and the range of geologic processes which have eroded surface rocks. Longitudinal differences in atmospheric pressure and temperature can produce strong winds capable of producing dust storms. Dust devil activity, which is more common in the southern hemisphere and extends from late spring to early fall (Fisher et al., 2005 Whelley and Greeley, 2006), helps lift dust into the atmosphere (Basu et al., 2004 Kahre et al., 2006) (Figure 6.5). Martian dust storms can be local, regional, or Figure 6.5 Dust devils help to lift dust from the surface into the martian atmosphere. These dust devils were captured by Spirit's camera as they traveled across the floor of Gusev Crater. (NASA JPL Texas A&M University.) Figure 6.6 Global dust storms can arise quickly on Mars, as demonstrated in these two images taken 2.5 months apart by the...

Chapter Arms Races And Evolutionary Theodicy

Pp. 383-4 And there are even, though it may seem surprising, arms races between males and females within a species, and between parents and offspring See Dawkins (2006), chs 8 and 9, 'Battle of the generations' and 'Battle of the sexes'. p. 390 'What a book a devil's chaplain might write' Darwin (1903). p. 390 ' N ature is neither kind nor unkind' Dawkins (1995), ch. 4, 'God's utility function'. p. 394 As a matter of interest, there are aberrant individuals who cannot feel pain For examples, see http www.msnbc.msn.com id 6379795 .

The Rest of the Kuiper Belt Population

Conjunction Opposition

About the first 400 asteroids were named after figures from classical mythology, but since that time, many other categories of names have been used. While discoverers of asteroids can choose names from almost any category, other objects must have names from a particular subject. All the objects that share Pluto's orbit, for example, must be named for underworld deities. Asteroids have been named after famous or accomplished people of all stripes, family members, committees, plants, and even machines. Asteroids with special numbers often get special names, as in 1000 Piazzi (the discoverer of the first asteroid), 2000 William Herschel, 3000 Leonardo da Vinci, 4000 Hipparchus, 5000 IAU (the International Astronomical Union), 6000 United Nations, 7000 Marie and Pierre Curie, 8000 Isaac Newton, and 9000 Hal (named for the computer, Hal 9000, in the 1968 movie 2001 A Space Odyssey). The asteroid 6765 Fibonacci is named because 6765 is a number in the Fibonacci sequence, a mathematical...

Utah dinosaur sold to Japan

Chinese Fossil Frauds

The team went out to the dig site with the Nusses. Driving through the eroding badlands of South Dakota, they could almost smell the dinosaur bones coming out of the gullies and creek beds. The Hell Creek Formation is a Late Cretaceous rock formation (around 65-67 million years old) that represents the most accurate record we have of the end of the reign of dinosaurs. It was a time when the giants, Tyrannosaurus, Triceratops and the mighty duck-billed hadrosaurs, roamed a landscape full of ferns, pines and early flowering plants, such as magnolias. From the scientific standpoint, it's important. And from the marketing standpoint it has great potential too. So both of these things in one skeleton is a real coup. And this has it. That's why it's the chicken from hell It's easy to see why Mike dubbed the specimen 'the chicken from hell'. It has very bird-like features, yet its large size and sharp curved claws definitely give it that Nightmare on Elm Street look. When I first saw it in...

Finding the Hollow Earth

According to Mikos, important events will soon come to pass. The earth is shifting into higher dimensions and the great day of promise is soon to dawn upon our planet. When this happens disease and war will be no more and the races of the underworld will unite in peace with the people of the surface. Mikos describes the great event 'This is the day we will open up the tunnel exits and come to you, with our brightly colored robes and sparkling sandals, bearing gifts of immense riches and the necesarry devices that will return your planet to its pristine state once again' (146). Anyone who wishes to be a contactee for the emerging races has only to make their wishes known through prayer, and their names will be added to the list. Points of emergence will coincide with the location of volunteer contactees, so no one need feel left out. When that day comes, the subterranean races will emerge from the caverns and caves and meet with the contactees, bringing joy and peace to all the world.

Red Deer Valley K-t Boundary

Fossil Data Before After Boundary

Figure 7.30 Fossil and modern pollen of disputed significance. a - inaperturate tetrad said to be immature lotus (Nelumbo) pollen, from a Teapot Dome sample ofWolfe (1991) b - tricolpate modern pollen of Nelumbo lutea, which bears no resemblance to the Teapot Dome specimens c - holotype specimen of the inaperturate tetrad fossil pollen species Inaperturotetradites scabratus from the Judith River Formation (Campanian), Montana d and e - two specimens of I. scabratus from the Lance Formation (Maastrichtian), Wyoming f - specimen of I. scabratus from the Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), North Dakota g - monosulcate modern pollen of Nuphar variegatum, which bears no resemblance to specimens alleged to be fossil Nuphar pollen present in the Teapot Dome samples ofWolfe (1991) h - Pandaniidites typicus from the Lance Formation (Maastrichtian), Wyoming i - P. typicus from the Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), North Dakota. Note that P. typicus, which is the species actually present...

Diprotodon Distribution

How Many Fingers Kolas Have

Late Pleistocene have been found north of Perth at Koala Cave near Yanchep,25 and south of the city at Mammoth Cave near Margaret River.26 Devil's Lair near Boranup has Phascolarctos fossils from the main excavation,27 with other fossils also known from Labyrinth Cave near Augusta.28 Koala fossil deposits have also been found in the Madura Cave on the southern edge of the Nullarbor Plain.29 There are still plenty of viable eucalypt plantations in south-east Western Australia, so it is difficult to establish why there are no koalas.30 One hypothesis is that the

Chapter The Forest Folk

For many people the very feel of the forest imparts a sense of awe and wonder, inspiring thoughts of the immensity of nature and the depths of time, triggering a delighted or even fearful awareness of all that we do not know about this world. To an artistic sensibility this can suggest the presence of spirits and unseen creatures. The edge of the forest, write Carol and Dinah Mack, is always the boundary between the wild and domesticated, the animal and the human community. It holds its genius loci, which may appear as demonic guardian species of wilderness and wild creatures and attack trespassing hunters, mischievous fairies and the many huge man-eating species 1 1. Mack, Carol K. and Dinah Mack. A Field Guide to Demons, Fairies, Fallen Angels, and Other Subversive Spirits. New York Owl Books 1998, 91. For some reason most tree-spirits are ambivalent at best and demonic at worst. Stories abound of tree-spirits that take savage revenge on those that dare to cut trees down. Indian...

Chapter Comparative Fairy Mythology and Folklore

This is an interesting statement since early Christian theologians used to say that Fairies were fallen angels, or, as Harry Percival Swan wrote, the fairies were angels who had remained neutral during the great war in heav-en. 3 Should we assume that a worldwide race of little people existed, in the dim recesses of time If so, how did they become associated with evil We do know that pagan traditions and icons were intentionally altered by the Church to reflect darker, more evil aspects in an effort to sway pagan populations away from their original beliefs and into the fold of Christianity. According to 19th century folklorist John Fiske Christianity, having no place The hekura are known and feared by the Yanomamo Indians in southern Venezuela and northern Brazil. Anthropologist Napoleon Chagnon, who studied this group he called the fierce people, wrote that the hekura are very tiny humanoid beings that dwell on rocks and mountains .11 The Yano-mamo view these small beings as demons .

Braking And Stationkeeping

Unfortunately, holding the LM stable using the AGS had a side effect that caught Collins unaware once he had soft docked and moved to retract the docking probe for a hard dock. As the probe began to pull the light ascent stage towards the much heavier CSM, the AGS detected a change in attitude and furiously tried to compensate for it by firing the LM's thrusters. Collins didn't realise this and began his own attempt to correct the motions of the spacecraft relative to one another, but as the two spacecraft were flexibly joined at the capture latches, their motions were somewhat complex. ''That was a funny one,'' he remarked directly afterwards. ''I thought things were pretty steady. I went to 'retract' there, and that's when all hell broke loose. The LM was jerking around quite a bit during the retract cycle.'' In 8 seconds - the time it took the probe to retract - the problem disappeared as the two spacecraft became one.

Wenatchee Wa Mormon Child Pornography Case

Impaq Accountability Loop

Then the pendulum swings the other way. As the innocent begin to fight back against their accusers through legal and other means, the accusers sometimes become the accused and skeptics begin to demonstrate the falsity of the accusations. So it went for the medieval witch crazes. So it will likely go for modern witch crazes such as the Satanic panic of the 1980s and the recovered memory movement of the 1990s. Is it really possible that thousands of Satanic cults have secretly infiltrated our society and that their members are torturing, mutilating, and sexually abusing tens of thousands of children and animals No. Is it really possible that millions of adult women were sexually abused as children but have repressed all memory of the abuse No. Like the alien abduction phenomenon, these are products of the mind, not reality. They are social follies and mental fantasies, driven by a curious phenomenon called the feedback loop. organize through feedback loops, in which outputs are...

Chapter Werewolves Not Just in Transylvania

Were-men are not confined to a wolf form, however. Depending on where the particular folklore originates these half-man half-animals may be a mix with bear, jaguar, tiger and even crocodile. Aztec shamans wore the hides, including the snout, hearts, claws, tails, and fangs, of jaguars and were said to be greatly feared because of the powers these objects transferred to the shaman.5 This was is a common practice in shamanism. Lapp shaman supposedly transform into demonic reindeer to fight each other. However, the cause of a person being transformed into werewolf is almost always due to an evil agent, most likely the acts of a witch or a punishment for some specific and grievous sin. William Howells, once chair of the department of anthropology at Harvard University, wrote, Werewolves in general are related to witchcraft in spirit if not explicitly. 6 However, there were two forms of werewolf, those who voluntarily transform into these creatures and those whose transformation is...

A giant lightning ball

In his book Cauldron of Hell Tunguska (1977) the American science writer Jack Stoneley poses the question could some particularly massive form of ball lightning conceivably be associated with the Tunguska event To answer it, he quotes the British scientist Anthony Lawton, who was also the scientific editor of Stoneley's book, as saying that to cause such devastation would require a lightning ball nearly 1 kilometre in diameter. Stoneley claims that from eyewitness reports early Tunguska researchers reckoned the fireball to be about 1 kilometre across. 'This is so close that we cannot dismiss the possibility that the Siberian monster might have been a giant lightning ball', he writes.

Dinosaurs as a Part of Popular Culture in Fiction

Valley The Rex

Cinematic treatments of dinosaurs thus provide a good opportunity for critical reviews. For example, the intriguing titles of some films (e.g., the 1991 film A Nymphoid Barbarian in Dinosaur Hell) tell how entertainment was their intent, not information. The recurring words in the movie list to note are lost, unknown,

Would Like So Much To Explore

Gallo Matese Perrino

''Who flies What flies '' demanded his grandfather urgently, hurrying from the house. ''You little devil You terrified me to the death '' Cosmonaut Yevgeniy Khrunov recalled of Viktor's first days at the TsPK ''When Viktor began training, we saw immediately how well this quiet and unpretentious man could work. His modesty was incredible. I remember, during the first months, I sat next to him in the cafeteria. And apart from ''hello'' and ''see you later'', he did not say anything during a period of two weeks. Later, I understood that he remained silent simply because he did not wish to make much noise.'' Cosmonaut Viktor Gorbatko, who flew with Vadim Volkov on Soyuz 7, wrote of Patsayev ''When Viktor began to train for a flight he visited us in Zvyozdniy more often, but he was almost invisible. In the medical room, on the sports field, in the cafeteria, he was always so quiet. Some of the staff at the TsPK did not realise who he was until he actually flew in space He simply had no...

Early Scientific Studies of Dinosaurs The North and South Americans

Meanwhile, across the Atlantic Ocean, fossil evidence of dinosaurs was being discovered in North America in the latter part of the eighteenth and early part of the nineteenth centuries, although none of it was connected with dinosaurs at the time. The first probable dinosaur-related discovery in North America was in 1787, when anatomist Caspar Wistar (1761-1818) presented a bone from Cretaceous rocks of Woodbury, New Jersey to the American Philosophical Society, presided over by Benjamin Franklin (1706-90). George Washington (1732-99), who is also known for his interest in fossils, examined the same bone and mentioned it in one of his writings. Unfortunately, Wistar interpreted the bone as a large man's femur instead of recognizing it as an ornithopod metatarsal if he had identified it correctly as reptile-like, this discovery would have preceded Buckland by 28 years. In 1802, Pliny Moody, a farm boy and student at Williams College, made a more definitive discovery of dinosaurs in...

Waking The Slumbering Giants

While diseases with the potential to be carried by insects were central to the Soviets' efforts in unconventional warfare, the earliest success came as a serendipitous chemical discovery rooted in entomology. In a tale eerily similar to that of nerve gas in Germany, Soviet scientists searching for better insecticides happened upon a poison that was tough on cockroaches and hell on humans.2 Phosgene oxime was appropriately called nettle gas in light of the first symptom of exposure a stinging, searing sensation on the skin. If inhaled, the blistering agent lethally burned the victim's lungs. Chemical munitions may have been the first entomologically based weapons out of the blocks, but live insects were not far behind. Much to the relief of the 41 soldiers and sailors who landed on a spit of land off New Guinea in 1944, South Bat Island was uninhabited. But although there were no Japanese lying in wait, the island's nonhuman inhabitants were most unfriendly.43 An alliance of mites...

Chimpanzee Aggression

The possibility that human interference was a main cause of the unusual behavior of the Gombe chimps was the subject of a well-researched academic book by Margaret Power, entitled The Egalitarians, Human and Chimpanzee An Anthropological View of Social Organization.39 In Demonic Males Wrangham and Peterson essentially ignore this book, stating that yes, this might have been unnatural behavior if it weren't for new evidence of similar behavior occurring at Gombe since 1977 and elsewhere in Africa. What is this evidence We will summarize the four examples they provide Exhibit D Finally, at a site that Richard Wrangham began studying in 1984, an adult male was found dead in 1991. This incident is dramatically reported in Demonic Males In the second week of August, Ruizoni was killed. No human saw the big fight. . . . the day before he went missing, our males had been travelling together near the border exchanging calls with the males of another community, evidently afraid to meet them....

First prize in the ugly competition

Imagine a creature built like a small tank and with the temperament of a cranky grizzly bear. The enormous mouth bristles with teeth like steak knives. It's hard to imagine how it could have closed its mouth without stabbing itself in the nose and jaw at the same time. Waddling along on huge feet and looking for all the world as though it was wearing oversized cricket gloves, this creature from hell was top dog on land 250 million years ago. It is called a gorgonopsid.

The Challenge of Comets

It is easy to imagine various nightmare scenarios for incoming comets. Suppose that a very large comet is discovered near the orbit of Jupiter, and that based on a few weeks of observation, the Earth is found to lie within the error ellipse of the projected orbit. But suppose also that the area of this error ellipse at the Earth is hundreds of times greater than the area of the Earth itself. What should be done Should a crash program of defense be initiated even though the probability of impact is less than 1 At what point is action justified Suppose further that additional tracking does not shrink the ellipse greatly because of the onset of nongravitational forces. Perhaps the comet disappears behind the Sun for a few months and cannot be seen at all (the scenario described in the novel Lucifer's Hammer Niven and Pournelle, 1977). How would a decision on countermeasures be made Could a deflection be considered when its unintentional effect might be to cause an impact rather than to...

Paleobiogeography And Evolutionary History Of Marginocephalia

Torosaurus Latus Fossils

FIGURE 13.8 Cast of skull for the Late Cretaceous neoceratopsian (and ceratopsid) Torosaurus latus, from the Hell Creek Formation of South Dakota, a candidate for the largest skull possessed by any land animal. Utah Field House of Natural History, Vernal, Utah. FIGURE 13.8 Cast of skull for the Late Cretaceous neoceratopsian (and ceratopsid) Torosaurus latus, from the Hell Creek Formation of South Dakota, a candidate for the largest skull possessed by any land animal. Utah Field House of Natural History, Vernal, Utah.

Chapter The Way Of All Creatures

Synopsis of the Hell Creek (uppermost Cretaceous) dinosaur assemblage. Pp. 169-176 in J. H. Hartman, K. R. Johnson, and D. J. Nichols (eds.), The Hell Creek Formation and the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the Northern Great Plains An Integrated Continental Record of the End of the Cretaceous. Geological Society of America Special Paper 361. Boulder, CO Geological Society of America.

Uncovering Venus World Gone Wrong

During those years of the first reconnaissance missions, the rest of the solar system didn't prove any friendlier to life as we know it. Mariner 2, the first machine (from Earth) to successfully visit another world, flew by Venus in December 1962 and radioed back news that was disheartening, at least for carbon-based creatures on Earth looking for close company or a nearby vacation paradise. The surface of Venus is hot as a kiln and dry as bones. There, organic molecules would fare about as well as a snowball in hell. The warm, wet, richly inhabited

New evidence accumulates

Almost simultaneously, Jan Smit and his collaborators were making parallel discoveries at the K-T boundary in the Williston Basin (Figure 4.3), in the Hell Creek area in eastern Montana (Smit and Van der Kaars 1984, Smit et al. 1987), and research for a doctoral dissertation was under way, results of which were published some years later (Hotton 2002). These studies are discussed more fully in Section 6.3. As well, one of the localities at which Tschudy et al. (1984) found the fern-spore spike at the boundary was in the Hell Creek area, eastern Montana.

Chapter Harpies and Other Creatures of Storms and Wind

The Harpies were sent by the gods to cause sudden and early death their sole purpose was to inflict punishment upon humans. Because of their role in death, they were also known as messengers to the underworld, and as the transporters of the souls of the dead. Biedermann wrote that another duty of the Harpy was to catch criminals and turn them over to the Fates for punishment. He further notes although the Harpies serve the greater moral order, they are figures of dread. 1 were known in ancient Mesopotamia as well. Some Babylonian poems, note Jeremy Black and Anthony Green, describe the dead as clothed with bird-like plumage. The underworld is peopled by a horde of unpleasant demons, described in graphic detail. In almost all cases these hellish demons are said to have been winged and to have had talons of birds. 2 2. Black, Jeremy and Anthony Green. Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia. Austin University of Texas Press 1992,43. Cooper wrote Winds are messengers of the gods...

Location Location Location

It's all in the size and structure how big and loose a molecule is determines how well it absorbs IR. A molecule with only two atoms trying to absorb IR is like a rhythmically challenged person trying to dance to reggae music. If you can't shake your hips and swing your arms, then you might as well have a straitjacket on. These uptight little molecules have nothing to move, no degrees of freedom as we say in the biz. So, for example, little diatomic (two-atom) molecules such as oxygen and nitrogen (O2 and N2) cannot absorb infrared. They may want to dance but they're not hip to the right vibrations, and the IR passes them by like the little stiffs they are. Slightly larger molecules, with three or more atoms, such as carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, methane, and water (CO2, SO2, CH4 and H2O), have a lot more stuff to shake, and this makes them all strong IR absorbers. Pass some IR through air that's thick with these willing dancers and it's easy skankin' they just bounce, bounce,...

Assessment of the KT boundary event

Another fascinating and subtle sedimentological feature of the K-T boundary transition is the apparent decrease in pedogenic alteration of fine-grained sediments above the boundary. This is clear in the central Great Plains where the well-rooted paleosols of the Hell Creek Formation give way to the variegated and laminated siltstone deposits of the Fort Union Formation. In the Denver Basin, a similar transition occurs within the Denver Formation at the K-T boundary. The result in both cases is that fossil leaves are more commonly preserved in the Paleocene portion of the section than they are in the Cretaceous portion. This is in part responsible for the historical over-collection of Paleocene fossils relative to Upper Cretaceous fossils.

Surveyor oflnferno

But before leaving Florence, he gave a lecture in the city's prestigious Academy, founded to promote Tuscan as the foundation for the common Italian written language. He had been set the task of describing the location and dimensions of Dante's Hell. Florence was not a city to take its famous authors lightly. A well-known dramatist had once been exiled because he had announced that the sainted Catherine of Siena was a better writer than Florence's own Boccaccio He was intimately versed in The Divine Comedy and the universe that was depicted there. Galileo explained the precise construction Dante had calculated for his Hell. It was shaped like a broad funnel, with its opening up on the surface of the earth. In each of its descending circles ever worse punishments were meted out to ever worse sinners, and using his skill in geometry, Galileo worked out the diameter of the various diabolical departments, in which various devils tortured the unhappy sinners for all eternity. The circles...

Origin Of Life

Whether the proponents of hell or heaven theories finally convince their rivals of the most plausible scenario for the origin of the first replicating structures, it is clear that the origin of life is not a simple issue. One problem is the definition of life itself. From the ancient Greeks up through the early nineteenth century, people from European cultures believed that living things possessed an elan vital, or vital spirit a quality that sets them apart from dead things and nonliving things such as minerals or water. Organic molecules, in fact, were thought to differ from other molecules because of the presence of this spirit. This view was gradually abandoned in science when more detailed study on the structure and functioning of living things repeatedly failed to discover any evidence for such an elan vital, and when it was realized that organic molecules could be synthesized from inorganic chemicals. vitalistic ways of thinking

Regression

With particular reference to North America, in Archibald's study area we find that his hypothesis does not stand up against the detailed record of changes in sea level during the Maastrichtian and the Paleocene. The major regression during the latest Cretaceous in this region was essentially complete 3-4 million years before the K-T boundary event (Johnson et al. 2002), but during the rest of Maastrichtian time, rich Cretaceous floras and faunas (including dinosaurs) dominated the landscape. Furthermore, at the very time that habitat fragmentation due to marine regression was allegedly taking place, the Western Interior seaway was readvancing into the North Dakota area in minor transgressive pulses represented by the Breien Member and the Cantapeta Tongue of the Hell Creek Formation (Hoganson and Murphy 2002). That last transgression of marine waters into the interior of the North American continent culminated with the Cannonball sea, which is represented by the Cannonball Member of...

Life in control

One extreme viewpoint is that life is an inconsequential film that, historically, has had little impact on surface processes, at least until humans arrived (e.g. Holland 1984). It adapts as best it may through biological evolution, ducking and weaving to avoid the brunt of geological and cosmic forces, bowing to the whim of every volcanic eruption, sea-level change, and asteroid impact. This is a somewhat gloomy view of life's role on the Earth. Greg Retallack (1990, 1992) dubbed it the Ereban hypothesis, after Erebus, the Greek personification of darkness and the underworld. I preferred the Hadean hypothesis (after Hades, the Greek god of the underworld), in which life is seen to struggle painfully for existence amidst a geological and cosmic Hell (Huggett 1997a Figure 9.1). The Hadean view sees the biosphere as a dynamic system capable of responding to changes in its environment, but only in a limited and essentially passive way. It paints the biosphere as a somewhat fragile system...

Edmund Halley

Though Halley's scientific theories would not remain in favor among the scientific establishment, they did prove to be quite long-lived in other communities. Halley's theories may indeed be seen as a bridge between earlier religious or folkloric accounts of hell and subterranean gnomes and later science fiction accounts of the hollow

Overjoyed

Hello, Houston, the Endeavour's, on station with cargo, and what a fantastic sight. David Scott could not contain his delight at his close-up view of the Moon as soon as Apollo 15 came back into communications with Houston on emerging around the eastern limb. Not everyone thought Scott's outpouring appropriate. On hearing this exchange, the no-nonsense Alan Shepard, commander of the previous mission, Apollo 14, was heard to grumble To hell with that shit, give us details of the burn.'' But Scott's ship was sound. Everything was going well, and they were merely greeting their friends on Earth. Data about the burn was indeed about to be relayed. As soon as the LOI burn had finished, Endeavour's crew had interrogated their DSKY (display and keyboard, the computer's terminal) to find out what it reckoned their new orbit was. They had also written down the residuals - numbers that represented the difference between what they had asked of the engine, and what it actually gave them. ''Look...

High atop the world

This crew, and many of the other Apollo crewmen, had flown in the cramped confines of the earlier Gemini spacecraft - a couple had even been squeezed into the tiny one-man Mercury capsule. Apollo gave them a bit more space to move around. I'm having a hell of a time maintaining my body position down here,'' noted Collins after he had manoeuvred down to the lower equipment bay where the eyepieces for the optical instruments were stored. I keep floating up.''

Harts Answer

Now, a few million years sounds like a long time to you and me. Hell, I get bored driving from Tucson to Phoenix. But it's just a fraction of a percent of the 10-billion-year age of our galaxy. Thus, Hart argued, the absence of evidence is evidence of absence. Radio SETI was doomed to failure and maybe not worth the investment. Fermi's Paradox, reinvigo-rated, came to be called, by some, the Fermi-Hart paradox.

On the flat

This group argues that these adaptations to high temperatures must be a secondary feature. Even so, despite this scepticism and more general reservations,51 at the moment the idea that life's origins are to be found in ancient environments nearer to the traditional depictions of Hell - sulphur and boiling temperatures - is probably the most influential idea in town.

System

Human landings on even the nearer planets, however, will not be as easy as had once been thought. The surface of Venus, far from being Eden, turns out, as we have seen, to be far more like Hell. We cannot imagine manned exploration of the Venus surface in the next few decades. Venus is a planet with fiery temperatures, noxious gases, and crushing atmospheric pressures. Yet, the clouds of Venus are in a clement environment and a manned buoyant probe - something like a nineteenth-century balloon gondola in which the astronauts work in shirtsleeves and leather oxygen masks - is not without its charm or its scientific interest.

Notes and References

Have a devastating effect on the Earth's water cycle. A more recent study by Simone Tilmes, also of the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Colorado, finds that a sulfate sunshield might drastically reduce the size of the Earth's ozone layer. The devil, as always, is in the details, and the quest to understand the long-term effects of the sulfate seeding of the Earth's atmosphere continues.

Killer asteroid

If an asteroid did hit Earth 65 million years ago, where is the impact crater In 1980, an oil company drilling off the coast of Mexico's Yucatan peninsula stumbled across a great near-circular structure, buried under the surface near the village of Chicxulub, which means 'tail of the devil' in ancient Mayan. It had not been spotted earlier because it was buried beneath 1,100 metres of limestone. No one bothered about the structure until the American geologist Alan Hilderbrand learnt about it from a local reporter in 1990. Investigations by Hilderbrand and other geologists revealed that the bowl-shaped structure was indeed an impact crater rather than some kind of volcanic structure. It is about 180 kilometres across and 20 times as deep as the Grand Canyon. This estimate of the size is based on boreholes drilled in the search for oil.

Polle Maastrichtian

Maastrichtian

Markevich et al. (2000) summarized evidence for vegetational change and dinosaur extinction in the Amur region and other localities in the Russian Far East, citing an abrupt change in climate and vegetation at the putative middle Maastrichtian-upper Maastrichtian boundary that resulted in the extinction of the dinosaurs. They presented palynological data to support the contention that climate change (cooling and increased humidity) occurred by the end of the mid Maastrichtian, as indicated by decreases in pollen of temperate plants and unica type pollen and increase in abundance of the Taxodiaceae. Markevich et al. concluded that dinosaur extinction was a global event that took place an estimated 2-3 million years before the end of the Cretaceous, in conjunction with the climatically induced change in vegetation. In support, they cited Nichols (1990), a paper mentioning that in the Lance and Hell Creek formations of Wyoming and Montana, dinosaur bones disappear 1-2 m below the K-T...

The Shaver Mystery

Shaver Mystery Dero

Eventually, this once mighty race was reduced to mutated horrors, retarded in intelligence and social structure. Worse still, these monstrosities still had access to the self-repairing machines of their ancestors. But instead of using them for their intended purposes, the Abandondero used them to satisfy their sick, twisted desires. These are the demons of ancient myth and folklore. (22) I knew at once that I was in the den of a Dero. The sickening creature sat on his throne like a prince from Hades and regarded me with tiny red eyes that seemed to glow with a hellish fire from deep within his skull. Some seek out this world, this kingdom that lies where hell ought to be. Hitler sought it, or so we are told. Admiral Byrd found the way by plane. Others promise to sail there by boat. Robbins teaches us to prepare for their coming. Yet Shaver gives us the warning. With great pleasure comes great pain. With great promise comes great fear. With I am traveling to the heart of Mormon country...

Pterosauria

Skeleton Reconstruction Pterosaur

Microscopic investigation of wing membranes from several species (Padian and Rayner, 1993 Unwin and Bakhurina, 1994) has shown that they are reinforced with parallel stiff fibres, termed actinofibrils, particularly in the distal region. The acti-nofibrils are clear in Sordes (Unwin and Bakhurina, 1994), in which each fibre can be seen to be made from bundles of smaller strands (illustrations (b, c)). Sordespilosus, or 'hairy devil', is renowned for its supposedly thick pelt of hair. Most of the so-called 'hair', however, consists of displaced actinofibrils. Nonetheless, hairs have been detected in non-flight areas and Padian and Rayner (1993) confirm the distinction between actinofribrils and hairs in German specimens. The actinofibrils were located primarily in the outer sector of the wing, radiating backwards from the wing finger. They acted to spread the wing and keep it spread by transferring forces in the wing membrane back to the fourth digit along the leading edge (Bennett,...

Eastern Montana

Sketch Map Creek

The western part of the Williston Basin is present in eastern Montana. The strata in this area are exposed in badlands along the banks and tributaries of the Missouri River in Garfield and McCone counties and adjacent to the Yellowstone River between Miles City and Glendive. The Missouri River is dammed at Fort Peck and the Fort Peck Reservoir is surrounded by these extensive badlands (Figure 6.26). The same stratigraphic units known in western North Dakota are present in eastern Montana the Hell Creek and Fort Union formations (Figure 6.2). In Montana, however, some authors prefer to elevate the basal Tullock Member of the Fort Union to formation rank. This region has supplied the vast majority of the vertebrate fossil record spanning the K-T Figure 6.26 Sketch map of the Hell Creek area, Garfield County, Montana, south of the Fort Peck Reservoir (modified from Hotton 2002). Localities are 1, Seven Blackfoot 2, Billy Creek 3, Herpijunk Northeast and Iridium Hill 4, Rick's Place 5,...

Sahelanthropus

Principles of Development, by Lewis Wolpert and colleagues, describes epigenesis as the idea that new structures arise progressively. There is a sense in which epigenesis is self-evidently true, but details matter and the devil is in the clich . How does the organism develop progressively How does an initially undifferentiated whole 'know' how to differentiate progressively, if not by following a blueprint The distinction I want to make in this chapter, which largely corresponds to the distinction between preformationism and epigenesis, is the distinction between planned architecture and self-assembly. The meaning of planned architecture is clear to us because we see it all around us in our buildings and other artefacts. Self-assembly is less familiar, and will need some attention from me. In the field of development, self-assembly occupies a position analogous to natural selection in evolution, although it is definitely not the same process. Both achieve, by automatic,...

Metallicity

The host stars of most of the extrasolar planets found to date have a fairly high metallicity about four-fifths of them are at least as metal rich as the Sun. Rare Earth supporters suggest that this might seriously limit the number of planetary systems, since stars with high metallicity tend to be found only in the inner reaches of the galaxy. Guillermo Gonzalez has been especially vocal on this point. But once again, for a perfectly good explanation, we need look no further than the fact that the first extrasolar planets to be discovered have tended to be high-mass planets in unusual orbits. In general, we'd expect those Sun-like stars with the highest proportion of heavy elements to be the ones hosting massive planetary systems containing multiple large Jupiters. Where there's a glut of raw material available for assembling large, metallic and rocky planet cores in closely stacked orbits, the natural outcome will be a number of outsize gas giants moving close together. And then all...

Overview

South Dakota Williston Map Basin

The uppermost Maastrichtian and lowermost Paleocene rocks in the Williston Basin of western North Dakota, northwestern South Dakota, and eastern Montana contain the best exposed and most studied nonmarine record of the terminal Cretaceous event in the world. This region contains 41 (39 ) of the known terrestrial K-T boundary sections (see Table 2.1 and Appendix). The Williston Basin is a large structural depression occupying much of North Dakota and parts of South Dakota, Montana (Figure 6.1), and it extends into southern Saskatchewan. The stratigraphic units in which the K-T boundary is preserved are the Hell Creek Formation, which for the most part is Maastrichtian in age, and the Fort Union Formation, which for the most part is Paleocene in age (Figure 6.2). The Hell Creek Formation is composed of fluvial sandstone, mud-stone, and claystone. It includes rare, thin lignite beds and minor marine units. It was deposited at the edge of the Western Interior seaway (Roberts and...

Pratts hypothesis

Both the Airy and Pratt hypotheses are essentially applications of Archimedes' Principle whereby adjacent blocks attain isostatic equilibrium through their buoyancy in the fluid substratum. They assume that adjacent blocks are decoupled by fault planes and achieve equilibrium by rising or subsiding independently. However, these models of local compensation imply unreasonable mechanical properties for the crust and upper mantle (Banks et al., 1977), because they predict that independent movement would take place even for very small loads. The lithosphere is demon-strably not as weak as this implies, as large gravity anomalies exist over igneous intrusions with ages in excess of 100 Ma. The lithosphere must therefore be able to support stress differences of up to 20-30 MPa for considerable periods of time without the necessity of local compensation.

Original Thoughts

Four billion years ago, it was Hell on Earth or so many scientists believe. Direct evidence is hard to come by, because our world conceals its distant past well. The oldest known outcrop of terrestrial rock, the Acasta gneiss 350 kilometers north of Yellowknife in Canada's Northwest Territories, dates back slightly less than four billion years, leaving the first half billion years of Earth's history without a rock record at all.* To make matters worse, even those fragments of ancient crust that remain, like the Acasta gneiss, have been so melted and distorted over the ages that they carry only a cryptic record of their infancy. It was the most inhospitable time imaginable, fittingly christened the Hadean or hellish era by American paleontologist Preston Cloud. A number of big asteroids (no one knows how many) are reckoned to have slammed To Bernal, such cosmic thinking came easily. In 1929, in The World, the Flesh, and the Devil a little book dense with extraordinary, brilliantly...

Lake outbursts

Other catastrophic lake bursts occurred in North America. They include the Lake Bonneville Flood (Malde 1968 Jarrett and Malde 1987), which took place about 15,000 years ago, and the catastrophic drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz through a northwestern outlet following the incision of a drainage divide about 9,900 years ago (Smith and Fisher 1993). Pleistocene Lake Bonneville overtopped its Rim at Red Rock Pass in south-eastern Idaho and rapidly lowered, decanting about 4,700 km3 of water down the Snake River (Malde 1968). This debacle rushed down the Snake River Plain of southern Idaho to Hell's Canyon, causing extensive erosion and deposition. Today, the valley displays impressive abandoned channels, areas of scabland, and gravel bars composed of sand and angular and rounded boulders up to 3 m in diameter. The peak discharge, calculated using a step-back-

Chapter Giants

In Greek mythology, the giant Titans were the offspring of Gaia, the earth goddess, and Uranus the sky god. The Titans were primordial deities that ruled over earth and heaven until overthrown by Zeus. However, many other gods and goddesses were born of the union between Zeus and Titan women or other Titan gods and goddesses. Among these were Apollo Selene, goddess of the moon Eos, the goddess of the dawn Helios, god of the sun Artemis, goddess of the wild beasts Demeter, goddess of agriculture Hades, god of the underworld Poseidon, god of the sea and Cronos, who castrated and overthrew his father Uranus. Poseidon and his Titan brothers Hades and Zeus divided the rule of the world among themselves after the death of Cronos.

Galileo Galilei

Or perhaps his thoughts turned to Dante, his greatest compatriot, whose work he knew inside out. In the eighth circle of Hell the wanderer comes across cheats of various kinds, amongst whom is a certain Master Adamo, a forger who was executed in Florence in Dante's time. In one intense scene the sinner tells how he experiences eternity, mutilated and rooted to the spot, with a burning thirst and an unceasing longing for a single drop of water, a punishment for his thirst for wealth which led him to his offence. The Archbishop's palace lay cheek by jowl with Siena's monumental cathedral, a piece of architectural artwork in light and dark green marble, that had once been intended to demonstrate to the main rival, Florence, the extent of the power and wealth the Sienese had at their disposal. But Piccolomini was now bishop of a tranquil provincial town, where only the great Palio horse race in the city square harked back to days of former glory and festivity.

Dos Is Born

Although Mishin and Chelomey were united in their opposition to the plan to create a hybrid Long-Duration Orbital Station (DOS) by using Almaz and Soyuz systems, the Kremlin's directive was firm. Chelomey was satisfied to ensure that this project would not further delay Almaz, but Mishin was furious at what he referred to as the ''conspiracy''. In one meeting Mishin threatened ''If I hear that anybody else apart from these two - Bushuyev and Feoktistov - occupies himself with this DOS, I will send him to hell.'' He opposed the DOS effort not only because his staff had gone behind his back to initiate it, but also out of concern that, despite assurances to the contrary, it would jeopardise the N1-L3 programme. Even once it was underway he never really endorsed the project, and at times he openly criticised it.

Figuring The Odds

Before I actually tell you the Drake Equation, I'll give you an analogy the date equation. Say you are a single person going to a large dance party, and you would like to come away with a date for the following weekend. Arriving in front of the house, you can hear the music pumping and feel the bass rattling your gut. You are excited, but nervous as hell, so you decide to calm yourself with some math. Before going inside, you try to calculate your chances of getting lucky. You

The Digging Begins

One of the first collectors in the area of Garfield County was Barnum Brown of the American Museum of Natural History, the man who identified and named the Hell Creek Formation. He arrived shortly after Arthur Jordan, a remarkably enterprising man, who had emigrated from Scotland as a boy, and founded the town of Jordan, which began as a post office in 1899. In 1902 Brown was sent to explore the Hell Creek area by Henry Fairfield Osborn, the paleontologist who would become president of the museum in 1908 and preside over the glory days of the museum's fossil collecting. This commission meant that Brown was well on his way to becoming one of the most successful and best-known collectors of dinosaur fossils. He had already been fossil hunting in Wyoming and had been told by Hornaday of fossils weathering out in the badlands near Jordan. The Hell Creek Formation has continued to attract fossil hunters of all sorts, academic and professional, and over the years has produced more than its...

Acknowledgements

The line drawing illustrations that appear in this book are in the public domain. The Wild Man appearing in Chapter 7 is taken from The Sports and Pastimes of the English People by Joseph Strutt, published 1801. The drawings of the mermaid, the Snake People of Hell and the illustration on the title page are taken from Adventures of Telemachus, published by D. Appleton & Company, New York, ca. 1889. The other line drawings are from The Complete Encyclopedia of Illustration by J. G. Heck, published by Gramercy Books, New York, 1979. This is a reproduction of two of the four volumes of The Iconographic Encyclopaedia of Science, Literature, and Art published in 1851 by R. Garrigue, New York. The photographs of the Native American snake petroglyph in Arizona, the antlered-man pub sign in Ashland, Oregon, the bat carving on the Chester Cathedral in Chester, England, the Harpy that resides in the British Museum and the photo of Bast were taken by the author.

The Roman Style

Based on this recommendation, the Pope brought out his greatest weapon, apart from open warfare in April 1606 he placed an interdict on Venice. He forbade all ecclesiastical services to the Venetians, like mass, the giving of communion and other sacraments, including Christian burial. This meant that anyone who died in Venice, had to spend eternity in a Dantesque hell.

The Dinosaurs

To understand the place of the Hell Creek Formation in the history of life on earth it is necessary to step back a bit, perhaps not to the origin of the planet four and a half billion years ago, but at least to the beginning of the dinosaurs' reign. By the time of the nonavian dinosaurs' extinction, this extraordinary group of animals had already had quite a successful run. Jack Horner looks over eroded badlands near Jordan, Montana. The boundary that marks the end of the nonavian dinosaurs and the top of the Hell Creek Formation is a dark line about two-thirds of the way up the hill, just left of center. Jack Horner looks over eroded badlands near Jordan, Montana. The boundary that marks the end of the nonavian dinosaurs and the top of the Hell Creek Formation is a dark line about two-thirds of the way up the hill, just left of center. By the time of the latest Cretaceous, the period preserved in the Hell Creek rocks, Antarctica, Australia, and South America had separated from the...

Unbelievables

'Hell ' he says, 'anyone can tell those tracks were fakes. Didn't they think Pandora's box - that is what it is. Once you open the box, all kinds of things escape. Once you open that closet door, you never know what kind of monster is going to jump out. Hairy ape-men are suddenly the least of your worries. All sorts of worse things quickly come tumbling out after them - Wendigo, Skinwalkers, manwolves with fangs bared, flying Goat Suckers and winged demons, dinosaurs of the land and of the sea. It is a monstrous menagerie, a post-modern bestiary, a cantina scene of cryptids. This is what happens when you open the door.

Predation

Unwanted dogs and pups in the Australian bush ever since the first colonists brought dogs to the country. The abundance of marsupials, both large and small, around the early settlements would have provided them with an easy living but they became a nuisance when the bush and the marsupials were cleared to make way for sheep and cattle, and they are still a major problem in many areas. Cross-breeding between feral dogs and dingoes has produced a motley horde of wild dogs. As mentioned in Chapter 1, the dingo probably came to this country with a late immigration of Aborigines about 3500-4000 years ago, and on the mainland it gradually replaced the thylacine, the only marsupial carnivore of comparable size, and the smaller Tasmanian devil. Wild dogs and dingoes not only kill stock they also slaughter native animals of all kinds in untold numbers, and at or near the top of the menu in south-eastern Australia are two of the slower-moving marsupials the swamp wallaby and the bare-nosed...

North Dakota

Most of what is known about plants and the K-T boundary in the Williston Basin region, as summarized in this section, comes specifically from the Marmarth area in the southwestern corner of North Dakota (Figure 6.4). It derives from our own research, Johnson on paleobotany and Nichols on palynology, mostly in collaborative studies on the Maastrichtian Hell Creek Formation and Paleocene lowermost part of the Fort Union Formation. The flora - both megaflora and palynoflora - of the Maastrichtian and Paleocene in this area has been thoroughly sampled and extensively studied, although much systematic work remains to be done on the megaflora. Paleobotanical and palynological results from this area incorporate physical evidence of the K-T boundary (the iridium abundance anomaly, shock-metamorphosed minerals, and spherules). Many of the paleobotanical and palynological collections are associated with intensively studied vertebrate fossils, and many of the measured sections from which the...

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