Attract The Opposite Sex With Pheromones
Insects by mimicking the sex pheromones, and sometimes the shape, of the female insect. Imagining what happens in this case is easy The male insect pounces on the orchid and makes a really good attempt at mating with the flower, getting covered with pollen in the process. In the end, he gives up because the process just isn't going very well and flies off to find a different female. But he may end up on another orchid and transfer the pollen that he picked up on the first orchid.
In some cases, the plants themselves adopt a particular morphology so as to exploit ants for their own advantage. This can be seen in some orchids, whose shape appears to have been expressly designed so as to make their pollen stick to the ants' foreheads, well away from the harmful secretions. Other flowering plants have devised different tricks they attract male ants who have no metapleural gland by releasing imitations of the sex pheromones produced by female ants. This is a good way of duping the insects into believing that they are mating with a series of young queens when they are actually carrying pollen from flower to flower.
As noted above, the star-nosed mole does not employ its spectacular proboscis for olfaction. But here, too, those animals that do have a sense of smell show some striking similarities. So it is that despite major anatomical differences the basic mechanism of olfaction seen in the insects (usually located in the third segment of each antenna) and vertebrates (the nose, of course) depends on nervous structures known as the glomeruli.208 These act to connect and integrate the olfactory messages that are then conducted as electrical signals via the nervous system to the brain, where the discrimination of odours takes place. To be sure, the proteins (and thereby genes) that serve to bind the odours, as the first step in olfaction, are different,209 but as John Hildebrand and his colleagues have emphasized, despite the molecular genetics being quite different, our sense of smell and that of the insects (and other arthropods) works on the same principles,210 and so encompasses such specific...
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