Fat Burning Soup Recipes

Fat Burning Soup Recipes For Weight Loss

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Micrometeoritic Sulfur and Ferrihydrite in Exobiology

A more detailed summary of previous works supporting the role of unmelted micrometeorites (about 25 of the incoming flux of micrometeorites) in prebi-otic chemistry is given elsewhere (Maurette, 1998). Krueger and Kissel (1987) quoted thermodynamic computations suggesting that cometary dust grains of the Halley type, when added to a preexisting soup of organics, could trigger the formation of nucleic acids. Anders (1989) relied on the characteristics of the tiny micrometeorites collected in the stratosphere (10-20 m), which amount to about 1 of the micrometeorite mass flux, to argue that micrometeorites played a major role in the delivery of organics to the Earth. As first

Alien Creatures Science Fiction or Fact

From the start of the scientific revolution until the dawn of the space age (in 1957), the issue of whether alien life-forms inhabited other worlds in the solar system or possibly existed on planets around other stars resided primarily in the realm of science fiction. While a few scientists began to lay the foundations of exobiology in the 20th century by investigating conditions that could have started life in the primitive chemical soup of an ancient Earth, until the 1950s, most mainstream scientists politely skirted the topic of alien life. As discussed in this chapter and elsewhere in the book, there were, however, several notable exceptions, including Giordano Bruno (1548-1600), Svante August Arrhenius (1859-1927), Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli (1835-1910), Percival Lowell (1855-1916), and Enrico Fermi (1901-54).

Ribozymes Amino Acids and the Advent ofTranslation

These insights may speak to one of the enduring mysteries of molecular biology why did the translation apparatus evolve in the first place From one vantage, translation looks like a textbook example of that well-known oxymoron, anticipatory evolution (i.e., ribozymes were the primary catalysts in a hypothetical early cell and yet somehow knew to create an apparatus to replace themselves). Even if the first translated peptides augmented ribozyme-mediated catalysis, there must have been some simple and obvious evolutionary advantage to augmenting catalysis prior to inventing a complex apparatus to do so. One possible explanation is that since amino acids would have been available in the prebiotic soup, ribozymes could have originally used these simple and available compounds as cofactors. Further increases in catalytic precision and complexity would have driven the conjugation and polymerization of amino acids in series and chains. As an example of how translated peptides could have...

Set stars backup attitude reference and other comments

Although it was something of an alphabet soup, the basic idea went like this. If the alignment of the gyro-stabilised platform, the IMU, was lost and could not be restored, the spacecraft had two other sets of gyros the body-mounted attitude gyros (BMAGs) and their associated electronics, the gyro display couplers (GDCs) that made sense of them. Unlike the platform, which measured absolute attitude, the BMAGs really measured changes in attitude. Therefore, if the platform was lost and if the spacecraft could be made to adopt a known attitude only with reference to the stars, then the BMAGs and their GDCs could use that knowledge as a starting point for their determination of attitude. All that was required from mission control were two stars - in this case, Vega and Deneb - and a set of three attitude angles. To make the backup realignment work, the CMP needed to manoeuvre the spacecraft so that the stars were arranged in the scanning telescope in a predefined manner. This placed the...

Astrobiological Questions

What does the chemistry of meteorites tell us As it can be easily seen by comparing the data in Tables 6.1-6.3 with even elementary biochemistry, there seems to be a basic difference between the distributions of organic compounds in meteorite and the biosphere. Meteoritic compounds are characterized by large diversity (all isomeric compounds often being present) and appear to be products of random syntheses biomolecules, instead, are the result of strict compositional selection (e.g., as mentioned, only twenty amino acids make up the whole of terrestrial proteins) and display functional specificity. It is hard to propose that such a varied soup of organics could have had any advantage in prebiotic chemical evolution without some aid or induction toward molecular selectivity.

Look more closely at the signposts

Now it is quite clear that the universality of all this higher-order organisation cannot be accounted for in terms of the pre-existence of precisely this organisation on a lifeless Earth. I don't think that anyone has suggested that the ribosome was picked out of a 'probiotic soup'. That being so it becomes correspondingly less clear which, if any, of the component molecules might have been preselected. At least some of the universality was an evolutionary product. The thought arises perhaps it all was. We may make a machine by first designing it, then drawing up a list of components that will be needed, then acquiring the components, and then building the machine. But that can never be the way that evolution works. It has no plan. It has no view of the finished system. It would not know in advance which pieces would be relevant. Even if amino acids (for example) had been in a 'probiotic soup', what use would they have been, long before their key use now (to make protein) had been hit...

So weve lost the mission The Big Bang and the Cosmic Background Explorer

Then, science took a break from fundamental research, and went to work in service of war, inventing radar, jet aircraft, and atomic bombs. In the late 1940s, as the world recovered, Ralph Alpher was a graduate student, and Robert Herman had just received his PhD. They were working with astronomer George Gamow to think about the early Universe. The three predicted that the expanding Universe must have had an extremely hot beginning, and computed the amount of hydrogen and helium that should have been produced by nuclear reactions in the primordial soup. They also predicted that the Universe should be filled by the residual heat radiation of that time, now reduced to a temperature of a few degrees above absolute zero. This radiation, now called the cosmic microwave background radiation, would be recognizable because it should come to us with the same brightness from every direction. It would have been difficult or impossible to measure with 1940s technology, even though it was predicted...

Granites and granites

However, the K-rich granites, typical of the present upper crust, display a subtle variety of types, that initially were labeled as I and S types of granite 24 . These showed differences reflecting derivation from or interaction with igneous (I) or sedimentary (S) source rocks. The popularity of this classification led to further subdivisions so that an alphabet soup of granite types soon arose.

Other Error Detection Correction Methods Genetic and Neural Systems and a Nonlinear Dynamics Approach for Biological

Although a random coding can show a strong error correction capability, the main drawback at a practical level is that the decoding will be limited by an efficiency constraint. A random coding can give results as good as a structured one, but the efficiency of the former can be dramatically lower this efficiency is made apparent in practical terms in excessively long times for retrieving the error-free information. However, in the genetic machinery, the ribosome is a highly efficient machine, assembling amino acids with incredibly low error rates and operating in a reactive medium that contains a very mixed soup of the components to be assembled. Is it possible to achieve this performance without resorting to sophisticated methods of coding and decoding of the genetic information This is a question of fundamental importance that needs a cooperative effort from different fundamental and experimental branches of science to be definitively resolved. Its solution may contribute to a...

Problems with experiments

The most obvious way forward from such an apparent impasse is to find a viable precursor that is chemically simpler and, ideally, easier to synthesize. This is an important and more general point. If such a stage could be identified, it might even begin to show how nascent life, or its molecular antecedents, began to exert its strange yet characteristic specificity, its ability to select the one-in-a-million chemicals, by metaphorically dipping into the organic 'soup' and selecting any molecule that improves, be it ever so slightly, one or other biological process. Perhaps we should stop worrying about ribose, and look towards a more believable predecessor. Such might be the case with a compound known as a-threofuranosyl. This can be derived from a sugar (threose) with only four atoms (i.e. tetrose) and thus is simpler than ribose and perhaps easier to synthesize. Of equal significance is that a-threofuranosyl can be used in the building of a short molecular strand that is directly...

Error Control and Dynamical Attractors A High Level Strategy for the Management of Genetic Information

The genetic code acts at the level of translation, that is, of protein synthesis controlled by genetic information. Once mRNA relative to a specific protein becomes available for translation, it is reasonable to suppose that the information carried is reliable. Indeed, the very existence of the genetic code points to this concept a codon is translated as the corresponding amino acid and there is no reason for changing its meaning (there are only a few exceptions in which ambiguous codons can be translated with different meanings depending on the context2). Thus, the main issue regarding error protection in protein synthesis is related to translation accuracy. We need to ensure that a given codon is translated into the amino acid assigned by the genetic code. An additional problem is represented by the speed of protein synthesis if we need many molecules of the target protein, for example, as a response to a vital cell signalling, the velocity of protein synthesis may be crucial for...

The restaurant at the edge of the universe

Longest Neck Ring

Some of the food taken on Apollo was dehydrated, for good reason. Water makes up a substantial component of soups and juices, and makes them heavy. Since spare water was plentiful anyway as a by-product of the fuel cells, it made little sense to carry more from Earth. Instead, some of the crew's food was freeze-dried, packed into plastic bags and vacuum-sealed to save space. When required, it was retrieved from its storage locker and water was injected through an orifice in the bag. It was then kneaded and left for a few minutes to be fully absorbed. When ready, the corner was cut off with scissors and the contents squeezed out into the mouth. The Apollo spacecraft had a feature that made eating soups somewhat more pleasurable than on previous spacecraft - hot water. Because the fuel cells had to constantly generate electricity, designers could afford to add a small water heater that could then be used for making coffee and soup. Unfortunately, the limited power available on the lunar...

Arthur Holmes And The Concept Of Convection

Convection is the process that transfers heat from one place to another by the movement of heated matter. Convection happens most often in fluids like water, air, or magma. As an example of how a convection current works, think of a pot of thick soup cooking on a stove. The heat from the stove causes the soup at the bottom of the pot to heat up first. As the soup at the bottom gets hot, it begins to expand and becomes less dense. It slowly rises to the top of the pot and the cooler soup near the top begins to sink. Once the hot soup reaches the top of the pot, it begins to cool down again, which causes it to contract and become denser. It then begins to sink, replacing new hot soup that is rising. If you watch the soup on the stove, you can actually see this swirling action.

Valeriy Nikolayevich Kubasov

Bertalan Farkash

After training for missions which never flew to the first three DOS stations, in May 1973 Kubasov was assigned with Leonov to the Apollo-Soyuz programme. After the two spacecraft were docked, Thomas Stafford and Donald Slayton transferred through the special airlock to the hatch of Soyuz 19, where the historic handshake between men of the rival space-faring nations occurred. Meanwhile, their colleague Vance Brand remained in the Apollo. The cosmonauts had prepared a surprise for their guests ''We knew that after the docking we would have lunch on our ship with the Americans, so we decided to entertain them. We had brought several samples of Stolichnaya vodka, and once in space we glued these to juice and soup tubes. When ready to eat, we put these 'rarities' on the table. After a moment of confusion, the astronauts started to cheer like kids Of course, they realised that this was a Russian tradition And on trying it, they laughed heartily.'' After spending two days in the docked...

Old Debate Young Science

Oparin formulated in 1924 a prebiotic scenario where organic compounds built from inorganics were organized first into coazervate droplets as soon as these droplets became separated from the surrounding medium by a more or less definite border, they at once acquired a certain degree of individuality competition in growth velocity and at the end simplest primary organisms have emerged. JBS Haldane could not be more enthusiastic over the potential ofprebiotic synthesis of organic compounds that must have accumulated till the primitive oceans reached the consistency of dilute soup, thus giving birth to the legendary 'primordial soup'.6-8

Universal chlorophyll

The processes of photosynthesis are, therefore, hedged in with many constraints, but even so chlorophyll is a remarkable molecule that effectively underpins the entire biosphere. It is thus rather surprising to learn that not only does chlorophyll fall short in such matters as the effectiveness of its RuBisCO, but it also seems to suffer from rather more general difficulties. George Wald, in particular, has pointed out that if one compares the absorption spectra of the various types of chlorophyll to the available visible light spectrum of our Sun the match is, to put it mildly, disappointing (Fig. 6.1). Clearly the chlorophyll has to absorb some sunlight or it simply would not work. In addition, different types of chlorophyll vary somewhat in their absorption spectra chlorophyll d, for example, shows a rather remarkable shift towards absorption of red light.12 Accordingly chlorophyll has some latitude in the wavelengths of light it is best adapted to absorb, but it is all the more...

The biochemical theory for the origin of life

Further experiments in the 1950s and 1960s led to the production of polypeptides, polysaccharides, and other larger organic molecules, the next step in the hypothetical sequence. Sidney Fox at Florida State University even succeeded in creating cell-like structures, in which a soup of organic molecules became enclosed in a membrane. His 'protocells' seemed to feed and divide, but they did not survive for long, so they were not living, despite the hype made by the press at the time. In a recent twist to the classic Oparin-Haldane biochemical model, Euan Nisbet (University of London) and Norman Sleep (Stanford University) proposed the hydrothermal model for the origin of life in 2001. In this model, the ancestor of all living things was a hyperthermophile, a simple organism that lived in unusually hot conditions. The transition from isolated amino acids to DNA may then have happened in a hot-water system associated with active volcanoes, rather than in some primeval soup at the ocean e...

IiPreventing Idle Ribosomes in the Presence of an Excess of EFG

More than 200 genes, of which more than 120 are associated with the translational apparatus, encoding about 40 genes for ribosomal proteins, two rRNAs (omitting the 5S rRNA), 21 tRNAs, 20 synthetases, six factors and at least 20 tRNA modifying enzymes. In addition a minimum of30 genes are needed for both the generation of household energy and the synthesis of at least some of the amino acids (note since some ofthe amino acids were formed in the Stanley Miller type experiments mimicking the atmosphere and the physical environment of more than 3 billion years ago,8 they could be taken up from the primordial soup by the earliest cells and thus did not need to be synthesized).

Where Did It Happen

Other scientists early in the twentieth century, such as J.B.S. Hal-dane and A. Oparin, agreed with Darwin and expanded on this idea. They independently hypothesized that the early Earth had a reducing atmosphere (one that produces chemical reactions the opposite of oxidation in such an environment, iron would never rust). The atmosphere at that time may have been filled with methane and ammonia, forming (because it was filled with the chemicals necessary to create amino acids) an ideal primordial soup from which the first life appeared in some shallow body of water. Until the 1950s and into the 1960s, it was thus believed that the early Earth's atmosphere would have allowed commonplace inorganic synthesis of the organic building blocks called amino acids by the simple addition of water and energy, as shown in the famous experiments of Miller and Urey in 1952. All that was needed was a convenient place for all the various chemicals to accumulate. The best place for this...

Life Is Chemical

Oparin described how, on an early Earth with a reducing environment, simple organic compounds formed and began reacting with one another. This led to chemical evolution in which the more stable (or fit) molecules hang around, accumulating and evolving further. The result was a rich soup of chemicals that gradually increased in size and complexity until the organic molecules essential to forming the first living cells were abundant in the ponds and oceans of the juvenile Earth.

Finding its path

It is certainly not my intention to suggest that the origin of life is a scientifically intractable problem, but at this stage of the proceedings simply to register mild surprise at the relative lack of experimental success. There has, of course, been a succession of ingenious experiments that aim to throw light on one or other facet of prebiotic chemistry. The real problem is getting past this first stage, from the early organic 'soup' (however envisaged) to the metabolic and biochemical highway, with a functioning cell as its destination. Self-evidently this end product - the cell - is an immensely complex chemical factory. The path leading to the living cell must have required simpler predecessors, and most probably can be envisaged as analogous to building with something like a modular construction kit. Parts that were formerly independent could then be 'bolted on' at various stages. The difficulty remains exactly which path, which kit These questions seem to be virtually...

Coda Rearticulating

Ways of living and dying matter Which historically situated practices of multispecies living and dying should flourish There is no outside from which to answer that mandatory question we must give the best answers we come to know how to articulate, and take action, without the god trick of self-certainty. Companion-species worlds are turtles all the way down. Far from reducing everything to a soup of post- (or pre-) modern complexity in which anything ends up permitted, companion-species approaches must actually engage in cosmopolitics, articulating bodies to some bodies and not others, nourishing some worlds and not others, and bearing the mortal consequences. Respect is respecere looking back, holding in regard, understanding that meeting the look of the other is a condition of having face oneself. All of this is what I am calling sharing suffering. It is not a game but more like what Charis Thompson calls ontological choreography.33

Seeing things

'Because, you see. in the absence of oxygen the oceans would have accumulated the molecules of life. The oceans would have been vast bowls of nutritious soup. Chance could do the rest. Combinations of molecules came and went. Some combinations were more stable than others, forming coherent little droplets or clots in the soup. In

Enzymes

The point of this section of the chapter is that 'the right enzyme' achieves its 'rightness' largely through its physical shape (and that's important, because the physical shape is determined by genes, and it is genes whose variations are ultimately favoured or disfavoured by natural selection). Molecules aplenty are drifting and twisting and spinning through the soup that bathes the interior of a cell. A molecule of substance A might be happy to react with a molecule of substance B, but only if they happen to collide when facing in exactly the right direction, relative to each other. Crucially, that seldom happens - unless the right enzyme intervenes. The enzyme's precise shape, the shape into which it folded itself like a magnetic necklace, leaves it pitted with cavities and dents, each one of which itself has a precise shape. Each enzyme has a so-called 'active site', which is usually a particular dent or pocket, whose shape and chemical properties confer upon the enzyme its...

Dilemma

Again, though, is this true There are great difficulties over and above the whole idea of wound-up nucleotides having been there in the first place. It takes a dozen and a half steps to make a nucleotide - there are that many intermediates, many of which are quite unstable. It is not at all clear that these intermediates would have been available for use in a primordial soup even if primed nucleotides had been.

Eerie perfection

But how good is good The rule of thumb in evolution is 'good enough to do the job in most circumstances', but not to waste time building a Rolls-Royce of an organism, or, to put it more flippantly, no supersonic albatrosses. Even so, measuring this 'goodness' for purpose is not so easy organisms themselves are rubbery, slippery, and pliable and non-invasive techniques of investigation are time-consuming and often difficult. One way to address this problem is to look at the design tolerance of an organism, that is, to see the margins of safety built into such a structure as a bone. A powerful analogy, as Jared Diamond reminds us,23 is to think of a lift in a prestigious building dedicated to the serious accumulation and worship of money. 'Room for one more', says the lift attendant, before the cage shuts, shoots skywards towards the 59th floor, which it never reaches because at the 48th floor the cable snaps Such instances are, in the absence of malice, mercifully rare because the...

Universal rhodopsin

Echolocation is not confined to the nocturnal sonar of the bats. It is also well known in various marine mammals, such as the dolphin,227 but in the context of considering convergence we shall postpone a visit to these wonderful animals because of their involvement in the yet more intriguing area of intelligence (Chapter 10). Concerning the techniques of echolocation there is, however, another fascinating example of convergence that is perhaps rather less known. This involves those birds that inhabit the deep, dark recesses of caves, where they often share their domiciles with the bats. Notable in this regard are the South American oilbirds and the Asian swiftlets, whose saliva-bound nests are eagerly sought for those who find bird's nest soup exceptionally tasty. As their name suggests, the oilbirds have extensive fat deposits, which if rendered provide an oil of exceptional quality and purity. These birds attracted the notice of

The Origin Of Life

Further experiments in the 1950s and 1960s led to the production of polypeptides, poly-saccharides and other larger organic molecules (step 3). Sidney Fox at Florida State University even succeeded in creating cell-like structures, in which a soup of organic molecules became enclosed in a membrane (step 4). His protocells seemed to feed and divide, but they did not survive for long.

Pyramid Power

When we hatched as larvae earthlings, we fed on plant leaves (life) and now we are mature caterpillars. At some point, we get a signal that tells us that change is coming. The caterpillar stops what it has been doing and attaches itself upside down on a branch to spin a pupa or chrysalis that will contain it while it changes into a butterfly. Inside this chrysalis, the substance of caterpillar dissolves into a kind of primordial soup and the coding in its DNA changes it into a whole new being. This chrysalis becomes increasingly transparent during metamorphosis. Then it cracks open and the butterfly emerges. As its wings slowly dry out, it discovers it is no longer confined to crawling. It has wings to lift it into the sky to fly free to live in a whole new reality. Friends, this is what I believe is about to happen to you and me and all of humanity. I've been thinking about this shift for quite a while now and here is what I see. I see a lot of people who are receiving internal...

Heterotrophic Origin

Life within the hydrothermal-volcanic system and lend support to a Hot Start Hypothesis that life got its start in the scalding mineral rich waters streaming out of deep sea hydrothermal vents.51 This results in an ongoing Heterotrophy First vs Autotrophy First debate Proponents of the organic soup theory suggest that life originated through the organization of organic molecules that were produced in the atmosphere by a Miller-Urey type reaction or were delivered to Earth

Bad Feelings

I know enough about fear to know that it's all about lack of control, and you don't get a whole lot more out of control than hurtling through the sky in a massive soup can thirty-five thousand feet above ground. What I needed was the illusion of control. If I remained vigilant, maybe I'd, I don't know, see a piece fall off the wing and I'd be able to alert the pilot in a timely manner. Or maybe I'd be the only one to see my fellow passenger about to light his sneaker bomb while everyone else was sleeping or watching The Tuxedo, and I'd be able to alert the strapping young man sitting a few rows behind me to subdue him. (Whenever I board a plane, I always make note of a strapping young man just in case anyone needs to be subdued.)

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