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Dorn Spinal Therapy

Dorn Spinal Therapy has been in uses in the past 40 years. The credit of this method goes to Dieter Dorn, who has made a significant impact in the medical field. DORN- Method has been used on various patients where results could get witnessed instants. Due to the impact, this method has brought in the country. It has been declared the standard practice in treating Pelvical Disorders, Spinal, and Back pain. Dieter Dorn first used this method on his family, which was a sign of confidence in a method, which later gained much attention from different people in the country and also globally. Every day Dorn was able to offer treatment to 15- 20 patients in a day. His services were purely free which attracted attention both in the local and also global. The primary treatment that DORN-Method which could be treated using this method include spine healing therapy, misalignments of the spine, resolving pelvis and joints, and also solving out significant problems which could get attributed to vertebrae. Continue reading...

Dorn Spinal Therapy Summary


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Spindle cell see plasmatocytes

L. spina, thorn A pointed process or outgrowth thorn-like. spine base (bryo) A collar-like skeletal inflation at the base of a spine. spine hairs (ARTHRO Insecta) Poisonous weapons of many caterpillars, usually of multicellular origin and provided with pointed tips, that upon penetration into human skin are broken, causing irritation primitive setalike normal hairs. spiniform a. L. spina, thorn Resembling a spine in shape. chaeta) Composite seta with terminal blades tapering to fine tips spines. spinigerous a. L. spina, thorn gerere, to carry Spine-bearing. spinose, spinous a. L. spina, thorn Full of spines beset with spines armed with sharp spines. spinulate a. L. dim. spina, thorn Having very small spines. spinule n. L. dim. spina, thorn A minute spine. spinulose, spinulous a. L. dim. spina, thorn Having small spines.

Spicula pl of spiculum

L. spicula, small spike 1. Any minute pointed spine or process. 2. (MOLL Polyplacorphora) The dorsal girdle decorations of various size, shape and frequency. 3. (NEMATA) Blade-like, sclerotized male copulatory organs, usually paired, located immediately dorsad to the cloaca. 4. (porif) An element of the sponge skeleton, composed mainly of silica or calcium carbonate, and rarely spongin. spicule hair (ARTHRO Insecta) In Lepidoptera, irritative hair usually formed by one or more trichogen cells size, shape, internal cell components, and body arrangement are variable. see spine hairs. spiculum n. pl. spicula L. spicula, small spike Spicular structures, as the spines of echinoderms and dart of certain snails. spina n. pl. spinae L. spina, thorn 1. A spine. 2. (ARTHRO Insecta) a. The medium apodemal process of the spi-nasternum. b. The medium apodeme. spinate a. L. spina, thorn Bearing spines spiniform. spination n. L. spina, thorn The development or arrangement of spines.

Painted line L cm width cm dd red no

Today in eight segments (Figure 9.30), the drawing was probably made with a finger dipped in paint or directly with a block of colouring material. The left extremity curves like the back-line of an animal (rump, spine). The coloured deposits left on the rugged surface mark its direction. Hitherto it had not been possible to see it, despite this same wall having been recorded and photographed from all angles. On the old photographs and in the publications, it never appears (Martin 1973 156). No other point of utilization of this painting is known at present, but it is necessary to recall here that several square metres of wall (original entrance and part of the gallery) have been destroyed.

Scotopic see superposition eye

LL. dim. scrobis, ditch (ECHINOD Echinoidea) A bare area surrounding a boss (base of a spine) on the test areola. scrobicular tubercles (ECHINOD Echinoidea) Secondary tubercles with spines encircling the base of a spine on the test. Small secondary spines on the scrobicular tubercles of the test.

Teletrocha see trochophore

Gr. telson, end 1. (ARTHRO) The terminal portion of an arthropod body (not considered a true somite), usually containing the anus the periproct. 2. (ARTHRO Chelicerata) In scorpions, the distal stinging caudal spine. 3. (ARTHRO Crustacea) The posterior projection, sometimes with caudal furca the last body unit segment in which the anus is not terminal postsegmental region style. 4. (ARTHRO Diplopoda) The preanal ring. 5. (ARTHRO Insecta) a. The 12th abdominal segment of primitive insects and some insect embryos. b. In scale insects, the lateral cuticular extension of the 8th segment. telosonic a.

Scutulis see scutellum

Scutum n. pl. scuta L. scutum, shield 1. Any long, horny or chitinous plate. 2. (ARTHRO Chelicerata) In Acari, the large, anteriodorsal sclerite. 3. (ARTHRO Crustacea) In thoracic barnacles, a paired plate or valve. a. In Lepado-morpha, one on each side of the occludent margin of the capitulum. b. In Verrucomorpha, a fixed scutum, one of 4 principal plates, and a movable scutum, 1 of 2 opercular plates. c. In Balanomorpha, one of 4 opercular plates. 4. (ARTHRO Insecta) The middle division of the thoracic no-tum, anterior to the scutellum. a. In Hymenoptera, the major part of the dorsum of the mesothorax in winged Formicidae. b. In Diptera, sometimes referred to as the eunotum. 5. (BRYO Gymnolaemata) In anascan Cheilostomata, a broad, flat, lateral, marginal spine overhanging the frontal area.

Qualitative And Quantitative Aspects Of Skeletal Evolution In Stickleback Fish

Limnetic (top) and benthic (bottom) forms of the threespine stickleback from Priest Lake, British Columbia. Differences in spine length, armor plate number, and gill raker number have evolved as adaptation to different niches. Source Photographs courtesy of Katie Peichel and David Kingsley. Limnetic (top) and benthic (bottom) forms of the threespine stickleback from Priest Lake, British Columbia. Differences in spine length, armor plate number, and gill raker number have evolved as adaptation to different niches. Source Photographs courtesy of Katie Peichel and David Kingsley. While some of these differences appear to be due to variation at many loci of small effect, a small number of loci were found to account for much of the variance in other characters. Interestingly, the sets of QTLs affecting the length of the first and second dorsal spine were distinct, while those affecting the second dorsal spine and pelvic spine overlapped with one another. These observations reveal that...

Body whorl see last whorl

Any protruberant part, prominence or swelling. 2. (ARTHRO Chelicerata) In Arach-nida, a smooth lateral prominence at the base of a cheli-cera of spiders. 3. (ARTHRO Crustacea) An umbo. 4. (ARTHRO Insecta) In Diptera, a sclerotized, elevated area at the base of the ventral brush in certain Culicidae larvae. 5. (ECHINOD Echinoidea) The base of a spine on a sea urchin test. 6. (MOLL Gastropoda) A rounded elevation of a shell, larger than a tubercle.

Coryogamy see koriogamy

Any rib-like structure. 2. (ARTHRO Crustacea) Any thickened portion of the peniferum of ostracods. 3. (ARTHRO Insecta) a. The longitudinal wing vein of certain insects, forming the anterior margin of the wing. b. A dorsal, marginal part of the valva of male Lepidoptera, bearing a variety of structures and processes. 4. (BRACHIO) a. Radial ridge on the exterior surface of the shell, originating at the margin of the pro-tegulal node. b. Any coarse rib. 5. (BRYO Gymnolaemata) One of commonly two spines fused medially and intermittently laterally, that form the costal shield of cribrimorph cheilostomate zooids. 6. (CNID) Prolongations of the septa of certain corals, that connect to the surface layer. 7. (CTENO) The row of swimming plates (ctenes) that occupy adradial positions. 8. (MOLL) The rounded ridge on the surface of a mollusk shell, greater than a chord. costal a. costal shield (BRYO Gymnolaemata) The discontinuous frontal shield or part of the...

Spurious legs see prolegs

Squama n. pl. -mae L. squama, scale 1. Any decumbent scale. 2. (ARTHRO Crustacea) A scale-like exopod of the antenna. see scaphocerite. 3. (ARTHRO Insecta) a. In Hymenoptera, a dorsolateral lobe of the phallobase in ants, the first abdominal segment. b. In Hemiptera, the fimbriate or spine-like marginal process of coccoids plates scaly hairs. c. In Lepidoptera, the scale-like structure covering the wing base of the fore wings. see patagium. d. In Diptera, the calypters palpiger alar squama antisquama alula in mosquitoes, the short broad scales on the wing veins median scale flat scale. e. In Odonata, the lateral expansion of the mentum. f. In Diaspidinae, see gland spines. 4. (MOLL Bivalvia) A thin, long, concentric imbrication.

False legs see prolegs or spurious legs

L. dim. fascia, bundle 1. (CNID Echinoidea) In Spatangidae, a small band of minute spine-bearing tubercles used to produce water currents in the burrow for feeding, respiration and excretion. 2. (MOLL Gastropoda) A spiral band formed by the successive growth lines on the edges of a canal.

Coxopleure see episternum

Gr. kremastos, hung (ARTHRO Insecta) 1. The terminal abdominal segment of a pupa. 2. In a subterranean pupa, a terminal spine. 3. The hooked caudal extremity of the pupa that suspends the chrysalids. cremastral a. cribriform organ (ECHINOD Asteroidea) Rows of small, webbed, flattened fringing spines forming enclosed passages for water transport from the marginal plates across the oral surface of certain starfishes. cribrimorph n. L. cribrum, sieve Gr. morphe, form (BRYO Gymnolaemata) Autozooids bearing costal shields composed completely, or in part, of spines fused medially, and most commonly intermittently along lengths.

Practising For The Space Station

Spangenberg's words not only reflected the exemplary performance of NIZEMI and its experiments, but also the progress of the IML-2 mission overall. As well as providing an excellent testbed for the kind of research that would be conducted on board the space station, Cabana's crew expanded on the experiments performed during IML-1 in the spring of 1992. One of these was a Canadian study of back pain for many years, two out of every three astronauts had returned to Earth suffering from what was thought to be a result of the lengthening of the spinal column in the microgravity environment. Canadian astronaut Roberta Bondar had investigated the phenomenon during IML-1 and follow-up research on the second mission focused on determining whether it could indeed be associated with changes in the function of the spinal cord or spinal nerve 'roots' which branch off from it. Concerns had already been raised about the potential impact of spinal column lengthening on changes in the functioning of...

Columbia returns home to KSC

During a Spacelab mission in January 1992, Canadian Payload Specialist Roberta Bondar conducted the first in-depth studies of this back pain and found it to be at its worst during the first few days in orbit. Her research suggested that it may be attributable to spinal increases of up to 7.5 cm, caused by a lengthening of the spinal column and of the normal spinal 'curves'. This, investigators theorised, may itself have been due to increased water content and thus the height of the discs between the spinal vertibrae. The resulting tension on soft tissues such as muscles, nerves and ligaments might then lead to the occurrence of back pain. Throughout STS-52, MacLean carefully measured his height and used a special diagram to record precise locations and intensities of back pain.

Box Spinocerebellar ataxia

RBM17 is regulated by the number of glutamine repeats in ataxin-1 repeat length in SCA1 is also associated with age of onset of disease, larger repeat expansions being associated with juvenile onset. Many of the features described in relation to SCA1 are shared with the other polyglutamine diseases, as will be illustrated in the following text reviewing spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, and Huntington's disease. The genetic locus responsible for the neurodegenerative disease spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Box 7.12) was localized by linkage analysis to the proximal long arm of the X chromosome (Fischbeck et al. 1986), and was found to be caused by the expansion of a CAG repeat in the first exon of the AR gene encoding androgen receptor (La Spada et al. 1991). Affected individuals have 38-62 repeats, while unaffected people have between nine and 36 repeats. Repeat length correlates with disease severity and age of onset although there is heterogeneity (Atsuta et al. 2006). The...

Unstable repeats and neurological disease

Repeat instability has been associated with more than 20 diverse neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disease (Gatchel and Zoghbi 2005 Pearson et al. 2005 Orr and Zoghbi 2007). Repeat expansions as a cause of disease was initially described in 1991 when specific unstable trinucleotide repeats were associated with fragile X syndrome (see Box 7.8) (Verkerk et al. 1991), and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (see Box 7.12) (La Spada et al. 1991). Expansions of trinucleotide repeats are responsible for the majority of disorders caused by unstable repeats. Other repeat lengths are also associated with disease, notably tetranucleotide repeats, for example CCTG repeats and dystrophia myotonica type 2 (see Box 7.15) (Liquori et al. 2001), and pentanucleotide repeats, for example ATTCT repeats and spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (Fig. 7.8) (Matsuura et al. 2000). Instability or mutation of longer repeat lengths have also been found to cause disease, notably...

Neural Inducers Are Really Antineural Inhibitors

One of the first indications that the standard interpretation of the classic frog experiments might be backward was that vertebrate counterparts of the fly dpp and sog genes were found. Intriguingly, it was observed that these genes were expressed (i.e., transcribed as mRNA) in the same cell types as flies. Thus, BMP4, the frog version of Dpp, was expressed in the nonneural region of the frog, and the counterpart of Sog called Chordin was produced by cells in the neuralizing Spemann organizer (Fig. 5.5 see also Plate 2B, C for actual expression of bmp4 and chordin in frog embryos). The fact that these vertebrate genes were expressed in the same tissue types as their fly counterparts suggested that the mechanisms by which these genes acted might also be the same in flies and frogs, in which case the default state of the ectoderm should be neural, not epidermal. As an interesting aside, the neural ectoderm forms dorsally in vertebrates (i.e., the spinal cord runs along the dorsal

Polyglutamine disorders

Expansion of an unstable translated CAG repeat found in different disease genes results in long tracts of poly-glutamines in specific encoded proteins, and has been found to cause at least nine different neurodegenera-tive diseases including spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, Huntington's disease, and six spinocerebellar ataxias. These diseases involve specific groups of neurones and have distinct clinical features (see Fig. 7.8). Disease is associated primarily with gain of function. For example, null mice for ataxin-1, the protein bearing a polyglutamine repeat expansion in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) (Box 7.11), do not develop features of the disorder (Matilla et al. 1998), while transgenic and knock-in animal models expressing full length proteins containing long tracts of glutamine repeats do (Watase et al. 2002). Polyglutamine diseases are dominantly inherited and a 'toxic' change in the protein conferred by the glutamine expansion is postulated. A change in protein...

Eye Development In Vertebrates

The neuroectoderm of vertebrates, which forms dorsally, runs nearly the entire length of the embryo. The posterior portions of the neu-roectoderm give rise to the spinal cord and the anterior region to the brain. The nervous system becomes internalized within the embryo by virtue of the neuroectoderm folding in as a coherent sheet through a process called invagination (Fig. 6.4). This concerted motion of cells is very similar to that discussed previously in Chapter 3 with respect to formation of the mesoderm in fly embryos (Fig. 3.1). The result of the infolding of the neural ectoderm is the formation of a tube called the neural tube, which lies directly beneath and separated from, the nonneural ectoderm (Fig. 6.4). The overlying nonneural ectoderm primarily gives rise to skin.

Evolution Exploits Developmental Events

Just as constructing a building requires first laying the foundation, constructing any vertebrate requires a foundation or Bauplan, incorporating bilateral symmetry, paired appendages, a dorsal nerve cord encased in a spinal column, and so forth. This requirement ensures that, at early stages, vertebrate embryos of any type will have common features. The prediction, and the finding, is that, the more common the feature, the earlier it appeared in evolution. The morphological and resulting functional differences that distinguish one vertebrate from another arise later in development, and represent fairly small

Roles in Information Coding

In the mature nervous system, a principal role of the AP is transduction, conduction, and processing of information (Eggermont, 1998 Sanger, 2003). However, even at these stages, AP generation contributes to mechanisms that alter the nervous system both structurally and functionally. For example, activity sculpts the time course of elimination of Rohon-Beard cells from the spinal cord of larval zebra fish (Svoboda et al., 2001). Neural activity also promotes both short- and long-term synaptic changes and affects the maintenance, synthesis, and release of neurotrophins (Madison et al., 1991 Poo, 2001 Lu and Je, 2003).

Common Plan versus Diversity

One of the most famous battles of ideas in comparative biology was that between Etienne Geoffroy St. Hilaire and George Cuvier over the existence, or not, of a common plan of construction (or Bauplan) for animals (Appel, 1987). Geoffroy was of the opinion, previously developed by Buffon (1753), that all animals are built according to a single plan or archetype, but Cuvier, France's most illustrious morphologist, recognized at least four different types. Their disagreement erupted into the public sphere when Geoffroy in 1830 endorsed the view that the ventral nerve cord of invertebrates is directly comparable (today we say 'homologous') to the spinal cord of vertebrates. Cuvier responded that Geoffroy was speculating far beyond the available data, and he reasserted publicly that the major types of animals could not be linked by intermediate forms or topological transformations. This Cuvier-Geoffroy debate was followed closely by comparative biologists all across Europe, who

Field Homology A Useful Concept in Studies of Brain Evolution

Dorsomedial pallium shows an extraordinary development in mammals (in particular, its dorsal pallial derivative, the neocortex) but, in contrast, the ventrolateral pallium shows the greatest development in reptiles and especially in birds, giving rise to a large structure called dorsal ventricular ridge (Butler, 1994b Striedter, 1997 see Evolution of the Nervous System in Reptiles, Do Birds and Reptiles Possess Homologues of Mammalian Visual, Somatosensory, and Motor Cortices , The Evolution of Vocal Learning Systems in Birds, Evolution of the Amygdala in Vertebrates, The Origin of Neocortex Lessons from Comparative Embryology). One of the main factors that may be involved in such variations is the possible existence of changes in the networks of developmental regulatory genes that operate in fore-brain development (Carroll et al., 2001 Gilbert and Burian, 2003). Indeed, numerous developmental regulatory genes play key roles in patterning, specification, cell proliferation, and or...

Trypanosomes and the Blood Brain Barrier

Aside from the described immunological phenomenon, African sleeping sickness is characterized by a number of distinct neurological symptoms. They include disruption of sleep and extrapyramidal motor disturbances as well as neuropsychiatric changes (reviewed by Enanga et al. 2002). Although the histopathological reactions in the brain have been well described, the patho-genetic mechanisms behind the nervous system disease are still unclear. The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which separates circulating blood from the central nervous system, regulates the flow of materials to and from the brain. During the course of the disease, the integrity of the BBB becomes compromized and parasites cross the barrier. While the mechanism of this phenomenon is not understood, the following routes have been suggested (1) entry of the parasite via the choroid plexus epithelium leading to the cerebrospinal fluid space (2) entry via the cerebral capillary endothelium leading to the brain parenchyma and (3)...

Box Psarolepis And The Origin Of Bony Fishes

Preopercular Canal

There are also some characters that have never been seen before in the bony fishes Psarolepis has a huge pectoral spine extending back from the shoulder girdle, and there is a median spine presumably located in the midline behind the head (see illustration). A pectoral spine like this is known in some placoderms and in acanthodians, and the median spine is known in sharks and acanthodians, but neither has been seen in other osteichthyans. Zhu etal. (1999) were unable to locate Psarolepis in the cladogram with certainty they thought it was either the basalmost sarcopterygian (see Box 3.6) or the basalmost osteichthyan. The second interpretation has been confirmed as more likely by Zhu and Schultze (2001), because Psarolepis lacks the closed pineal opening and large quadratojugal of other osteichthyans, and it has a posterior pectoral process and paired pectoral spines, which are absent in other bony fishes. Long (2001) points out many similarities between Psarolepis and the...

Osteostraci and relatives


In the course of their evolution, the head shield of osteostracans adopted a variety of forms, ranging from an elongate bullet shape in some early examples, to rectangular and hexagonal forms, some with backward-pointing spines, or cornua, and one even with a long rostral spine in front (Figure 3.10(b)). of processes (Figure 3.10(c)) curved cornua pointing backwards, a 'hammer-head' rostral spine, and pointed snout spines that are longer than the head shield itself. Some forms also have very long lateral spines that may have acted like the wings of a glider during swimming, to maintain a stable body position. Galeaspids lack paired fins. Galeaspids have their mouth just beneath the head shield, and they have a single nostril at the tip of the snout that may be a transverse slit, a broad oval, a heart shape, or a longitudinal slit. Some galeaspids have up to 45 gill pouches, the largest number in any vertebrate.

Box Archosaur Hindlimb Evolution And Posture


How can this fully terrestrial insectivorous biped be a close relative of the crocodilians Saltoposuchus has a number of diagnostic crocodylomorph characters. The main bones of the wrist (radiale and ulnare) are elongated into rod-shaped elements, instead of being button-shaped (Figure 6.4(c)), the lower element of the shoulder girdle (the coracoid) has a long backward-pointing spine and the pelvis has an open acetabulum

Acanthodii The Spiny Skins


Most acanthodians have slender bodies with one or two dorsal fins, an anal fin, and a heterocercal tail fin (Figure 3.16(a, b)). The pectoral and pelvic fins have been modified to long spines, and there may be as many Fig. 3.16 Acanthodian diversity and anatomy (a) Climatius in lateral view (b) Euthacanthus in ventral view, showing the fin spines (c) head region of Ischnacanthus in lateral view (d) single scale of Acanthodes.( After Moy-Thomas base and Miles, 1971.) as six pairs of spines along the belly of early forms. The other fins just noted (except the anal fin) are supported by a spine on the leading edge. The name 'acanthodian' refers to these liberal arrays of spines (akanthos spine). The internal skeleton is rarely seen. Most acanthodians lack teeth. Toothless forms probably fed on small food particles which they may have filtered from the water. Only some of the later forms may have taken larger prey. They had a wide gape and gill rakers, sharpened spikes in the throat...

Placental and marsupial opposite numbers

Like vertebrates, but unlike sea urchins or jellyfish, crustaceans are left right symmetrical, with a train of segments running the length of the body from head to tail. The segments are the same as each other in their underlying plan, but often differ in detail. Each segment consists of a short tube joined, either rigidly or by a hinge, to the two neighbouring segments. As with vertebrates, the organs and organ systems of a crustacean show a repeat pattern as you move from front to rear. For example, the main nerve trunk, which runs the length of the body on the ventral side (not the dorsal side, as the vertebrate spinal cord does), has a pair of ganglia (sort of mini-brains*) in each segment, from which sprout nerves supplying the segment. Most of the segments have a limb on each side, each limb again consisting of a

Chondrichthyes The First Sharks

Photos Chondrichthyes Cartilage

Externally the tail fin is nearly symmetrical, but internally the notochord bends upwards into the dorsal lobe only (the heterocercal tail condition). There are two dorsal fins, one behind the head, and the other halfway down the body, and the anterior dorsal fin has a spine in front. There are two sets of paired fins, the pectoral and pelvic fins, each set approximately beneath one of the dorsal fins, and each associated with girdle elements of the skeleton. Cladoselache was probably a fast swimmer, using sideways sweeps of its broad tail as the source of power, and its pectoral fins for steering and stabilization. As in modern sharks, the skeleton of Cladoselache is made from calcified cartilage, in other words, cartilage invested with some calcium phosphate, but not true bone. Calcified cartilage is

Chapter Missing Persons Missing No Longer

Well, hair and language don't fossilize well, but we can get good clues about brain size from the skull, and good clues about gait from the whole skeleton (including the skull, for the foramen magnum, the hole for the spinal cord, points downwards in bipeds, more backwards in quadrupeds). Possible candidates for missing links might have any of the following attributes

Cannibalism Is Now Back in Vogue But What Is the Evidence at Longgushan

North American Stone Tools

Much less widely known but equally important to our story were archaeological discoveries throughout the first half of the twentieth century that showed clear evidence of past cannibalism in Europe. That these evidences were first found in Europe was more a function of there being a greater density of archaeologists there than anywhere else. But they served to confirm that cannibalism was a worldwide human phenomenon. It was in Europe that Franz Weidenreich first encountered the archaeological evidence of cannibalism. Neandertal bones found at the sites of Ehringsdorf in Germany, Krapina in Croatia, and Monte Circeo in Italy all showed signs of butchery that archaeologists have interpreted as cannibalism. Chief among their proofs was the breakage of bone around the foramen magnum, the aperture at the base of the skull through which the spinal cord passes to the brain. Early people had apparently been headhunters beheading their victims and eating their brains. Ethnography helped out...

Life Expectancy And Diseases

Injuries like broken bones, chronic illnesses like arthritis, and deficiency-related ailments like gum disease attest to the harshness of life in the ice age. Many older Neanderthals show signs of wear such as osteo-arthritis and sicknesses like rickets, caused by malnutrition and vitamin deficiencies, are as common as broken bones. The man from the Neander Valley is a good example of the ailments that afflicted Neanderthals the c. 60-year-old senior citizen suffered from rickets, lived with a healed head injury, and also had a broken bone near the elbow of his left lower arm. Microscopic examination reveals that the Mettmann ice-age man would barely have been able to bend his left arm for the rest of his life, since the bone substance appears to have been significantly weakened by years of inactivity. The Old Man of La Chapelle (Figure 13a), too, displays overwhelming signs of bad health. His spinal column, lower jaw, hips, and feet bear the marks of osteoarthritis, and arthritis was...

Towards a theology of evolution

Do I detect a sense of unease,1 but pray why Surely it is most regrettable that a vast proportion of the world's biomass is tied up as indigestible cellulose,2 and at present the only simple route to the hamburger is via the bacteria living within the rumen of the millions of cattle contentedly grazing on thin grassland, once rain forest. It is, of course, only these bacteria which are capable of breaking down the refractory plant cellulose and so release compounds that elsewhere in the cow will ultimately end up as beef mince. Nothing, of course, will go to waste spinal cord and the rectum have their uses, while

Frauds Fakes and surprises

Fake Cat Mummies

Physical descriptions of the creature vary. Eyewitness sightings have been claimed as early as 1990 in Puerto Rico, and have since been reported as far north as Maine and as far south as Chile. In 2008, a sighting was reported by the sheriff's deputies in southern Texas. Mainstream scientists and experts generally hypothesize that the chupacabra is an ordinary, though perhaps unknown, species of canid, a legendary creature, or a type of urban legend. It is supposedly a heavy creature, the size of a small bear, with a row of spines reaching from the neck to the base of the tail. The most common description of the chupacabra is that of a reptilelike creature, appearing to have leathery or scaly greenish-gray skin and sharp spines or quills running down its back. This form stands approximately 3 to 4 ft (1 to 1.2 m) high, and stands and hops in a similar fashion to the gait of a kangaroo. In at least one sighting, the creature hopped 6 m (20 ft). This variety is said to have a dog- or...

The Brain And The Chariot

A fish has a notochord or spinal cord, which it shares with even humbler invertebrates. A primitive fish also has a little swelling at the front end of the spinal cord, which is its brain. In higher fish the swelling is further developed but still weighs no more than a gram or two. That swelling corresponds in higher animals to the hindbrain or brainstem and the midbrain. The brain of modern fish are chiefly midbrain, with a tiny forebrain in modern amphibians and reptiles, it is the other way around (see figure on page 55). And yet fossil endocasts of the earliest known vertebrates show that the principal divisions of the modern brain (hind-brain, midbrain and forebrain, for example) were already established. Five hundred million years ago, swimming in the primeval seas, there were fishy creatures called ostracoderms and placoderms, whose brains had recognizably the same major divisions as ours. But the relative size and importance of these components,...

Free pupa see exarate pupa

Secta) The strong spine or group of bristles on the humeral angle of the hind wing, that projects beneath the fore wing, uniting them in flight frenum. 2. (CNID) Gelatinous fold supporting the subumbrella of certain jellyfish. 3. (POGON) A v-shaped cuticular thickening held in an epidermal groove that functions as an adhesive device also called bridle.

Rostral notch see rostral incisure

Rostrum n. pl. -tra L. rostrum, beak 1. A beak or snout. see rostellum. 2. (ARTHRO Chelicerata) The labrum of spiders. 3. (ARTHRO Crustacea) The median pointed process at the end of the cephalothorax. a. In thoracic barnacles, a valve between the lateral and opposite carina at the basiscutal end of the capitulum simple and bearing alae in many balanomorphs, but compound and overlapping the laterals in higher balanomorphs. see compound rostrum. 4. (ARTHRO Insecta) a. In Hemiptera, the beak. b. In Coleoptera scarab beetles, a rigid, ventral extension of the paramere. 5. (BRACHIO) Inner elevation of the brachial valve a pair of club shaped elevations for muscle attachment for the brachial protractor muscles. 6. (MOLL Cephalopoda) a. The anteriormost point of the upper and lower mandibles. see beak. b. The spine anchored on the posterior end of a cuttle bone and some pens. 7. (nemata Secernentea) In Aphelenchida males, the beak-like projection ventrad near the proximal end of the spicule,...

Anatomy and the Demise of Homo erectus

Theoretically, a species could have both a commodious skull to house an enlarged brain and a heavily armored and thick skull for protection. Reality steps in when the weight of such a structure has to be supported and balanced atop the spine. Many large-bodied species, whose skulls must be correspondingly large, have bone that is honeycombed inside to reduce its weight. A section through the skull of an elephant or a giraffe is surprising because so much of the inside of it is air, surrounded by paper-thin bone organized into structures called diploe. Evolving Homo erectus had a similar problem with the weight of the skull. If the brain size was increasing, the enclosing bone would also have to increase, but skull weight would have to be minimized. As Homo erectus evolved to Homo heidelbergensis, skull weight was decreased by lessening the thickness of cranial bone. And, as was discussed earlier, there may have been a fourth function that helped account for the decrease in skull...

Calcareous nannoplankton coccolithophores and discoasters


The majority comprise discs of elliptical or circular outline (shields) constructed of radially arranged plates, enclosing a central area which may be empty, crossed by bars, filled with a lattice or produced into a long spine. The outward-facing (distal) side of the shield is often more convex with a prominent sculpture and may be provided with a spine, whilst the other proximal face is flat or concave and may have a separate architecture (Fig. 14.2). Stephanolithiaceae (Black 1968). Circular, elliptical or polygonal coccoliths. The outer wall has vertically arranged elements and may bear lateral spines. E. Jur.-L. Cret. an arrangement, with two shields connected by a central tube, is called a placolith. In Pseudoemiliania (U. Plioc.-L. Pleist., Fig. 14.2c), the radial plates of the two shields do not overlap and are arranged around a central space. The radial plates of Helicopontosphaera (Eoc.-Rec., Fig. 14.2e) are distinctively arranged into a single elliptical...

Jiangyong Zhang Fan

Fossil Yanosteus Longidorsalis

Protopsephurus (Fig. 98) is a member of a recent family Polyodontidae (paddlefish). It was collected from Lingyuan, Liaoning, with a length of approximately 10 cm in smallest individuals and over one meter in large specimens. Judging from the matured skeletons, Protopsephurus could be the smallest in body size among the genera of Polyodontidae. This genus is the earliest fossil record of the family. An extremely long rostrum, a series of rostral splints and spine-fringed scales are the most prominent features of the family. Psephurus is the only extant polyodontid in China who lives in the drainage of the Yangtze River and littoral region of the East China Sea whereas Protopsephurus is a stem-polyodontid closely related to Paleopsephurus, a Late Cretaceous sturgeon from North America. The living paddlefish is commercially an important freshwater fish. It has naked body surface and spoon-like rostrum and is thus also called duck-mouthed sturgeon. The paddlefish eats mainly zooplankton,...

Illustration Of A Cephalaspis

Gnathostomata Origin Jaws Attachment

The most notable features of the cephalaspid head shield are to be seen inside. The bony parts enclosed much of the brain and sensory organs, as well as parts of the blood circulatory system and digestive system. The brain and its associated cranial nerves, the major nerves that serve the various parts of the head region, have been reconstructed by the Swedish palaeontologist Erik Stensio (1927) with a fair degree of confidence because of the extensive bony envelope (Illustration (c)). The large orbits and inner ear regions are quite clear. Even the semicircular canals of the inner ear, the organs of balance, can be seen. The brain stem itself is located in the midline, and it was made from the three main portions seen in primitive living fishes, the medulla at the back which leads into the spinal cord, the pons in the middle, and the telencephalon (forebrain) in front with an elongate hypophysial sac running forwards from it. The cranial nerves III (eye movement), V2 (mouth and lip...

Cheek Bones Skull Mammal

Alisphenoids Bird

The braincase of mammals is generally much larger than that of reptiles. Besides protecting the brain, it provides a surface of origin for the temporalis muscles (used in mastication) laterally, and for neck muscles on the posterior surface, or occiput. Additional attachment area for these muscles is provided by the midline sagittal crest and the transversely oriented lambdoidal ( nuchal or occipital) crest at the top of the occiput. Typically the braincase consists of paired frontals (fused in humans) and parietals dorsally, an occipital at the back, and paired squamosals laterally, below the frontals and parietals (Fig. 2.1). An interparietal may be present between the parietals and the occipital. Develop-mentally the occipital bone consists of several elements, including the supraoccipital, the basioccipital, and the paired exoccipitals (which include the occipital condyles and surround the foramen magnum, through which the spinal cord passes), but these are usually fused in...

Anaspida and Thelodonti

Thelodonts are successive outgroups to osteostracans, galeaspids and higher forms (see Box 3.1). Anaspids are known from the Silurian and Devonian (Blom et al., 2002). Pharyngolepis (Figure 3.9(a)) is a cigar-shaped animal 200 mm long, with a terminal mouth, small eyes, a single dorsal nostril and a covering of irregular scales and plates in the head region. The body scales are long and regular, and arranged in several rows. There is a pectoral spine and two paired fins beneath, and a tail fin on top of the downwardly bent tail. gill openings anal spine fin fold pectoral spine gill openings anal spine fin fold pectoral spine The scales (Figure 3.9(e)) are lozenge-shaped, concave beneath, and rising to a point above. The exact shape of the scales and the arrangement of the spines and nodules are used to identify thelodont species based on isolated specimens. In cross-section (Figure 3.9(f)), the scale is seen to be made from dentine around an open pulp cavity, as in a tooth, although...

The Bestlaid Body Plans

W e are a package of about two trillion cells assembled in a very precise way. Our bodies exist in three dimensions, with our cells and organs in their proper places. The head is on top. The spinal cord is toward our back. Our guts are on the belly side. Our arms and legs are to the sides. This basic architecture distinguishes us from primitive creatures organized as clumps or disks of cells. The same design is also an important part of the bodies of other creatures. Like us, fish, lizards, and cows have bodies that are symmetrical with a front back, top bottom, and left right. Their front ends (corresponding to the top of an upright human) all have heads, with sense organs and brains inside. They have a spinal cord that runs the length of the body along the back. Also like us, they have an anus, which is at the opposite end of their bodies from the mouth. The head is on the forward end, in the direction they typically swim or walk. As you can imagine, anus-forward wouldn't work very...

Jaws And Fish Evolution

Other Devonian fishes were more modern in appearance. The first shark-like chondrich-thyans, or cartilaginous fishes, came on the scene during the Early Devonian. Acanthodi-ans were small fishes, mostly in the range 50-200 mm in length, and they bore numerous spines at the front of each fin and in anal fin pelvic fin dorsal fin spines anal fin pelvic fin dorsal fin spines anal pelvic intermediate pectoral fin fin spine spines spine spine anal pelvic intermediate pectoral fin fin spine spines spine spine

Evolution of the Tetrapod Vertebral Column

To understand the vertebral column, one must first understand the language used to describe the individual components of the backbone. The fundamental purpose of the backbone is to protect the spinal cord and notochord and to provide a supportive frame for an animal. A single vertebra (plural vertebrae) consists of two basic parts. The centrum (plural centra) is the central part of the bone, through which the notochord runs the centrum provides a resting place for the spinal cord. On top of the centrum is the neural arch, which rests on top of the spinal cord. In addition, a variety of riblike structures may also be present, depending on the kind of animal. Ribs along the trunk of the animal may be joined to the vertebrae at both the centra and the neural arches. A tail vertebra may have another extension called the haemal arch joined to the underside of the centrum.

Box Chondrichthyan Relationships

Ikan Chondrichthyes

Cladogram showing postulated relationships of cartilaginous fishes, based on Gaudin (1991), de Carvalho (1996), Shirai (1996) and Coates and Sequeira (2001a). Synapomorphies ACHONDRICHTHYES, prismatically calcified cartilage, second or single dorsal fin situated at pelvic level, a metapterygium articulating with 5+ radials and with an anteriorly directed proximal facet and a posteriorly directed axial radial series, myxopterygial claspers, elongate hyoid rays and various braincase characters (Coates and Sequeira, 2001a, p. 253) B SUBTERBRANCHIALIA, pelvic metapterygium that spans the entire fin base C ELASMOBRANCHII, hypochordal (lower) lobe of caudal fin large D, hyomandibular crescentic E SYMMORIIDA, posterior dorsal fin with delta-shaped cartilage F, dorsal spine concave forwards and with large opening behind G EUSELACHII, braincase with elongated otic region, anal fin, tribasal pectoral fin (metapterygium, mesopterygium, propterygium) H, two dorsal fin spines, fin spines with...

The Vertebrate Body Plan

Basic Body Plan Vertebrates

The somites of the vertebrate embryo give rise to the major axial structures, including the vertebrae, ribs, and skeletal muscles, as well as the dermis. The vertebrae of the spinal column and their associated processes are of five distinct types cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and caudal (Fig. 3.18a). The transitions between these types occur at specific somite positions in each species. Similarly, the forelimb and hindlimb buds, which develop from the unsegmented lateral plate mesoderm, arise at specific axial positions. Therefore, the morphologies of somite derivatives at different axial levels must be genetically regulated. (a) The vertebrate hindbrain forms anterior to the spinal cord. (b) The hindbrain is overtly segmented into rhombomeres (r1-r7). (c) Summary of regulatory gene expression in rl r7. The arrows denote regulatory interactions between two transcription factors (Kreisler and Krox20) and two Hox genes of interest. (d) A schematic of the genetic region around the...

The CNS Midline Pattern Formation and Axonal Guidance

In contrast, many aspects of midline cell-mediated axon guidance are controlled by functionally and evolutionarily conserved ligand-receptor systems that include the Netrin, DCC, Slit, and Robo gene families (Araujo and Tear, 2002 Kaprielian et al., 2001). Homologous Netrin genes encode soluble attractor molecules that are detected in the floor plate and ventral neural tube of vertebrates as well as in the midline glial cells of Drosophila and that serve to guide commissural axons toward the midline. In both cases, the Netrins are expressed at a time when first commissural growth cones, which express the homologous frazzled DCC genes that encode transmembrane receptors, are extending toward the midline. Netrin mutant embryos exhibit defects in commissural axon projections in mice and flies, indicating similar functional roles of these attractants. Moreover, in Drosophila as well as in vertebrates, axonal projections away from the midline depend on the presence at the midline of a...

The Essence In Embryos

Arches Embryos

Goethe and Oken were both picking up something very profound, although they could not have known it at the time. Our body is segmented, and this pattern is most clearly seen in our vertebrae. Each vertebra is a block that represents a segment of our body. The organization of our nerves is also segmental, correlating closely with the pattern of the vertebrae. Nerves exit the spinal cord to supply the body. The segmental configuration is obvious when you look at the levels of the spinal cord that are associated with each part of our body. For example, the muscles in our legs are supplied by nerves that exit from lower parts of the spinal cord than those that supply our arms. Heads may not look it, but they also contain a very deep segmental pattern. Our arches define segments of bones, muscles, arteries, and nerves. Look in the adult, and you won't see this pattern. We see it only in the embryo.

HLAB and susceptibility to ankylosing spondylitis

Inflammatory rheumatological condition that characteristically affected the spine and sacroiliac joints called ankylosing spondylitis (OMIM 106300) (Brewerton et al. 1973 Caffrey and James 1973 Schlosstein et al. 1973). This disease association between HLA-B27 and ankylosing spondylitis withstood repeated genetic investigation over the next 34 years to remain as among the strongest known genetic markers of human disease. Clinicians and scientists working at the Westminster Hospital in London first reported in a letter to Nature in 1973 the dramatic overrepresentation of the HL-A27 antigen on the surface of lymphocytes from patients with ankylosing spondylitis (Caffrey and James 1973). The subsequent paper published in the Lancet described their findings from testing a panel of 26 different HLA typing sera. The authors had carefully selected a clear disease phenotype with radiographic evidence of sacroilitis (inflammation ofthe sacroiliac joint at the base of the spine) and restricted...

Formation of neural tube in Osters model

My purpose in expounding the Oster models has been to show the general kind of principle by which single cells can interact with each other to build a body, without any blueprint representing the whole body. Origami-like folding, Oster-style invagination and pinching off these are just some of the simplest tricks for building embryos. Other more elaborate ones come into play later in embryonic development. For example, ingenious experiments have shown that nerve cells, when they grow out from the spinal cord, or from the brain, find their way to their end organ not by following any kind of overall plan but by chemical attraction, rather as a dog sniffs around to find a bitch in season. An early classic experiment by the Nobel Prize-winning embryologist Roger Sperry illustrates the principle perfectly. Sperry and a colleague took a tadpole and removed a tiny square of skin from the back. They removed another square, the same size, from the belly. They then regrafted the two squares,...

Box The Arthrodires From Gogo

Placoderm Skull Anatomy

Ptyctodonts have reduced armour plating. They are generally small, usually less than 200 mm in length, with long whip-like tails, a long posterior dorsal fin, and a high anterior dorsal fin supported by a spine on the trunk shield. Ctenurella from the Upper Devonian of Australia and elsewhere (Figure 3.14(e)) has much reduced armour. Some ptyctodonts have claspers, elongate elements associated with the pelvic fins that are assumed to have been involved with the process of internal fertilization. Claspers are seen in male chondrichthyans, but the structure of the ptyctodont clasper is different from that of a shark.

Modes of Migration in the Developing Brain

Tangential Versus Radial Migration Brain

Compared to radial migration, the existence of tangential dispersion of neurons in the developing brain has only begun to receive much attention, so it may give the impression of being a relatively contemporary discovery. During the last 30 years of the past century, the predominant view on brain development was based on the idea that radial migration was the sole mechanism allowing the movement of neurons from the progenitor regions to their final destination (Rakic, 1990). This idea was consistent with the basic notion of developmental segmentation in the brain because, as discussed earlier, radial migration contributes to the establishment of segregated cytoarchitectonic regions (Lumsden and Keynes, 1989 Puelles and Rubenstein, 1993). Nevertheless, it was clear from early studies using Golgi-stained sections or electron microscopy that some neurons within the developing brain are oriented tangentially in directions inconsistent with radial migration (Stensaas, 1967 Morest, 1970...

Primate Superior Colliculus In Attention And Action

How might cortical activity influence the superior colliculus Again, there could be several different influences, depending on which collicular layers are targeted by particular cortical areas. Projections from certain low-order visual areas terminate in the superficial layers of the SC, which could influence the activity of the area V1 blobs through collicular projections to the K layers of the LGN. It may be significant, too, that primates possess a strong projection from FEF and posterior parietal cortex onto the superficial SC layers, which could conceivably modulate the activity of neurons in V1 blobs. Projections to the intermediate and deep layers of the SC, which arise from a much larger portion of the cortex, could influence the activity of collicular neurons that project to brainstem and spinal centers controlling eye, head, and forelimb movements.

Ultrastructure And Chemistry Of The Graptolite Periderm

Graptolite Evolution

Compared with the dendroids, the graptoloid rhabdosome is superficially simpler and consists of an initial sicula, divided into an upper prosicula and a lower metasicula, with at its apex, distally, a long thin, spine, the nema. The metasicula, like the rest of the rhabdo-some, was composed of fusellar tissue, bundles of short, branching fibrils. The virgella projected below the secular aperture, proximally

Target Identification for Biopsy and Retrieval

Clearly, the imaging modality of choice for this task is computed tomography, CT. However, in the field conventional radiography can be successfully employed to pinpoint lesions and artifacts. The object may be located by using two long needles, such as spinal needles, inserted at right angles into the approximate target location. Taking into account inherent characteristics such as magnification and distortion, the depth and direction of needle insertion are determined from the original radiographs. Radiographs taken at right angles to the needles while in place will provide an assessment of the target's spatial relationship relative to the needles. The target, once located, can then be biopsied or extracted under endoscopic guidance. spinal needles were inserted at right angles in the suspected region to serve as a guide (Figure 2.87A). Periodically, while the endoscope was advanced, radiographs were taken to document the precise location of the device until the mass...

Reproduction and Growth

The latter trait would have reinforced the back posterior to the neck and skull, preventing lateral movement of the vertebrae (which encased the spinal cord) during any forceful impact. However, other observations that would supplement these data, such as obvious dents in pachycephalosaur skulls or other signs of trauma, are still forthcoming or not clearly defined. The point being made here is that when two massive animals run toward one another and their body parts directly impact, they could have less easily absorbed the force on bone than flesh. This sort of force applied to bone should have left marks, no matter how thick or spongy the bone. It also quite likely would have exceeded the structural limits of the dinosaurs' spinal columns for absorbing the impact behind the skull. Based on the realities represented by these calculations and the previously mentioned information, the likelihood that pachycephalosaurs actually rammed into one another head-to-head is doubtful....

The Early Sharks And Chimaeras

Carboniferous Shark Spine

About 60 families ofsharks and their relatives lived during the late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic, but many of these are known only from teeth and spines. The basal sharks include the Cladoselachidae, such as Cladoselache from the Late Devonian (Figure 3.15), which was surprising The symmoridans, possibly a clade or possibly para-phyletic (Coates and Sequeira, 2001a), include some unusual early shark families. The symmoriids such as Denaea (Figure 7.1(a)) have a body outline basically like Cladoselache. Denaea has no fin spines and it has a whip-like extension to the pectoral fin called a metapterygial axis. The function of this is uncertain, i.e. whether it was used hydrodynamically,in defence, or in reproductive display. The most striking symmoridans are the falcatids and stethacanthids, two families of Carboniferous spined sharks (see Box 7.1). Falcatus (Lund, 1985), a small shark up to 145mm long (Figure 7.1(b)), looks like a dogfish except that a long shelf-like spine extends from...

Head Formation and the Evolution of the Central Nervous System

The brain and nervous system of vertebrates and arthropods is composed of several discrete domains arrayed along an anterior-posterior axis in many invertebrates the nervous system is more diffuse, with a network, paired nerve cords or a ladder-like structure. Vertebrates posses a brain and dorsal spinal cord, with the brain subdivided into a fore-, mid- and hindbrain. In Drosophila the brain or cerebral ganglion is separated from a ventral nerve cord by a subesophageal ganglion. Patterning of the anterior-most components, including the cerebral ganglion and the fore- and mid-brain is controlled by orthodenticle(otd) in the fly and Otx in vertebrates. The midbrain-hindbrain boundary and the subesophoageal domain are characterized by expression of the Pax 2 5 8 transcription factors. In both

Box Relationships Of Neopterygii

Fossil Fish Book

Cladogram showing relationships ot the derived ray-finned bony fishes (Neopterygii), based on the work ot Patterson and Rosen (1977), Lauder and Liem (1983), Gardiner et al. (1996) and Johnson and Patterson (1996). See Figure 7.7 tor context ot Neopterygii. Synapomorphies A NEOPTERYGII, maxilla and preopercular not in contact with palatoquadrate, maxilla mobile, maxilla with peg-like anterior head, interopercular present, quadratojugal torms brace tor quadrate, symplectic present, upper pharyngeal dentition consolidated, fin rays equal in number to their supports in the dorsal and anal fins, clavicle lost or reduced to a small plate lateral to cleithrum B, median neural spines, quadratojugal lost or tused with quadrate C, vomer median D, large median vomer, coronoid process on mandible, axial lobe ot tail reduced E, symmetrical tail fin F HALECOSTOMI, a supramaxilla, quadratojugal absent as independent element G HALECOMORPHI, symplectic and quadrate bones both contribute to jaw...

Stegosaurus Second Brain

The Stegosaurus tail spikes and back plates were previously interpreted with different positions and have undergone many permutations in artistic re-creations and museum reconstructions. In older illustrations, the tail spikes are commonly shown as upright, and they may vary considerably in number, from four to eight - the correct number is four. The dorsal plates have also been reconstructed as a single row of non-overlapping plates, as a single row of offset and overlapping plates, or as two rows of opposing plates on either side of the spine. Analysis of several specimens uncovered recently, and of previous material, has revealed that the overlapping and offset arrangement is most likely the correct anatomical position for these plates. Stegosaurus also possessed numerous scutes that covered its throat, a form of additional protection to a potentially vulnerable area.

Glands of Morren see calciferous glands

Gland spines (ARTHRO Insecta) In Diaspidinae, small to large spines that are conical, bifid, or somewhat fimbriate at the tip and have one or more ducts that extend to the tip of the spine pectines plates squamae. gland tubercules (ARTHRO Insecta) In Diaspidinae, a gland spine that is short, basally swollen and sclerotized. glandular a. L. dim. glans, acorn Having or bearing a gland or gland cell, i.e., hair, spines, etc. glochis n. pl. glochines Gr. glochis, arrow-point 1. A barbed hair, bristle, spine or point. 2. (MOLL Gastropoda) The protrusible radula.

Image Receptor Film and screens

There are also specialty cassettes for specific applications. Standard x-ray film comes in a 14 x 36 in. (35.5 x 91.4 cm) size and is typically used in orthopedic or chiropractic medicine to image an entire spine. This film size requires a special cassette. These specialized

Weight Bearing Anatomy

Weight Bearing Joints

The bones at the back of the tetrapod skull became particularly robust, developed a prominent notch, and served as a point of attachment for muscles that allowed the tetrapod to raise its head without moving the rest of the body. This flexible joint between the head and the spine was an innovation of the tetrapods. It allowed The spine, or vertebral column, of the first tetrapods was markedly different from that of lobe-finned fishes. The fish backbone was not connected to the pelvic girdle, and the individual vertebrae that made up the spine were simple, lightweight discs that were fairly uniform in size and contained short, spindly, riblike structures. The tetrapod spine developed stouter, interlocking vertebrae with sturdy ribs that extended down along the sides of the animal. The presence of longer ribs in tetrapods is one of the clues that paleontologists look for when faced with a partial skeleton from the Devonian that could be from either a fish or a land animal. The vertebral...

Evolution Of Radical Body Plan Changes

Otx Sea Urchin

In some cases, very closely related species differ dramatically in the extent of their tail development. For example, the urodele (tailed) larvae of Molgula oculata develop a notochord, a spinal cord, and striated muscle cells. By contrast, another Molgula species (M. occulta) has an anural (tailless) larval stage that lacks these characteristic chordate features. When these species are interbred in the laboratory, the crosses yield a short-tailed hybrid, complete with notochord (Fig. 6.12). Thus the tailless phenotype of M. occulta can be rescued by the M. oculata genome, suggesting that M. occulta may have lost some genetic function that results in its tailless larval form.

U Tendaguru Then And

The skeleton of Kentrosaurus reveals its framework. It had two rows of bony plates on each side of its backbone, protecting its neck, shoulders, and the front part of its back. From its lower back and tail grew seven pairs of sharp spines. Each spine A stegosaur the family of plant-eating dinosaurs whose bodies were protected by spines and plates of bone Kentrosaurus had a small head with a brain that was no bigger than a walnut. Each spine A stegosaur the family of plant-eating dinosaurs whose bodies were protected by spines and plates of bone Kentrosaurus had a small head with a brain that was no bigger than a walnut.

Where Nematodes Are Lions

On a brilliant mid-summer day in December, our helicopter lifts off from McMurdo Station, the largest outpost of the U.S. Antarctic Program, situated some 2,400 miles south of New Zealand. A quick 50-mile flight across frozen McMurdo Sound brings us to a dark rocky beach at the mouth of Taylor Valley, the southernmost of the Mc-Murdo Dry Valleys. These valleys are a unique creation of the Transantarctic Mountains, which form an i,8oo-mile-long spine separating East from West Antarctica and block the advance of the massive East Antarctic ice sheet toward the sea. In a handful of valleys bordering McMurdo Sound, fierce scouring winds conspire with the bulwark of the Transantarctic ridges to create the largest ice-free expanse on a continent largely frozen for 30 million years. The polar deserts of the dry valleys are often touted as the most Mars-like terrain on Earth.

Abdominal filament see cercus

Gr. akantha, thorn, spine Spinous process prickle. acanthaceous a. Gr. akantha, thorn, spine Pertaining to being armed with spines or prickles. acantho- Gr. akantha, thorn, spine A prefix meaning spine. Acanthocephala, acanthocephalans n. n.pl. Gr. akantha, thorn, spine kephale, head A phylum of parasitic pseu-docoelomate, bilateral animals distinguished by a generally eversible proboscis with recurved, sclerotized, retractable hooks commonly called spiny-headed worms. acantho-cephalous a. acanthocyst n. Gr. akantha, thorn, spine kystis, bladder (nemer) The stylet apparatus housed in the middle (stylet bulb) portion of the proboscis, including two to several accessory stylet pouches containing replacement stylets. acanthodion n. pl. -dia Gr. dim. akanthodes, thorn, spine (ARTHRO Chelicerata) In Acari, a tarsal seta that contains an extension of a sensory basal cell. acanthoparia n. pl. -iae Gr. akantha, thorn, spine pareion, cheek (ARTHRO Insecta) In Coleoptera, the lateral...

Similarities between Patterning Vertebrate and Invertebrate Appendages

Clifford Tabin

One of Tabin's most important discoveries is that a vertebrate version of the fly Hedgehog morphogen, which he named Sonic Hedgehog (after the cartoon character), is the primary anterior-posterior organizing factor produced by the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA). Tabin credits this discovery in part to two critical factors defining the intellectual setting at that time. First, his lab consisted of a team of exceptionally bright young scientists, excited about working on vertebrate development at a molecular level, something that at the time was very new. The limb-patterning problem was very timely because his group and others were in the process of developing the new molecular tools and methods required for this analysis. Their studies also benefited enormously from an existing wealth of anatomical and embryological observations obtained in classic grafting experiments using chick embryos. This rich history provided a strong theoretical context for their work. The second aspect of...

Evolution of neurogenesis in arthropods

Neurogenesis in chelicerates and myriapods shows an additional distinct feature compared with insects and crustaceans. In chelicerates and myriapods, the central region of the ventral neuroectoderm generates exclusively neural cells, while in the remaining arthropods both neural and epidermal cells arise from the ventral neurogenic region. This mode of neurogenesis is actually more similar to vertebrates. During primary neurulation in vertebrates the ectoderm becomes divided into the internally positioned neural plate, which will form the brain and the spinal cord and the externally positioned region from which the epidermis of the skin will arise. A similar division of the ectoderm into a medial neurogenic region and lateral epidermal precursors is visible in the ventral neuroectoderm of chelicerates and myriapods. In addition, most cell divisions occur in the apical neuroec-toderm, while the neural precursors exit the cell cycle and differentiate in deeper cell layers. This mode of...

Accessory genitalia see accessory appendages

Acetabulum n. pl. -la L. acetabulum, cup 1. A cup-shaped socket or cavity. 2. (ANN Hirudinoidea) In leeches, the large posterior sucker. 3. (ARTHRO Chelicerata) In Acari, the genital sucker. 4. (ARTHRO Insecta) a. Any cavity into which an appendage is articulated the coxal cavity. b. The conical cavity at the anterior of some larvae in Diptera, the cavity in the sucking mouth. c. In dytiscid water beetles, stalked cuplets or sucker discs on the anterior tarsi, in some, also the second tarsi, thought to act as adhesive organs during copulation a pallette. 5. (ECHINOD Echin-oidea) The cavity located on the proximal end of a spine. 6. (MOLL Cephalopoda) The sucker on the arm. 7. (PLATY Cestoda) The sucker on the scolex. 8. (PLATY Trematoda) The ventral sucker.

Fish And Tadpole Past Hiccups

Our brain can control our breathing without any conscious effort on our part. Most of the work takes place in the brain stem, at the boundary between the brain and the spinal cord. The brain stem sends nerve impulses to our main breathing muscles. Breathing happens in a pattern. Muscles of the chest, diaphragm, and throat contract in a well-defined order. Consequently, this part of the brain stem is known as a central pattern generator. This region can produce rhythmic patterns of nerve and, consequently, muscle activation. A number of such generators in our brain and spinal cord control other rhythmic behaviors, such as swallowing and walking.

When Scientists Published The First

Where the metaphor of an instruction manual collapses, other metaphors can take its place. My favorite is an old battered book that sits today in a museum in Baltimore. It was created in Constantinople in the tenth century. A Byzantine scribe copied the original Greek text of two treatises by the ancient mathematician Archimedes onto pages of sheepskin. In 1229, a priest named Johannes Myronas dismantled the book. He washed the old Greek text from the pages with juice or milk, removed the wooden boards, and cut the binding strings on the spine. Myronas then used the sheepskin to write a Christian prayer book. This sort of recycled book is known as a palimpsest.

The Third Function A Hypothesis on the Mysterious Skull of Peking

Sorting out the 'muddle in the middle requires us to take a fresh look at the cranial anatomy of Homo erectus. The most distinctive anatomical differences setting off Homo erectus from its ancestors and its descendants are undoubtedly in the skull. Modern humans and our recent ancestors have thin-walled and capacious bony globes that perch atop our spinal columns, holding an enormous, easily injured, semiliquid brain inside. In contrast, the skull that surrounded the Homo erectus brain had a massively thick bony wall, enclosing a smaller cranial capacity and exhibiting a low, wide profile. Without the facial skeleton, a skull of Homo erectus looks remarkably like a turtle carapace. In fact, field researchers have mistaken fragments of Homo erectus skull for turtle shell in fossil excavations. The skull reminds others of a cyclist's helmet-low and streamlined, designed to shield it from blows and to protect the brain, eyes, and ears.

Chronicle of a death foretold

Historically, there has been a curious reluctance among biologists to cede full significance to apoptosis. Biology, after all, is the study of life and there is a sense in which death, the absence of life, is beyond the remit of biology. Many of the early observations of programmed cell death were treated as curiosities without wider meaning. One of the earliest observations was in 1842, from the German revolutionary, savant, and materialist philosopher, Karl Vogt, whose politics had forced him to flee to Geneva, and whose dealings with Napoleon III later made him the target of Karl Marx's brilliant polemical pamphlet, Herr Vogt (1860). Perhaps it's more edifying to remember Vogt for his careful studies of the metamorphosis of the midwife toad, from the tadpole into the adult. In particular, Vogt used a microscope to follow the fate of the flexible, primitive backbone of the tadpole, the notochord did the cells of the notochord transform into the spinal column of the adult toad, or...

Dorsal hair tuft see dorsal tuft

Dorsal spine 1. (G.T.) 2. (ARTHRO Crustacea) In Ostracoda, sometimes prominent, solid or hollow, pointed projection on the dorsal valve margin. dorsal spur 1. (G.T.) 2. (ARTHRO Insecta) In Syrphidae larvae, a pointed spine or ridge-like elevation of the posterior spiracular plate mesad to the circular plate.

Cormopodite see thoracopod

Cornuti n.pl. sing. cornutus L. cornutus, horned (ARTHRO Insecta) Sclerotized armature of the aedeagus of male Le-podoptera, in the form of slender single spines, scale-like dentations, dense spine-hairs or rasplike teeth sometimes breaking off during copulation and remaining in the bursa copulatrix of the female. corona n. L. corona, crown 1. A crownlike structure or organ of various invertebrates. 2. (ARTHRO Insecta) In Lepidop-tera male genitalia, a specialized row of armament setae, teeth or spines on the cucullus. 3. (ECHINOD) a. In Cri-noidea, a central mass and arms a crown. b. In Echin-oidea, a test, minus the apical system. 4. (rotif) A main ciliary wreath surrounding the mouth of a rotifer. coronal a.

Homo habilis

Specimen make any measure of torsion unreliable, and emphasizes the basically human appearance of the fossil, a perspective echoed by Ohman (1986). The only other shoulder remains attributed to H. habilis are the lateral portion of a clavicle and a small piece of the scapular spine from the KNM-ER 3735 partial skeleton. Leakey et al. (1989) interpret the thickness of the latter as well as the large size of other forelimb features of KNM-ER 3735 as evidence of substantial climbing ability in H. habilis. Based on this very limited sample, therefore, it is possible that early Homo continued to possess a somewhat primitive shoulder configuration like that of earlier hominins.

Flank Attachments

Bivalves attached to the flanks caused the ammonite to suffer a crooked and twisted venter that deviates from the center (Fig. 16.9a-c). This is similar in appearance to the human deformity called scoliosis, which means a lateral curvature of the spine. Ammonite shell distortions, mainly the result of

Maltha see mesogloea

F. mamelon, protuberance 1. (ECHINOD Echin-oidea) Terminal knob on the boss that articulates with the spine on the test. 2. (NEMATA Secernentea) Two or three ventral, serrated projections on the ventral surface of the male of the genus Syphacia function unknown.

Biomechanical stress

Arthritis of the spine (Figure 4.34), hip, shoulder, and knees can all be imaged and documented. Other biomechanical stresses that may be seen could be enlarged insertion points for skeletal muscles on the long bones indicating repetitive activity, such as rowing, in which the deltoid tuberosity would be enlarged. The significance of arthritis identification and its location is threefold. First, arthritis identification can help in determination of age at the time of death when used along with other indicators. Second, the location of the arthritis can help determine the type of repetitive work the individual may have been involved with. And third, little arthritis in an older individual may indicate higher status within a group or population. Old, bony fractures can also be assessed (Figure 4.35).

Paired see didymous

Pali n.pl. sing. palus L. palus, stake 1. (ARTHRO Insecta) A straight or pointed spine. 2. (CNID Anthozoa) Small ridges between the columella and septa of scleractinian corals. palidium n. pl. -ia L. dim palus, stake (ARTHRO Insecta) In scarabaeoid larvae, a paired group of spines placed either before the anus or from the ends of the anal slit the pali are recumbent and may occur in one to many rows.


Another bizarre early archosaur is Longisquama, from the Early Triassic of Asia. This small creature measured only six inches (15 cm) long and was most akin to a lizard except for its unusual dorsal spines. Mounted on the back of Longisquama were a dozen or more stiff, bony frills arranged in a single row above the spine. They resembled a row of upright hockey sticks, and their purpose is not fully understood. The most likely explanation is that the frill row had no more function than that of display, either to ward off a predator, to attract a mate, or both. Some paleontologists have also suggested that these frills might have aided in heat exchange, could somehow have been used in gliding, or may have been some form of proto-feathers.

Septula pl septulum

Seta n. pl. setae L. seta, bristle 1. A bristle, hair or filament process of the cuticle with which it articulates or through which it protrudes. see poison seta, penial seta. 2. (ANN) Chaeta. 3. (ARTHRO Insecta) Hollow structures formed as extensions of the epidermal layer macrotrichia or scales. 4. (ARTHRO Crustacea) In Cirripedia, a bristle or spine on trophi and cirri. setal, setate a. setigerous tubercles (ARTHRO Insecta) In Diptera, bumps occurring on the scutellum or legs, each bearing a spine or bristle at the apex.


Linear measurements were taken with a digital caliper, and all angular measurements (except spinoglenoid angle) were taken with the aid of a torsiometer (Krahl, 1944 Larson, 1996). Spinoglenoid angle was measured using a clear plastic goniometer. Holding a scapula up to a light, the base of the scapular spine could be aligned with one limb of the goniometer while the other was rotated until it was in line with the superior and inferior margins of the glenoid. tubercle (Figure 1-i) Angle described by a line passing through the long axis of the supraspinatus insertion facet relative to the axis of the humeral head (Figure 2) Angle described by a line across the anteriormost points of the greater and lesser tubercles relative to the axis of the humeral head (Figure 2) Angle between a line connecting the superior and inferior margins of the glenoid fossa and the base of the scapular spine (Figure 2)

Advanced imaging

Initial associations were made between the radiographic findings and the anthropological and paleopathological data collected thus far. The mummy appeared older at the time of his death than the general population whose age at death was generally in the midlife age range. He showed some degenerative or arthritic changes of the spinal column (Figure 7.13) and had extensive wear of his teeth from sand being in the food, yet minimal attrition (Figure 7.14). The burning questions were Why was this mummy processed so differently from the hundreds of other mummies from this site Was his longevity enough to be treated in this unique manner at his death Was his diet somehow different from others in this group, leading to less dental pathology Had he traveled from another culture and died among the Chiribaya On the visual inspection component of the physical exam, he had earrings made from cui (guinea pig) pelts that were passing through a large Figure 7.13 Lateral radiograph of the lumbar...

Standard Radiography

Locating the artifact within the internal context using field paleoimaging requires ingenuity. Images obtained using conventional radiography are two dimensional. Precise spatial location of the artifact within the mummy, its wrappings, or coffin can be accomplished by using either the spinal needle or grid locator methods described in detail in Chapter 2 of this book.

Rodent Studies

Bone growth in the rats' legs, spines and jaws was closely monitored and the loss of calcium and phosphorus was measured, revealing decreased skeletal growth and reduced leg-bone breaking strengths and spinal masses. Other experiments investigated decreases in the strength and endurance of their muscles. In general, the rats returned from space much more lethargic than when they left Earth, with reduced muscle tone, and were found to use their tails much less frequently as a balancing aid. Their red and white blood cell quantities decreased during the mission, although overall they were in much better shape than expected.

Missing pieces

'Dear me, Watson, is it possible that you have not penetrated the fact that the case hangs upon the missing dumb-bell Well, well, you need not be downcast for between ourselves I don't think that either Inspector Mac or the excellent local practitioner has grasped the overwhelming importance of this incident. One dumb-bell, Watson Consider an athlete with one dumb-bell Picture to yourself the unilateral development, the imminent danger of a spinal curvature. Shocking, Watson, shocking '

The Coding Paradox

In the last quarter of the nineteenth century Eduard Hitzig and Gustav Fritsch discovered the localisation of cortical motor areas in dogs using electrical stimulation and Richard Caton was the first to record electrical activity from the brain. Electrophysiology started to develop rapidly and Edgar D. Adrian published a seminal study suggesting the all-or-none principle in nerve (1912). In the late Twenties Hans Berger in Germany demonstrated the first human electroencephalogram and opened the way to clinical applications of electrophysiology. Nevertheless, the English School was leading the investigations in electrophysiology in the first part of the century, and for his specific research on the function of neurons, Adrian shared the 1932 Nobel Prize for Medicine with Sir Charles Sherrington. Although most remembered for his scientific contributions to neurophysiology, Sherrington's research focused on spinal reflexes as well as on the physiology of perception, reaction, and...

Echinoid morphology

Water Vascular System

Echinoids, or sea urchins, have a robust, internal skeleton (the test) composed of numerous, fixed, calcite plates. Instead of arms the test has five narrow zones formed from perforated plates (the ambulacra) through which the tube feet emerge. These porous segments alternate with broader areas (the inter-ambulacra) that lack pores. The anus is on the upper (aboral) surface and is surrounded by a double ring of plates (Fig. 7.7). The mouth is on the underside (oral surface). The external surface of the test is covered with spines and pedicellariae, tiny spines with pincers that remove settling organisms (Fig. 7.8). regulars, rounded forms (e.g., sea urchins) and (ii) the irregulars, flattened and heart-shaped echinoids (e.g., sand dollars, heart urchins) (Fig. 7.7). Regular echinoids are always surface dwellers and usually feed by scraping seaweed from rocks using a complex jaw apparatus known as Aristotle's lantern. Articulated spines enable the animal to move slowly across the...


This regular echinoid has a radially symmetric, hemispherical test (approximately 3 cm in diameter). The ambulacra are narrow and the plates are ornamented with small tubercles. The interambulacral plates have a large, central tubercle surrounded by smaller, less prominent tubercles. A long, solid, primary spine was articulated on the central prominence and shorter spines attached to the minor tubercles. Spines were used for protection and locomotion. Such regular echinoids were epifaunal and lived in shallow marine and intertidal environments.


A spirally coiled graptoloid with unusual thecae, each with a spine at the aperture. These spines are capable of developing into branches, each made of the same type of thecae and capable of branching again. These species may have filled a niche left vacant by the extinction of large, many branched, horizontally arranged dichograptids. They are usually 5-60 cm


An extremely large trilobite, growing up to 60 cm in length, with up to 21 segments in the thorax. Each segment ends in a long spine. The cephalon also bears a pair of long spines (called genal spines) pointing towards the pygidium. The many spines on this trilobite may have helped it to stay on top of the soft sediment, or may have had a protective purpose, as this species was not able to enroll completely.

Postcranial Skeleton

Caudal Skeleton

The segmented vertebral column provides support and flexibility and protects the spinal cord. It is also closely associated with locomotion. In mammals it is differentiated into five regions, each with its own distinctions cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and caudal, abbreviated as C, T, L, S, and Ca, respectively (Fig. 2.5). Nearly all mammals have seven cervical vertebrae, a remarkable conservatism probably resulting from developmental constraints (Galis, 1999) the only exceptions are found among sloths (six to nine) and manatees (six). Other regions are much more variable. Cervical vertebrae are distinguished by having a very large vertebral foramen (for passage of the spinal cord) and foramina in the transverse processes (except C7) through which the vertebral arteries pass en route to the cranial cavity. In most mammals the cervical centra tend to be short, but in some mammals, such as the giraffe, they are very long. The first two cervicals, called the atlas (C1) and axis...

Unintelligent Design

Laryngeal Nerve Fish Human Giraffe

A favourite example, ever since it was pointed out to me by Professor J. D. Currey when he tutored me as an undergraduate, is the recurrent laryngeal nerve.* It is a branch of one of the cranial nerves, those nerves that lead directly from the brain rather than from the spinal cord. One of the cranial nerves, the vagus (the name means 'wandering' and it is apt), has various branches, two of which go to the heart, and two on each side to the larynx (voice box in mammals). On each side of the neck, one of the branches of the laryngeal nerve goes straight to the larynx, following a direct route such as a designer might have chosen. The other one goes to the larynx via an astonishing detour. It dives right down into the chest, loops around one of the main arteries leaving the heart (a different artery on the left and right sides, but the principle is the same), and then heads back up the neck to its destination. All vertebrates have a segmented body plan, but in adult mammals as opposed...

Early Tetrapods

Somewhat more derived traits found in later tetrapods. In truth, Ichthyostega was very much at home in the water, although it did not have gills. Its limbs were more robust than those of Acanthostega, and its abdomen was fortified with long, thick, overlapping ribs. Its spine was fishlike but differed from that of Acanthostega by possessing bony projections called zygapophyses these projections served as points for muscle attachment to strengthen the body. The hefty limbs, robust ribs, and sturdy spine enabled Ichthyostega to support its body while on land and to walk stiffly, if not nimbly.

Sponge morphology

Calcareous sponges grow skeletons composed of entirely of calcium carbonate spicules. Spicule type is very varied within the group. Demosponges, the most common modern group, usually have unmineralized skeletons, but can produce siliceous spicules, or calcareous bases to their colony. Hexactinellid sponges produce skeletons from a series of six-rayed spicules with each spine arrayed at 90 to its neighbors. These are formed into skeletal frameworks with cubic symmetry. Spicules are the most commonly preserved evidence for the presence of sponges in fossil communities. They can be identified easily in thin section.

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