List of Symbols and Abbreviations

Symbols and abbreviations were used according to the list below. In some cases, such as a or Z, one symbol has more than one meaning. The proper meaning becomes clear from the context in which the symbol is used.

a Separation factor and optical rotation angle a Prefix of an amino acid carrying the amino function at the carbon atom in a-position and amplitude for asymmetry a Stereodescriptor for axial chirality and semimajor axis of elliptically polarized light

[a] Specific rotation a0 Non-helical term in Moffit-Young equation

A Absorption aeg Aminoethylglycine

AIB a-Aminoisobutyric acid a.m.u. Atomic mass unit a.u. Atomic unit

AU Astronomical unit

P Prefix of an amino acid carrying the amino function at

P-carbon and decay process of unstable atomic nuclei b Semimajor axis of elliptically polarized light b0 Helical term in Moffit-Young equation

B Magnetic field vector

BZ Belousov-Zhabotinskii

Ci Non-axial point group

CD Circular dichroism and cyclodextrin

CG Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

CGS Unit-system based on cm, g, and sec c.i.i. Cyclic immonium ion

CIP Cahn-Ingold-Prelog

Cn Rotational group

COSAC Cometary sampling and composition experiment

D Absolute configuration of an enantiomer related to

D-glyceraldehyde

A Prefix of a chiral octahedral system da Diamino acid

DAH Diaminohexanoic acid

DAP Diaminopentanoic acid d.l. Detection limit DMA Dimethylacetal DMF Dimethylformamide Dn Rotational group e Molar extinction coefficient

E Configuration of stereoisomers and electric field vector e.e. Enantiomeric excess ECEE Ethoxycarbonyl ethylester en Ethylenediamine

AEpnc Parity non-conserving energy difference

ESR Electron spin resonance

FKN Field-Koros-Noyes fn(t) Normalized Gaussian white noise

FTT Fischer-Tropsch type g Anisotropy factor

GC-MS Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

GCxGC Multi-dimensional gas chromatography h Planck constant

H Hamiltonian operator

HFIP Hexafluoroisopropanol

HIV Human immunodeficiency virus

HMT Hexamethylenetetramine

I Stokes parameter describing the total intensity of electromagnetic radiation

I0 Light intensity

ID Inner diameter

ISO Interstellar Space Observatory

ITMS Ion trap mass spectrometer k Rate constant and Boltzmann constant

K Equilibrium constant l Prefix of a laevo rotatory crystal l Axis of coordinate system to determine the Stokes parameters

X Distance from the chemical equilibrium

Xc Critical wavelength

A Prefix of a chiral octahedral system

L Absolute configuration of an enantiomer related to

L-glyceraldehyde

LB Linear bifringence

LCPL Left-circularly polarized light

LD Linear dichroism

LURE Laboratoire pour l'utilisation du rayonnement electromagnetique

| Electric dipole moment

|CE Micro-capillary electrophoresis m Magnetic dipole moment

M Prefix of a chiral helical structure

[M] Specific molar rotation

MALDI Matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation

MCD Magnetic circular dichroism

MC Magnetochiral dichroism

MOMA Mars organic molecule analyser

MORD Magnetic optical rotation dispersion

Me Molar ellipticity

MW Molecular weight ve Antineutrino

NCA N-Carboxyanhydride

OMC Orion molecular cloud

ORD Optical rotation dispersion n Molecular orbital

9 Torsion angle and phase angle

O Quantum yield

O Torsion angle

[O] Molecular rotation

P Prefix of a chiral helical structure

P1 Triclinic space group

P21 Chiral space group

P212121 Chiral space group

P213 Achiral cubic space group

Pa3 Achiral cubic space group

Pca21 Achiral orthorhombic modification

PEM Photo-elastic modulator

Phen 1,10-Phenanthroline

PNA Peptide nucleic acid

PNC Parity non-conserving p-RNA Pyranosyl-RNA

PVED Parity-violating energy difference

Q Stokes parameter r Axis of coordinate system to determine the Stokes parameters

R Absolute enantiomer configuration according to CIP notation

R3c Rhombohedral space group

RCPL Right-circularly polarized light

ROA Raman optical activity

RS Chromatographic resolution o Molecular orbital s Propagation direction of light

S Absolute enantiomer configuration according to CIP notation

S0-3 Stokes parameters

SIM Single ion monitoring

SN Fractional circular polarization of a northern hemisphere

S/N Signal-to-noise

SS Fractional circular polarization of a southern hemisphere

SU-5 Synchrotron beamline at LURE

0 Ellipticity

[0] Specific ellipticity t Retention time t' Reduced retention time

T Tesla

TFA Trifluoracetyl

TIC Total ion current tM Hold-up time

TNA Threofuranosyl nucleic acid

TOF Time-of-flight

U Stokes parameter

UKIRT United Kingdom Infrared Telescope

V Stokes parameter vCD Vibrational circular dichroism

VCoul Coulomb interaction

VPNC Weak part of the binding energy

VU Vester-Ulbricht

VUV Vacuum ultraviolet

W± Charged massive boson wb Base width

WCOT Wall-coated open-tubular

£ Extend of reaction z Charge

Z Proton number and configuration of stereoisomers

Z0 Neutral vector boson

Chapter 1

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