Influence Of Hydrogen On The Phase Diagrams

Given the solubility mechanisms of hydrogen in melts and solid minerals, one can make a theoretical analysis of phase relationships such as solid-solid phase transformations or melting. The construction of such a phase diagram depends critically on the expression of a relationship between the hydrogen content and the chemical potential that is determined by the atomistic mechanism of hydrogen dissolution. 3.1 Influence of hydrogen on the olivine-wadsleyite phase boundary Dissolution of hydrogen...

Average wave speed and density

The compressional wave speed within the inner core, especially its depth dependence, is mainly constrained by the PKIKP travel times. These observations require com-pressional wave speed to be 11.0 0.2 km s at the top of the inner core (Buchbinder etal., 1973 M ller, 1973 Qamar, 1973 Masse et al., 1974 Choy and Cormier, 1983 Cummins and Johnson, 1988 Song and Helmberger, 1992 Kaneshima et al., 1994). The data also suggest an increase in wave speed with depth to a value around 11.3 km s at the...

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Materials built up beneath large continents in the late Archean and early Proterozoic, analogous to the Eurasian continent at present Engebretson et al., 1992 . Assuming that isostasy was valid, the base of a megalith starts to sink into the lower mantle when it grows up to 80 km thick, as estimated from the density contrast between the ambient mantle and subducted basaltic crust e.g., Irifune and Ringwood, 1987 Hirose et al., 1999 . A simple calculation based on the thickness of the oceanic...

History Of The Pacific Superplume Implications For Pacific Paleogeography Since The Late Proterozoic

ATSUSHIUTSUNOMIYA1,2,4, TSUTOMU OTA1,5, BRIAN F. WINDLEY3, NORIHITO SUZUKI1, YUKO UCHIO1,6, KUNIKO MUNEKATA1, AND SHIGENORI MARUYAMA1 1 Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama 2-12-1, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551, Japan 2 Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama 2-12-1, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551, Japan 3 Department of Geology, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH,UK 4Now at Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia...

Deep Seismicity And Water

4.1 Experimental basis for the dehydration-induced earthquake hypothesis Experimental work by Raleigh and Paterson 1965 presented the first observations that suggested a genetic relation between the decomposition of serpentine-group minerals, which are the most abundant hydrous minerals in ultramafic rocks in the Earth's surface, and earthquakes. They observed ductile to brittle transformation of serpentinite when the serpentine-group minerals decomposed and water was released. In addition,...

Knittle Wysession

Abers, G. 2005 Seismic low-velocity layer at the top of subducting slabs Observations, predictions, and systematics. Phys. Earth Planet. Inter., 149, 7-29. Ai, Y., T. Zheng, W. Xu, Y. He, and D. Dong 2003 A complex 660 km discontinuity beneath northeast China. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 212, 63-71. Aki, K., and W. Lee 1976 Determination of three-dimensional velocity anomalies under a seismic array using first P arrival times from local earthquakes, 1. A homogeneous initial model. J. Geophys....