## Conduction

The change in temperature (T) as a function of depth (z) measured towards the center of the planet is called the thermal gradient (dT/dz). In regions where conduction dominates, heat flow is related to the thermal gradient by Fourier' s law:

The thermal conductivity (k) is related to the density (p), specific heat at constant pressure (cp), and thermal diffusivity (j) of the material:

The rate at which layers gain (or lose) heat is given by

Combining this with Eq. (3.27) gives the thermal diffusion equation, also called the heat conduction equation:

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Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable.

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